Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47
Filter
1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 780663, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731765

ABSTRACT

There seems to be a bidirectional interplay between Diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On the one hand, people with diabetes are at higher risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 as well as COVID-19 related health complications compared to individuals without diabetes. On the other hand, clinical data so far suggest that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may result in metabolic dysregulation and in impaired glucose homeostasis. In addition, emerging data on new onset DM in previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 patients, reinforce the hypothesis of a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on glucose metabolism. Attempting to find the culprit, we currently know that the pancreas and the endothelium have been found to express Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, the main binding site of the virus. To move from bench to bedside, understanding the effects of COVID-19 on metabolism and glucose homeostasis is crucial to prevent and manage complications related to COVID-19 and support recovering patients. In this article we review the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms between COVID-19 and glucose dysregulation as well as the effects of antidiabetic treatment in patients with diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Causality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(4): 1144-1155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685345

ABSTRACT

High glucose (HG) is one of the basic factors of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which leads to high morbidity and disability. During DN, the expression of glomerular glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) increases, but the relationship between HG and GLUT1 is unclear. Glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) have multiple roles in HG-induced DN. Here, we report prominent glomerular dysfunction, especially GMC abnormalities, in DN mice, which is closely related to GLUT1 alteration. In vivo studies have shown that BBR can alleviate pathological changes and abnormal renal function indicators of DN mice. In vitro, BBR (30, 60 and 90 µmol/L) not only increased the proportion of G1 phase cells but also reduced the proportion of S phase cells under HG conditions at different times. BBR (60 µmol/L) significantly reduced the expression of PI3K-p85, p-Akt, p-AS160, membrane-bound GLUT1 and cyclin D1, but had almost no effect on total protein. Furthermore, BBR significantly declined the glucose uptake and retarded cyclin D1-mediated GMC cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. This study demonstrated that BBR can inhibit the development of DN, which may be due to BBR inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/AS160/GLUT1 signalling pathway to regulate HG-induced abnormal GMC proliferation and the cell cycle, supporting BBR as a potential therapeutic drug for DN.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Animals , Berberine/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Mesangial Cells/metabolism , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24436, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585781

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) belong to the most vulnerable patient subgroups. Emerging data has shown increased risks of severe infections, increased in ICU admissions, longer durations of admission, and increased mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the outcomes of patients diagnosed with DM (n = 2191) versus patients without DM (n = 8690) on our data from our study based on a nationwide, comparative, retrospective, cohort study among adult, hospitalized COVID-19 patients involving 37 hospital sites from around the Philippines. We determined distribution differences between two independent samples using Mann-Whitney U and t tests. Data on the time to onset of mortality, respiratory failure, intensive care unit (ICU) admission were used to build Kaplan-Meier curves and to compute for hazard ratios (HR). The odds ratios (OR) for longer ventilator dependence, longer ICU stay, and longer hospital stays were computed via multivariate logistic regression. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and ORs (aOR) with 95% CI were calculated. We included a total of 10,881 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (2191 have DM while 8690 did not have DM). The median age of the DM cohort was 61, with a female to male ratio of 1:1.25 and more than 50% of the DM population were above 60 years old. The aOR for mortality was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.46 (95% CI 1.28-1.68; p < 0.001) as compared to the non-DM group. Similarly, the aOR for respiratory failure was also significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.67 (95% CI 1.46-1.90). The aOR for developing severe COVID-19 at nadir was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.85 (95% CI 1.65-2.07; p < 0.001). The aOR for ICU admission was significantly higher among those in the DM group by 1.80 (95% CI 1.59-2.05) than those in the non-DM group. DM patients had significantly longer duration of ventilator dependence (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64; p = 0.008) and longer hospital admission (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26; p = 0.027). The presence of DM among COVID-19 patients significantly increased the risk of mortality, respiratory failure, duration of ventilator dependence, severe/critical COVID-19, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Philippines , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Ventilators, Mechanical , Young Adult
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 99-109, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544351

ABSTRACT

A severe pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has been sweeping the globe since 2019, and this time, it did not stop, with frequent mutations transforming into virulent strains, for instance, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.427. In recent months, a fungal infection, mucormycosis has emerged with more fatal responses and significantly increased mortality rate. To measure the severity and potential alternative approaches against black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients, PubMed, Google Scholar, World Health Organization (WHO) newsletters, and other online resources, based on the cases reported and retrospective observational analysis were searched from the years 2015-2021. The studies reporting mucormycosis with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection and/or demonstrating potential risk factors, such as a history of diabetes mellitus or suppressed immune system were included, and reports published in non-English language were excluded. More than 20 case reports and observational studies on black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients were eligible for inclusion. The results indicated that diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemic, and immunocompromised COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis were at a higher risk. We found that it was prudent to assess the potential risk factors and severity of invasive mycosis via standardized diagnostic and clinical settings. Large-scale studies need to be conducted to identify early biomarkers and optimization of diagnostic methods has to be established per population and geographical variation. This will not only help clinicians around the world to detect the coinfection in time but also will prepare them for future outbreaks of other potential pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Mucorales/growth & development , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Diabetes ; 70(9): 2120-2130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528788

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a known risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the evolution of COVID-19 in individuals with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate whether the chronic low-grade inflammation of diabetes could play a role in the development of severe COVID-19. We collected clinical data and blood samples of patients with and without diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. Plasma samples were used to measure inflammatory mediators and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, for gene expression analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 main receptor system (ACE2/TMPRSS2), and for the main molecule of the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) pathway (ALOX5). We found that diabetes activates the LTB4 pathway and that during COVID-19 it increases ACE2/TMPRSS2 as well as ALOX5 expression. Diabetes was also associated with COVID-19-related disorders, such as reduced oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and arterial partial pressure of oxygen/FiO2 levels, and increased disease duration. In addition, the expressions of ACE2 and ALOX5 are positively correlated, with increased expression in patients with diabetes and COVID-19 requiring intensive care assistance. We confirmed these molecular results at the protein level, where plasma LTB4 is significantly increased in individuals with diabetes. In addition, IL-6 serum levels are increased only in individuals with diabetes requiring intensive care assistance. Together, these results indicate that LTB4 and IL-6 systemic levels, as well as ACE2/ALOX5 blood expression, could be early markers of severe COVID-19 in individuals with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/genetics , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 300, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351933

ABSTRACT

Elderly people and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, resulting in severe complications and high mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can exert antiviral functions and affect the response to COVID-19 in the elderly and people with diabetes. First, we identified four miRNAs (miR-7-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-223-3p) through high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, that are remarkably decreased in the elderly and diabetic groups. We further demonstrated that these miRNAs, either in the exosome or in the free form, can directly inhibit S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Serum exosomes from young people can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and S protein expression, while the inhibitory effect is markedly decreased in the elderly and diabetic patients. Moreover, three out of the four circulating miRNAs are significantly increased in the serum of healthy volunteers after 8-weeks' continuous physical exercise. Serum exosomes isolated from these volunteers also showed stronger inhibitory effects on S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study demonstrates for the first time that circulating exosomal miRNAs can directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and may provide a possible explanation for the difference in response to COVID-19 between young people and the elderly or people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Exercise , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Virus Replication
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339409

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of this study is to analyze how the impact of Diabetes Mellitus [DM] in patients with COVID-19 varies according to altitudinal gradient. METHODS: We obtained 1,280,806 records from adult patients with COVID-19 and DM to analyze the probability of COVID-19, development of COVID-19 pneumonia, hospitalization, intubation, admission to the Intensive Care Unit [ICU] and case-fatality rates [CFR]. Variables were controlled by age, sex and altitude of residence to calculate adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Patients with DM had a 21.8% higher prevalence of COVID-19 and an additional 120.2% higher prevalence of COVID-19 pneumonia. The adjusted prevalence was also higher for these outcomes as well as for hospitalization, intubation and ICU admission. COVID-19 and pneumonia patients with DM had a 97.0% and 19.4% higher CFR, respectively. With increasing altitudes, the probability of being a confirmed COVID-19 case and the development of pneumonia decreased along CFR for patients with and without DM. However, COVID-19 patients with DM were more likely to require intubation when residing at high altitude. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that patients with DM have a higher probability of being a confirmed COVID-19 case and developing pneumonia. Higher altitude had a protective relationship against SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, it may be associated with more severe cases in patients with and without DM. High altitude decreases CFR for all COVID-19 patients. Our work also shows that women are less affected than men regardless of altitude.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
9.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1238-1252, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314088

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report clinical features, contributing factors and outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study was conducted on patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 from April to September 2020. Demographics, the time interval between COVID-19 and mucormycosis, underlying systemic diseases, clinical features, course of disease and outcomes were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with COVID-19 and rhino-orbital mucormycosis were observed. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 14-71), and 66% were male. The median interval time between COVID-19 disease and diagnosis of mucormycosis was seven (range: 1-37) days. Among all, 13 patients (86%) had diabetes mellitus, while 7 (46.6%) previously received intravenous corticosteroid therapy. Five patients (33%) underwent orbital exenteration, while seven (47%) patients died from mucormycosis. Six patients (40%) received combined antifungal therapy and none that received combined antifungal therapy died. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware that mucormycosis may be complication of COVID-19 in high-risk patients. Poor control of diabetes mellitus is an important predisposing factor for CAM. Systematic surveillance for control of diabetes mellitus and educating physician about the early diagnosis of CAM are suggested.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Young Adult
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309589

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Increased severity of COVID-19 has been observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to identify common transcriptional signatures, regulators and pathways between COVID-19 and DM. We have integrated human whole-genome transcriptomic datasets from COVID-19 and DM, followed by functional assessment with gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), among the upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 32 were found to be commonly modulated in COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes (T2D), while 10 DEGs were commonly downregulated. As regards type 1 diabetes (T1D), 21 DEGs were commonly upregulated, and 29 DEGs were commonly downregulated in COVID-19 and T1D. Moreover, 35 DEGs were commonly upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infected pancreas organoids and T2D islets, while 14 were commonly downregulated. Several GO terms were found in common between COVID-19 and DM. Prediction of the putative transcription factors involved in the upregulation of genes in COVID-19 and DM identified RELA to be implicated in both PBMCs and pancreas. Here, for the first time, we have characterized the biological processes and pathways commonly dysregulated in COVID-19 and DM, which could be in the next future used for the design of personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients suffering from DM as comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1253-1260, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307862

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes an immunosuppressed state and increases risk of secondary infections like mucormycosis. We evaluated clinical features, predisposing factors, diagnosis and outcomes for mucormycosis among patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multi-centre study included 47 consecutive patients with mucormycosis, diagnosed during their course of COVID-19 illness, between January 3 and March 27, 2021. Data regarding demography, underlying medical conditions, COVID-19 illness and treatment were collected. Clinical presentations of mucormycosis, imaging and biochemical characteristics and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 2567 COVID-19 patients admitted to 3 tertiary centres, 47 (1.8%) were diagnosed with mucormycosis. Mean age was 55 ± 12.8years, and majority suffered from diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 76.6%). Most were not COVID-19 vaccinated (n = 31, 66.0%) and majority (n = 43, 91.5%) had developed moderate-to-severe pneumonia, while 20 (42.6%) required invasive ventilation. All patients had received corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics while most (n = 37, 78.7%) received at least one anti-viral medication. Mean time elapsed from COVID-19 diagnosis to mucormycosis was 12.1 ± 4.6days. Eleven (23.4%) subjects succumbed to their disease, mostly (n = 8, 72.7%) within 7 days of diagnosis. Among the patients who died, 10 (90.9%) had pre-existing diabetes mellitus, only 2 (18.2%) had received just one vaccine dose and all developed moderate-to-severe pneumonia, requiring oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can occur among COVID-19 patients, especially with poor glycaemic control, widespread and injudicious use of corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and invasive ventilation. Owing to the high mortality, high index of suspicion is required to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment in high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/microbiology , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108936, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293708

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has turned out to be a pandemic in short period of time due to the high transmissibility of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Various reports have suggested the promising link between overexpression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and COVID-19 pathogenesis. The severity of COVID-19 pathophysiology is greatly depended on several comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), respiratory and cardiovascular disease, out of which DM has emerged as a major risk factor. The current review focuses on the link among the expression of ACE2, use of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), and risk of COVID-19 pathogenesis in DM. The review also emphasizes on synergistic detrimental effect of DM and COVID-19 on the immune system in provoking uncontrolled cytokine storm which eventually leads to lethal consequences. Finally, several possible therapeutic strategies have been highlighted to reduce the excess of risk associated with COVID-19 in people with DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295632

ABSTRACT

The relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus is complicated and bidirectional. On the one hand, diabetes mellitus is considered one of the most important risk factors for a severe course of COVID-19. Several factors that are often present in diabetes mellitus are likely to contribute to this risk, such as older age, a proinflammatory and hypercoagulable state, hyperglycemia and underlying comorbidities (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and obesity). On the other hand, a severe COVID-19 infection, and its treatment with steroids, can have a specific negative impact on diabetes itself, leading to worsening of hyperglycemia through increased insulin resistance and reduced ß-cell secretory function. Worsening hyperglycemia can, in turn, adversely affect the course of COVID-19. Although more knowledge gradually surfaces as the pandemic progresses, challenges in understanding the interrelationship between COVID-19 and diabetes remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socio-demographics and comorbidities are involved in determining the severity and fatality in patients with COVID-19 suggested by studies in various countries, but study in Bangladesh is insufficient. AIMS: We designed the study to evaluate the association of sociodemographic and comorbidities with the prognosis of adverse health outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. METHODS: A multivariate retrospective cohort study was conducted on data from 966 RT-PCR positive patients from eight divisions during December 13, 2020, to February 13, 2021. Variables included sociodemographic, comorbidities, symptoms, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and access to health facilities. Major outcome was fatality. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, requirement of mechanical ventilation and severity. RESULTS: Male (65.8%, 636 of 966) was predominant and mean age was 39.8 ± 12.6 years. Fever (79%), dry cough (55%), and loss of test/smell (51%) were frequent and 74% patients had >3 symptoms. Fatality was recorded in 10.5% patients. Comorbidities were found in 44% patients. Hypertension (21.5%) diabetes (14.6%), and cardiovascular diseases (11.3%) were most prevalent. Age >60 years (OR: 4.83, 95% CI: 2.45-6.49), and CCI >3 (OR: 5.48, 95% CI: 3.95-7.24) were predictors of hospitalizations. CCI >4 (aOR: 3.41, 95% CI: 2.57-6.09) was predictor of severity. Age >60 years (aOR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.07-6.34), >3 symptoms (aOR: 2.14, 95% CI: 0.97-4.91) and CCI >3 vs. CCI <3 (aOR: 5.23, 95% CI: 3.77-8.09) were independently associated with fatality. CONCLUSIONS: Increased age, >3 symptoms, increasing comorbidities, higher CCI were associated with increased hospitalization, severity and fatality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Young Adult
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102174, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267653

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To study the feasibility of diabetes education through telemedicine in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 100 patients with DM who were admitted in a COVID isolation ward for management of COVID-19. Patients managed with multiple subcutaneous insulin injections were eligible. During teleconsultation, diabetes education including insulin injection technique was given by a diabetes educator via a phone call (audio and video) during hospitalization. They were also re-assessed after 2 weeks of discharge from the hospital via teleconsultation or in-person. RESULTS: Out of 100 patients, 72.0% had prior history of diabetes while 28.0% were newly diagnosed. The median age of our cohort was 56 years and median duration of diabetes was 7.0 years. Telemedicine as a mode of consult for diabetes education was accepted by 96.0% of patients during hospitalization. At 2 weeks' follow-up, 77.0% patients were following insulin instructions correctly and were satisfied with this mode of consultation. CONCLUSION: Diabetes education using telemedicine as a technology is feasible, acceptable, and effective in the management of most patients with DM. Telemedicine appears to be an effective way to replace routine visits in special situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/administration & dosage , Remote Consultation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3534, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265954

ABSTRACT

Metabolic diseases are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and conversely, new-onset hyperglycemia and complications of preexisting diabetes have been observed in COVID-19 patients. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of pancreatic autopsy tissue from COVID-19 patients using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, RNA scope and electron microscopy and detected SARS-CoV-2 viral infiltration of beta-cells in all patients. Using SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses, we confirmed that isolated human islet cells are permissive to infection. In eleven COVID-19 patients, we examined the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS and other receptors and factors, such as DPP4, HMBG1 and NRP1, that might facilitate virus entry. Whereas 70% of the COVID-19 patients expressed ACE2 in the vasculature, only 30% displayed ACE2-expression in beta-cells. Even in the absence of manifest new-onset diabetes, necroptotic cell death, immune cell infiltration and SARS-CoV-2 viral infection of pancreatic beta-cells may contribute to varying degrees of metabolic dysregulation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Female , HMGN Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Organ Specificity/physiology
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 99, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219133

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: About 50% of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) developed myocardial damage. The mechanisms of direct SARS-CoV-2 cardiomyocyte infection include viral invasion via ACE2-Spike glycoprotein-binding. In DM patients, the impact of glycation of ACE2 on cardiomyocyte invasion by SARS-CoV-2 can be of high importance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiomyocytes from heart autopsy of DM cases compared to Non-DM; to investigate the role of DM in SARS-COV-2 entry in cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated consecutive autopsy cases, deceased for COVID-19, from Italy between Apr 30, 2020 and Jan 18, 2021. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 in cardiomyocytes, expression of ACE2 (total and glycosylated form), and transmembrane protease serine protease-2 (TMPRSS2) protein. In order to study the role of diabetes on cardiomyocyte alterations, independently of COVID-19, we investigated ACE2, glycosylated ACE2, and TMPRSS2 proteins in cardiomyocytes from DM and Non-DM explanted-hearts. Finally, to investigate the effects of DM on ACE2 protein modification, an in vitro glycation study of recombinant human ACE2 (hACE2) was performed to evaluate the effects on binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The authors included cardiac tissue from 97 autopsies. DM was diagnosed in 37 patients (38%). Fourth-seven out of 97 autopsies (48%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cardiomyocytes. Thirty out of 37 DM autopsy cases (81%) and 17 out of 60 Non-DM autopsy cases (28%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cardiomyocytes. Total ACE2, glycosylated ACE2, and TMPRSS2 protein expressions were higher in cardiomyocytes from autopsied and explanted hearts of DM than Non-DM. In vitro exposure of monomeric hACE2 to 120 mM glucose for 12 days led to non-enzymatic glycation of four lysine residues in the neck domain affecting the protein oligomerization. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of ACE2 expression (total and glycosylated forms) in DM cardiomyocytes, along with non-enzymatic glycation, could increase the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection in DM patients by favouring the cellular entry of SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Structure, Secondary
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 620566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156117

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global public health challenge. Most patients do not experience severe complications, but approximately 25% of patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the mortality rate is approximately 5-7%. Clinical findings have determined several risk factors for severe complications and mortality in COVID-19 patients, such as advanced age, smoking, obesity, and chronic diseases. Obesity is a common and serious health problem worldwide that initiates a cascade of disorders, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The presence of these disorders is linked to a more severe course of COVID-19. Given the "epidemic" of obesity worldwide and the importance of obesity in the progression of COVID-19, we investigated the mechanisms through which obesity increases the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 to support the selection of more appropriate therapies for individuals with obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/pathology , Obesity/therapy , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension in Korea. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects risk factors in hypertensive Korean COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We selected patients from the database of the project #OpenData4Covid19. This information was linked to their 3-year historical healthcare data. The severity of the disease was classified into five levels. We also clustered the levels into two grades. RESULTS: The risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity were old age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and renal replacement therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) both before and after a diagnosis of COVID-19 were not associated with COVID-19 severity. A multivariate analysis revealed that old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in hypertensive patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for a severe clinical course. In addition, the use of ARBs and ACEIs before or after COVID-19 infection did not affect a patient's risk of contracting COVID-19 nor did it contribute to a worse prognosis for the disease. These results highlighted that precautions should be considered for hypertensive patients with those risk factors and do not support discontinuation of ARBs and ACEIs during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/pathology , Male , Medical History Taking , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL