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2.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 162, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582120

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel type b coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. With over 224 million confirmed infections with this virus and more than 4.6 million people dead because of it, it is critically important to define the immunological processes occurring in the human response to this virus and pathogenetic mechanisms of its deadly manifestation. This perspective focuses on the contribution of the recently discovered interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with neuropilin 1 (NRP1) receptor, NRP1 as a virus entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, its role in different physiologic and pathologic conditions, and the potential to target the Spike-NRP1 interaction to combat virus infectivity and severe disease manifestations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neuropilin-1/chemistry , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Infant , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Neuropilin-1/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6732-6736, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544326

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the interventions of remdesivir in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals who were suffering from a severe infection of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between therapeutic effectiveness of remdesivir and complications of diabetes mellitus by observing the recovery period among diabetic and nondiabetic patients associated with COVID-19 infection. A total of 850 COVID-19 patients were recruited for this study, out of which 48% were diabetic and 52% were nondiabetics. The results of this study indicated that nondiabetic individuals administered with remdesivir recovered from COVID-19 within 10 days showing a 95% confidence interval (p < 0.01), while the diabetic individuals recovered in 15 days. Nondiabetic patients administered with remdesivir exhibited higher chances of clinical improvement at 15th day than those who were associated with diabetes. Remdesivir administration improved the levels of various biochemical parameters, such as C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, d-Dimer, and ferritin both in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, a significant improvement (p < 0.01) was seen in the level of biochemical parameters among nondiabetic patients as compared to that of diabetic patients administered with remdesivir treatment. In the end, it was concluded that remdesivir could be considered as a possible therapeutic agent in the treatment of COVID-19 both in diabetic and nondiabetic situations. However, diabetic patients showed a delayed recovery as compared with that of nondiabetic patients, in which the recovery rate was high.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488672

ABSTRACT

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a decisive risk factor for severe illness in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). India is home to a large number of people with DM, and many of them were infected with COVID-19. It is critical to understand the impact of DM on mortality and other clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection from this region. Aims The primary objective of our study was to analyze the mortality rate in people with DM infected with COVID-19. The secondary objectives were to assess the effect of various comorbidities on mortality and study the impact of DM on other clinical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study of COVID-19 infected patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north India in the early phase of the pandemic. Results Of the 1211 cases admitted, 19 were excluded because of incomplete data, and 1192 cases were finally considered for analysis. DM constituted 26.8% of total patients. The overall mortality rate was 6.1%, and the rate was 10.7% in the presence of diabetes (p < 0.01, OR 2.55). In univariate analysis, increased age, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and cancer were associated with mortality. On multiple logistic regression, the independent predictors of mortality were CAD, CKD, and cancer. Breathlessness and low SpO2 at presentation, extensive involvement in CXR, and elevated ANC/ALC ratio were also significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions The presence of comorbidities such as DM, hypertension, CAD, CKD, and cancer strongly predict the risk of mortality in COVID-19 infection. Early triaging and aggressive therapy of patients with these comorbidities can optimize clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
7.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(12): 2126-2128, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413728

ABSTRACT

Two recent reports denoted the potential of SARS-CoV-2 to directly infect ß-cells and the possible fate of ß-cells under COVID-19. The fight against SARS-CoV-2 will continue to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6732-6736, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400930

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the interventions of remdesivir in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals who were suffering from a severe infection of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between therapeutic effectiveness of remdesivir and complications of diabetes mellitus by observing the recovery period among diabetic and nondiabetic patients associated with COVID-19 infection. A total of 850 COVID-19 patients were recruited for this study, out of which 48% were diabetic and 52% were nondiabetics. The results of this study indicated that nondiabetic individuals administered with remdesivir recovered from COVID-19 within 10 days showing a 95% confidence interval (p < 0.01), while the diabetic individuals recovered in 15 days. Nondiabetic patients administered with remdesivir exhibited higher chances of clinical improvement at 15th day than those who were associated with diabetes. Remdesivir administration improved the levels of various biochemical parameters, such as C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, d-Dimer, and ferritin both in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, a significant improvement (p < 0.01) was seen in the level of biochemical parameters among nondiabetic patients as compared to that of diabetic patients administered with remdesivir treatment. In the end, it was concluded that remdesivir could be considered as a possible therapeutic agent in the treatment of COVID-19 both in diabetic and nondiabetic situations. However, diabetic patients showed a delayed recovery as compared with that of nondiabetic patients, in which the recovery rate was high.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aim to cover most of the current evidence on the mutual effect of diabetes & COVID-19 infection on each other and the management of the COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: We utilized databases to review the current evidence related to diabetes mellitus and COVID-19. RESULTS: We discussed the most recent evidence of diabetes milieus and COVID-19 regarding risk factors, management, complications, and telemedicine. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a significant risk of complications, extended hospital stays, and mortality in COVID-19 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Risk Factors
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 300, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351933

ABSTRACT

Elderly people and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, resulting in severe complications and high mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigate whether miRNAs in serum exosomes can exert antiviral functions and affect the response to COVID-19 in the elderly and people with diabetes. First, we identified four miRNAs (miR-7-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-223-3p) through high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, that are remarkably decreased in the elderly and diabetic groups. We further demonstrated that these miRNAs, either in the exosome or in the free form, can directly inhibit S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Serum exosomes from young people can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and S protein expression, while the inhibitory effect is markedly decreased in the elderly and diabetic patients. Moreover, three out of the four circulating miRNAs are significantly increased in the serum of healthy volunteers after 8-weeks' continuous physical exercise. Serum exosomes isolated from these volunteers also showed stronger inhibitory effects on S protein expression and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study demonstrates for the first time that circulating exosomal miRNAs can directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and may provide a possible explanation for the difference in response to COVID-19 between young people and the elderly or people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Exercise , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Virus Replication
12.
Cell Metab ; 33(8): 1565-1576.e5, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343160

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence points toward an intricate relationship between the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes. While preexisting diabetes is associated with severe COVID-19, it is unclear whether COVID-19 severity is a cause or consequence of diabetes. To mechanistically link COVID-19 to diabetes, we tested whether insulin-producing pancreatic ß cells can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and cause ß cell depletion. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, and related entry factors (TMPRSS2, NRP1, and TRFC) are expressed in ß cells, with selectively high expression of NRP1. We discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infects human pancreatic ß cells in patients who succumbed to COVID-19 and selectively infects human islet ß cells in vitro. We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection attenuates pancreatic insulin levels and secretion and induces ß cell apoptosis, each rescued by NRP1 inhibition. Phosphoproteomic pathway analysis of infected islets indicates apoptotic ß cell signaling, similar to that observed in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In summary, our study shows SARS-CoV-2 can directly induce ß cell killing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization , A549 Cells , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Transferrin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(2): 238-246, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On February 11, 2020 WHO designated the name "COVID-19" for the disease caused by "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that quickly turned into a global pandemic. Risks associated with acquiring the virus have been found to most significantly vary by age and presence of underlying comorbidity. In this rapid literature review we explore the prevalence of comorbidities and associated adverse outcomes among individuals with COVID-19 and summarize our findings based on information available as of May 15, 2020. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed on PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar to find articles published until May 15, 2020. All relevant articles providing information on PCR tested COVID-19 positive patient population with clinical characteristics and epidemiological information were selected for review and analysis. RESULTS: A total of 27 articles consisting of 22,753 patient cases from major epicenters worldwide were included in the study. Major comorbidities seen in overall population were CVD (8.9%), HTN (27.4%), Diabetes (17.4%), COPD (7.5%), Cancer (3.5%), CKD (2.6%), and other (15.5%). Major comorbidity specific to countries included in the study were China (HTN 39.5%), South Korea (CVD 25.6%), Italy (HTN 35.9%), USA (HTN 38.9%), Mexico, (Other 42.3%), UK (HTN 27.8%), Iran (Diabetes 35.0%). Within fatal cases, an estimated 84.1% had presence of one or more comorbidity. Subgroup analysis of fatality association with having comorbidity had an estimated OR 0.83, CI [0.60-0.99], p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, hypertension followed by diabetes and cardiovascular diseases were the most common comorbidity seen in COVID-19 positive patients across major epicenters world-wide. Although having one or more comorbidity is linked to increased disease severity, no clear association was found between having these risk factors and increased risk of fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Young Adult
14.
Endocr Pract ; 27(10): 1046-1051, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a known risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted this study to determine if there is a correlation between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level and poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with diabetes and COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center, observational study of patients with diabetes (defined by an HbA1C level of ≥6.5% or known medical history of diabetes) who had a confirmed case of COVID-19 and required hospitalization. All patients were admitted to our institution between March 3, 2020, and May 5, 2020. HbA1C results for each patient were divided into quartiles: 5.1% to 6.7% (32-50 mmol/mol), 6.8% to 7.5% (51-58 mmol/mol), 7.6% to 8.9% (60-74 mmol/mol), and >9% (>75 mmol/mol). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included admission to an intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, acute thrombosis, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 506 patients were included. The number of deaths within quartiles 1 through 4 were 30 (25%), 37 (27%), 34 (27%), and 24 (19%), respectively. There was no statistical difference in the primary or secondary outcomes among the quartiles, except that acute kidney injury was less frequent in quartile 4. CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between HbA1C level and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes who are hospitalized with COVID-19. HbA1C levels should not be used for risk stratification in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies
15.
Islets ; 13(3-4): 66-79, 2021 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310869

ABSTRACT

The link between COVID-19 infection and diabetes has been explored in several studies since the start of the pandemic, with associations between comorbid diabetes and poorer prognosis in patients infected with the virus and reports of diabetic ketoacidosis occurring with COVID-19 infection. As such, significant interest has been generated surrounding mechanisms by which the virus may exert effects on the pancreatic ß cells. In this review, we consider possible routes by which SARS-CoV-2 may impact ß cells. Specifically, we outline data that either support or argue against the idea of direct infection and injury of ß cells by SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss ß cell damage due to a "bystander" effect in which infection with the virus leads to damage to surrounding tissues that are essential for ß cell survival and function, such as the pancreatic microvasculature and exocrine tissue. Studies elucidating the provocation of a cytokine storm following COVID-19 infection and potential impacts of systemic inflammation and increases in insulin resistance on ß cells are also reviewed. Finally, we summarize the existing clinical data surrounding diabetes incidence since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Bystander Effect/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295632

ABSTRACT

The relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus is complicated and bidirectional. On the one hand, diabetes mellitus is considered one of the most important risk factors for a severe course of COVID-19. Several factors that are often present in diabetes mellitus are likely to contribute to this risk, such as older age, a proinflammatory and hypercoagulable state, hyperglycemia and underlying comorbidities (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and obesity). On the other hand, a severe COVID-19 infection, and its treatment with steroids, can have a specific negative impact on diabetes itself, leading to worsening of hyperglycemia through increased insulin resistance and reduced ß-cell secretory function. Worsening hyperglycemia can, in turn, adversely affect the course of COVID-19. Although more knowledge gradually surfaces as the pandemic progresses, challenges in understanding the interrelationship between COVID-19 and diabetes remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295631

ABSTRACT

The finding that high-dose dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring critical care due to COVID-19 will mean much greater usage of glucocorticoids in the subsequent waves of coronavirus infection. Furthermore, the consistent finding of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in individuals with obesity, hypertension and diabetes has focussed attention on the metabolic dysfunction that may arise with critical illness. The SARS coronavirus itself may promote relative insulin deficiency, ketogenesis and hyperglycaemia in susceptible individuals. In conjunction with prolonged critical care, these components will promote a catabolic state. Insulin infusion is the mainstay of therapy for treatment of hyperglycaemia in acute illness but what is the effect of insulin on the admixture of glucocorticoids and COVID-19? This article reviews the evidence for the effect of insulin on clinical outcomes and intermediary metabolism in critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293738

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Diabetes Mellitus predisposes patients to invasive fungal infections. There has been a recent surge of Mucormycosis with COVID 19 infection particularly in patients with diabetes. This study aims to study the clinical spectrum of CAM (COVID -associated Mucormycosis) with diabetes and subsequent outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study conducted at a single COVID Care Centre in India in patients with COVID Associated Mucormycosis from April 12, 2021 to May 31, 2021. RESULTS: Among 953 hospitalized patients with COVID 19 infection, 32 patients had CAM with an incidence of 3.36%. In patients with CAM, 87.5% had Diabetes Mellitus as the most common co-morbidity. The majority of the patients had poor glycemic control with a mean HbA1c of 9.06%. Out of the total study population, 93% had prior exposure to high dose corticosteroids. During the study period, 12.5% patients of CAM did not survive. CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive fungal infection with high mortality. The disease has surged in COVID 19 pandemic due to uncontrolled diabetes and improper corticosteroid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mucormycosis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/pathology , Mucormycosis/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socio-demographics and comorbidities are involved in determining the severity and fatality in patients with COVID-19 suggested by studies in various countries, but study in Bangladesh is insufficient. AIMS: We designed the study to evaluate the association of sociodemographic and comorbidities with the prognosis of adverse health outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. METHODS: A multivariate retrospective cohort study was conducted on data from 966 RT-PCR positive patients from eight divisions during December 13, 2020, to February 13, 2021. Variables included sociodemographic, comorbidities, symptoms, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and access to health facilities. Major outcome was fatality. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, requirement of mechanical ventilation and severity. RESULTS: Male (65.8%, 636 of 966) was predominant and mean age was 39.8 ± 12.6 years. Fever (79%), dry cough (55%), and loss of test/smell (51%) were frequent and 74% patients had >3 symptoms. Fatality was recorded in 10.5% patients. Comorbidities were found in 44% patients. Hypertension (21.5%) diabetes (14.6%), and cardiovascular diseases (11.3%) were most prevalent. Age >60 years (OR: 4.83, 95% CI: 2.45-6.49), and CCI >3 (OR: 5.48, 95% CI: 3.95-7.24) were predictors of hospitalizations. CCI >4 (aOR: 3.41, 95% CI: 2.57-6.09) was predictor of severity. Age >60 years (aOR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.07-6.34), >3 symptoms (aOR: 2.14, 95% CI: 0.97-4.91) and CCI >3 vs. CCI <3 (aOR: 5.23, 95% CI: 3.77-8.09) were independently associated with fatality. CONCLUSIONS: Increased age, >3 symptoms, increasing comorbidities, higher CCI were associated with increased hospitalization, severity and fatality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Young Adult
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102174, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267653

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To study the feasibility of diabetes education through telemedicine in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 100 patients with DM who were admitted in a COVID isolation ward for management of COVID-19. Patients managed with multiple subcutaneous insulin injections were eligible. During teleconsultation, diabetes education including insulin injection technique was given by a diabetes educator via a phone call (audio and video) during hospitalization. They were also re-assessed after 2 weeks of discharge from the hospital via teleconsultation or in-person. RESULTS: Out of 100 patients, 72.0% had prior history of diabetes while 28.0% were newly diagnosed. The median age of our cohort was 56 years and median duration of diabetes was 7.0 years. Telemedicine as a mode of consult for diabetes education was accepted by 96.0% of patients during hospitalization. At 2 weeks' follow-up, 77.0% patients were following insulin instructions correctly and were satisfied with this mode of consultation. CONCLUSION: Diabetes education using telemedicine as a technology is feasible, acceptable, and effective in the management of most patients with DM. Telemedicine appears to be an effective way to replace routine visits in special situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Insulin/administration & dosage , Remote Consultation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
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