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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142354, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604496

ABSTRACT

Importance: Deferred diabetic foot screening and delays in timely care of acute foot complications during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increase in limb loss. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with diabetes-related care measures, foot complications, and amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, with diabetes and compared the rates of selected outcomes from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, vs January 1, 2019, to February 23, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment, including foot examination; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement; emergency department visit or hospitalization for diabetic foot ulceration, osteomyelitis, or gangrene; lower extremity open or endovascular revascularization; minor (toe or partial-foot) amputation; and major (above-ankle) leg amputation. Rates and rate ratios (RRs) comparing 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 for each measure were calculated for 10-week periods, anchored relative to onset of the pandemic on March 11, 2020 (11th week of 2020). Results: On March 11, 2020, the study included 1 488 605 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 776 665 [52.2%] men), and on March 11, 2019, the study included 1 441 029 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 751 459 [52.1%] men). After the onset of the pandemic, rates of major amputation in 2020-2021 decreased compared with 2019-2020 levels. The RR for the prepandemic period from January 1 to March 10 was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88-1.25), with RRs in the pandemic periods ranging from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.03) in May 20 to July 28 to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.13) in October 7 to December 15. There were no consistent differences in demographic characteristics or comorbidities of patients undergoing amputation in the 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 periods. Rates of comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment and HbA1c measurement declined sharply and remained below 2019-2020 levels (eg, in-person assessment, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.28-0.28). The rates of emergency department visits (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.75), hospitalization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87), open revascularization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79), endovascular revascularization (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81), and minor amputation (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83) initially dropped but recovered to 2019-2020 levels over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, disruptions in care related to the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with excess leg amputations among people living with diabetes. As the pandemic ends, improved prevention and treatment of diabetic foot complications will be necessary to maintain these positive results.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foot/pathology , Foot/surgery , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Surgical Procedures
2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586178

ABSTRACT

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Management , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/therapy
3.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 70(5): 317-321, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525669

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has been recognized since 2010 as a constitutive element of care, however, it was not until 2016 that the first national experiments were able to be launched with the aim of validating a framework allowing a possible rapid passage in the common right. These experiments, which are due to end in December 2021, have succeeded in involving more than 100,000 patients, mainly suffering from cardiac pathologies. The arrival of COVID-19 has made it possible to measure the usefulness of practices at a distance both from teleconsultation and telemonitoring, with the appearance of organizational and technical innovations that must now be maintained and developed in order to integrate the telemedicine of tomorrow into our actual medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Patient Satisfaction , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/trends
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1597-1602, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524678

ABSTRACT

Diabetes affects approximately one in 10 persons in the United States† and is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 (1), especially when a patient's diabetes is not well managed (2). The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected diabetes care and management, and whether this varies across age groups, is currently unknown. To evaluate access to and use of health care, as well as experiences, attitudes, and behaviors about COVID-19 prevention and vaccination, a nonprobability, Internet-based survey was administered to 5,261 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during February-March 2021. Among respondents, 760 (14%) adults who reported having diabetes currently managed with medication were included in the analysis. Younger adults (aged 18-29 years) with diabetes were more likely to report having missed medical care during the past 3 months (87%; 79) than were those aged 30-59 years (63%; 372) or ≥60 years (26%; 309) (p<0.001). Overall, 44% of younger adults reported difficulty accessing diabetes medications. Younger adults with diabetes also reported lower intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination (66%) compared with adults aged ≥60 years§ (85%; p = 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts to enhance access to diabetes care for adults with diabetes and deliver public health messages emphasizing the importance of diabetes management and COVID-19 prevention, including vaccination, are warranted, especially in younger adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e050812, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This survey aimed to assess the awareness and readiness of healthcare providers to use telemonitoring (TM) technologies for managing diabetes patients as well as to identify associated factors in Ethiopia. DESIGN: An institution-based cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted by using a pretested self-administered questionnaire from February to March 2020. Data analysis used a binary logistic regression and partial proportional odds model for factor identification. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected 423 study physicians and nurses. SETTING: This study was conducted at the University of Gondar and Tibebe Ghion specialised teaching referral hospitals. OUTCOME MEASURES: Awareness and readiness towards TM in diabetes care. RESULT: Out of 406 healthcare providers (69.7%, n=283 nurses and 30.3%, n=123 physicians) who completed the survey, 345 (38.7%) heard about TM, when it came to readiness, 321 (25.1%) and 121 (65.5%) of respondents had average and low readiness towards TM, respectively. The result of regression analysis shows that awareness towards TM was higher among respondents who had access to a computer (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.1)), computer-related training (AOR: 4.6 (95% CI 1.63 to 12.95)) and those who had the experience of supporting patients through digital tools (AOR: 1.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8)). Self-perceived innovators and those who had access to a computer, computer-related training and favourable attitude towards TM had significantly higher readiness to use TM. CONCLUSION: The findings of this survey revealed low awareness and readiness of participant's towards TM. However, this study suggests the need of improving participant's attitudes, access to smartphones and computers and technical skills to fill this gap.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Health Facilities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Ethiopia , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211051930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has led to health service modification and temporary disruption of the routine care provided to patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in primary care. This was done to minimize outpatient visits, permit physical distancing, and ensure patients' and healthcare providers safety. There is no evidence that explored or measured the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes services and patients' glycemic outcome in Oman. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the accessibility of DM services in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, and measure patients' glycemic outcome. METHODS: Before and after, retrospective cohort study using Al-Shifa healthcare database in primary care. One thousand adult patients with diabetes who attended DM clinic before pandemic announcement in 2019 were randomly selected and followed up until end of 2020. Patients aged ≥18 years and had at least 2 visits in 2019 were included. Access to DM services was identified by number of patients received care, frequency of consultations, mode of consultation, and type of intervention given to patients. Patients' glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and other glycemic parameters after pandemic announcement in 2020 were determined and compared with the same parameters before pandemic in 2019. Association between patients' HbA1c and mode of consultation was measured using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 937 patients continued to follow and received DM care after pandemic announcement. Median number of consultations was 2 with interquartile range (IQR): 3-2. 57.4% had face-to-face alone, 32.4% had combined face to face and telephone consultation, and 10% had telephone consultation alone. Mean difference in HbA1c (%) before and after pandemic announcement was 0.2 ± 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.3), P = .002. With multivariable linear regression, the mean difference in HbA1c was -0.3 (-2.3 to 1.5), P = .734 for telephone consultation alone, -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.4), P = .613 for face-to-face alone, and -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.3), P = .636 for combined consultations, compared to those who did not receive any formal consultation. CONCLUSION: Despite service modification and disruption of comprehensive care in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, DM services were accessible as majority of patients maintained follow up. There was an overall increase in mean glycated hemoglobin, however, it was a less than 1 unit increase. After adjusting for multivariable, glycated hemoglobin was reduced among those who received consultation including telephone consultation compared to those who did not, however evidence was unconvincing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescent , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Oman , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1039, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This report describes how we refined a protocol for a pragmatic comparative effectiveness study of two models of an evidence-based diabetes shared medical appointment intervention and used the PRECIS-2 rating system to evaluate these adaptations. METHODS: We report primary data collected between June and August 2019, and protocol refinements completed between 2018 and 2020. Twenty-two members of the study team collaborated in protocol refinement and completed the PRECIS-2 ratings of study pragmatism. We discuss study design refinements made to achieve the desired level of pragmatism vs. experimental control for each of the nine PRECIS-2 dimensions. Study team members received training on PRECIS-2 scoring and were asked to rate the study protocol on the nine PRECIS-2 dimensions. Ratings were compared using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In general, the PRECIS-2 ratings revealed high levels of pragmatism, but somewhat less pragmatic ratings on the categories of Delivery and Organization (costs and resources). This variation was purposeful, and we provide the rationale for and steps taken to obtain the targeted level of pragmatism on each PRECIS-2 dimension, as well as detail design changes made to a) make the design more pragmatic and b) address COVID-19 issues. There was general agreement among team members and across different types of stakeholders on PRECIS-2 ratings. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss lessons learned from use of PRECIS-2 and experiences in refining the study to be maximally pragmatic on some dimensions and less so on other dimensions. This paper expands on prior research by describing actions to achieve higher levels of pragmatism and revise our protocol fit to the changed context. We make recommendations for future use of PRECIS-2 to help address changing context and other strategies for the planning of and transparent reporting on pragmatic research and comparative effectiveness research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Registration ID: NCT03590041 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Appointments and Schedules , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e30409, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has become one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and many people living with diabetes use social media to seek health information. Recently, an emerging social media app, TikTok, has received much interest owing to its popularity among general health consumers. We notice that there are many videos about diabetes on TikTok. However, it remains unclear whether the information in these videos is of satisfactory quality. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the quality of the information in diabetes-related videos on TikTok. METHODS: We collected a sample of 199 diabetes-related videos in Chinese. The basic information presented in the videos was coded and analyzed. First, we identified the source of each video. Next, 2 independent raters assessed each video in terms of the completeness of six types of content (the definition of the disease, symptoms, risk factors, evaluation, management, and outcomes). Then, the 2 raters independently assessed the quality of information in the videos, using the DISCERN instrument. RESULTS: In regard to the sources of the videos, we found 6 distinct types of uploaders; these included 3 kinds of individual users (ie, health professionals, general users, and science communicators) and 3 types of organizational users (ie, news agencies, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit organizations). Regarding content, our results show that the videos were primarily about diabetes management and contained limited information on the definition of the disease, symptoms, risk factors, evaluation, and outcomes. The overall quality of the videos was acceptable, on average, although the quality of the information varied, depending on the sources. The videos created by nonprofit organizations had the highest information quality, while the videos contributed by for-profit organizations had the lowest information quality. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall quality of the information in the diabetes videos on TikTok is acceptable, TikTok might not fully meet the health information needs of patients with diabetes, and they should exercise caution when using TikTok as a source of diabetes-related information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Social Media , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Video Recording
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e26881, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes management is a growing health care challenge worldwide. eHealth can revolutionize diabetes care, the success of which depends on end user acceptance. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the readiness and acceptance of eHealth services for diabetes care among the general population, perceived advantages and disadvantages of eHealth, and factors associated with eHealth readiness and acceptance in a multiethnic Asian country. METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, participants (N=2895) were selected through disproportionate stratified random sampling from a population registry. Citizens or permanent residents of Singapore aged >18 years were recruited. The data were captured through computer-assisted personal interviews. An eHealth questionnaire was administered in one of four local languages (English, Chinese, Malay, or Tamil), as preferred by the participant. Bivariate chi-square analyses were performed to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and perception of advantages and disadvantages of eHealth services between the diabetes and nondiabetes groups. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with eHealth readiness and acceptance. All analyses were weighted using survey weights to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: The sample comprised participants with (n=436) and without (n=2459) diabetes. eHealth readiness was low, with 47.3% of the overall sample and 75.7% of the diabetes group endorsing that they were not ready for eHealth (P<.001). The most acceptable eHealth service overall was booking appointments (67.4%). There was a significantly higher preference in the diabetes group for face-to-face sessions for consultation with the clinician (nondiabetes: 83.5% vs diabetes: 92.6%; P<.001), receiving prescriptions (61.9% vs 79.3%; P<.001), referrals to other doctors (51.4% vs 72.2%; P<.001), and receiving health information (34% vs 63.4%; P<.001). The majority of both groups felt that eHealth requires users to be computer literate (90.5% vs 94.3%), does not build clinician-patient rapport compared with face-to-face sessions (77.5% vs 81%), and might not be credible (56.8% vs 64.2%; P=.03). Age (≥35 years), ethnicity (Indian), and lower education status had lower odds of eHealth readiness. Age (≥35 years), ethnicity (Indian), lower education status (primary school), BMI (being underweight), and marital status (being single) were associated with a lower likelihood of eHealth acceptance. Among only those with diabetes, a longer duration of diabetes (4-18 years), higher education (degree or above), and younger age (23-49 years) were associated with eHealth readiness, whereas younger age and income (SGD 2000-3999 [US $1481-$2961]) were associated with acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, an unfavorable attitude toward eHealth was observed, with a significantly higher number of participants with diabetes reporting their unwillingness to use these services for their diabetes care. Sociodemographic factors associated with acceptance and readiness identified a group of people who were unlikely to accept the technology and thus need to be targeted for eHealth literacy programs to avoid health care disparity. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037125.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Telemedicine , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 269-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401261

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae order Nidovirales and are known causes of respiratory and intestinal disease in various mammalian and avian species. Species of coronaviruses known to infect humans are referred to as human coronaviruses (HCoVs). While traditionally, HCoVs have been a significant cause of the common cold, more recently, emergent viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Here, we discuss coronavirus disease (COVID-19) biology, pathology, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and recent clinical trials involving promising treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/immunology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/therapy , Fever , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Diabetes Metab J ; 45(4): 461-481, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399458

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Societies, Medical
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 928, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are projected to become the leading cause of disability and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030; a vast treatment gap exists. There is a dearth of knowledge on developing evidence-based interventions that address comorbid NCDs using a task-shifting approach. The Friendship Bench, a brief psychological intervention for common mental disorders delivered by trained community grandmothers, is a promising intervention for comorbid NCDs. Although task-shifting appears to be a rational approach, evidence suggests that it may bring about tension between existing professionals from whom tasks are shifted. A Theory of Change approach is an effective way of managing the unintended tension by bringing together different stakeholders involved to build consensus on how to task shift appropriately to the parties involved. We aimed to use a theory of change approach to formulating a road map on how to successfully integrate diabetes and hypertension care into the existing Friendship Bench in order to come up with an integrated care package for depression, hypertension and diabetes aimed at strengthening NCD care in primary health care systems in Zimbabwe. METHOD: A theory of change workshop with 18 stakeholders from diverse backgrounds was carried out in February 2020. Participants included grandmothers working on the Friendship Bench project (n = 4), policymakers from the ministry of health (n = 2), people with lived experience for the three NCDs (n = 4), health care workers (n = 2), and traditional healers (n = 2). Findings from earlier work (situational analysis, desk review, FGDs and clinic-based surveys) on the three NCDs were shared before starting the ToC. A facilitator with previous experience running ToCs led the workshop and facilitated the co-production of the ToC map. Through an iterative process, consensus between the 18 stakeholders was reached, and a causal pathway leading to developing a framework for an intervention was formulated. RESULTS: The ToC singled out the need to use expert clients (people with lived experience) to promote a patient-centred care approach that would leverage the existing Friendship Bench approach. In the face of COVID-19, the stakeholders further endorsed the use of existing digital platforms, notably WhatsApp, as an alternative way to reach out to clients and provide support. Leveraging existing community support groups as an entry point for people in need of NCD care was highlighted as a win-win by all stakeholders. A final framework for an NCD care package supported by Friendship Bench was presented to policymakers and accepted to be piloted in five geographical areas. CONCLUSIONS: The ToC can be used to build consensus on how best to use using an existing intervention for common mental disorders to integrate care for diabetes and hypertension. There is a need to evaluate this new intervention through an adequately powered study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Friends , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
13.
Aust J Prim Health ; 27(4): 328-337, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370743

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to identify, from the perspectives of key health policy decision-makers, strategies that address barriers to diabetes-related footcare delivery in primary care, and outline key elements required to support implementation into clinical practice. The study utilised a qualitative design with inductive analysis approach. Seven key health policy decisions-makers within Australia were interviewed. Practical strategies identified to support provision and delivery of foot care in primary care were: (a) building on current incentivisation structures through quality improvement projects; (b) enhancing education and community awareness; (c) greater utilisation and provision of resources and support systems; and (d) development of collaborative models of care and referral pathways. Key elements reported to support effective implementation of footcare strategies included developing and implementing strategies based on co-design, consultation, collaboration, consolidation and co-commissioning. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first Australian study to obtain information from key health policy decision-makers, identifying strategies to support footcare delivery in primary care. Implementation of preventative diabetes-related footcare strategies into 'routine' primary care clinical practice requires multiparty co-design, consultation, consolidation, collaboration and co-commissioning. The basis of strategy development will influence implementation success and thus improve outcomes for people living with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Australia , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research , Referral and Consultation
14.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 800-809, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. METHODS: This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. CONCLUSION: Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(2): 237-268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365230

ABSTRACT

Intestinal flora is essential for maintaining host health and plays a unique role in transforming Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). TCM, as a bodyguard, has saved countless lives and maintained human health in the long history, especially in this COVID-19 pandemic. Pains of diseases have been removed from the effective TCM therapy, such as TCM preparation, moxibustion, and acupuncture. With the development of life science and technology, the wisdom and foresight of TCM has been more displayed. Furthermore, TCM has been also inherited and developed in innovation to better realize the modernization and globalization. Nowadays, intestinal flora transforming TCM and TCM targeted intestinal flora treating diseases have been important findings in life science. More and more TCM researches showed the significance of intestinal flora. Intestinal flora is also a way to study TCM to elucidate the profound theory of TCM. Processing, compatibility, and properties of TCM are well demonstrated by intestinal flora. Thus, it is no doubt that intestinal flora is a core in TCM study. The interaction between intestinal flora and TCM is so crucial for host health. Therefore, it is necessary to sum up the latest results in time. This paper systematically depicted the profile of TCM and the importance of intestinal flora in host. What is more, we comprehensively summarized and discussed the latest progress of the interplay between TCM and intestinal flora to better reveal the core connotation of TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Autoimmune Diseases/microbiology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/microbiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/microbiology , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/microbiology , Obesity/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/microbiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333362

ABSTRACT

AIM: Amidst COVID-19 pandemic, the health care delivery in India faces major challenges owing to the overwhelming hospitals, exhausted healthcare workers, and shortage of crucial medical supplies such as ventilators and oxygen. The study aims to propose a novel successful interventional home care model, the Virtual COVID In-Patient (VCIP) care for effective COVID management. METHODS: The Covid-19 positive patients enrolled in VCIP were chosen for the study. A 24/7 active multidisciplinary WhatsApp group was created for each patient, for remote monitoring of temperature, blood pressure, blood glucose, respiratory and pulse rate along with the symptoms. Advice on sleep and exercises were given along with the medication via video-audio consultations. Lab facility was provided at the doorstep. Training on various devices, medications including steroids, delivering subcutaneous injections etc were given via video platforms. RESULTS: Among the 220 patients who availed the VCIP facility, only two were hospitalized, yielding a 99.5 % success rate in preventing hospitalizations and patients enrolled have been immensely satisfied with their experience. CONCLUSIONS: With similar pandemics anticipated in near future, VCIP model may be considered for successful domiciliary treatment and overcoming the challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Models, Organizational , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Internationality , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Nursing , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pandemics , Prognosis , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(4): 762-767, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314238

ABSTRACT

The endocrine hospitalist and inpatient diabetes management team increases access to endocrinology consultations and improves glycemic control and quality metrics such as length of stay and hospital readmission. Enhanced glycemic care is needed in both academic and community hospital settings. Endocrine fellowship programs should implement endocrine hospitalist rotations with emphasis on training endocrine fellows to deliver fast-paced inpatient endocrine care. Entrepreneurship, innovation, and a "start-up" culture within the field of Endocrinology should be encouraged and supported by healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitalists , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Patient Readmission
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306924

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Identify the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of lower extremity ischemic complications. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed and SCOPUS databases for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and peripheral arterial complications. RESULTS: Overall 476 articles were retrieved and 31 articles describing 133 patients were included. The mean age was 65.4 years. Pain and gangrene were the most common presentation. Hypertension (51.3%), diabetes (31.9%) and hypercholesterolemia (17.6%) were associated co-morbidities. Overall, 30.1% of patients died and amputation was required in 11.8% patients. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with diabetes or hypertension are susceptible for lower limb complications and require therapeutic anti-coagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Hypertension , Aged , Amputation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Diabetic Angiopathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Angiopathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Angiopathies/therapy , Female , Gangrene/diagnosis , Gangrene/epidemiology , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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