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2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(11): 786-794, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children was observed in various diabetes centres worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate trends in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of paediatric type 1 diabetes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify potential predictors of changes in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence during the pandemic. METHODS: For this international multicentre study, we used data from 13 national diabetes registries (Australia, Austria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, USA [Colorado], and Wales). The study population comprised 104 290 children and adolescents aged 6 months to younger than 18 years, who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2021. The observed diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence in 2020 and 2021 was compared to predictions based on trends over the pre-pandemic years 2006-19. Associations between changes in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence and the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures were examined with excess all-cause mortality in the whole population and the Stringency Index from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. FINDINGS: 87 228 children and adolescents were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 2006 and 2019, 8209 were diagnosed in 2020, and 8853 were diagnosed in 2021. From 2006 to 2019, diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was present in 23 775 (27·3%) of 87 228 individuals and the mean annual increase in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis in the total cohort from 2006 to 2019 was 1·6% (95% CI 1·3 to 1·9). The adjusted observed prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was 39·4% (95% CI 34·0 to 45·6) in 2020 and 38·9% (33·6 to 45·0) in 2021, significantly higher than the predicted prevalence of 32·5% (27·8 to 37·9) for 2020 and 33·0% (28·3 to 38·5) for 2021 (p<0·0001 for both years). The prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis was associated with the pandemic containment measures, with an estimated risk ratio of 1·037 (95% CI 1·024 to 1·051; p<0·0001) per ten-unit increase in the Stringency Index for 2020 and 1·028 (1·009 to 1·047; p=0·0033) for 2021, but was not significantly associated with excess all-cause mortality. INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a marked exacerbation of the pre-existing increase in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children. This finding highlights the need for early and timely diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, German Robert Koch Institute, German Diabetes Association, German Diabetes Foundation, Slovenian Research Agency, Welsh Government, Central Denmark Region, and Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Registries
3.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased prevalence and mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) globally. With limited access to specialised care, most patients with DKA in South Africa are managed at district hospital level. This study describes the profile of patients admitted to a district hospital in South Africa with DKA and COVID-19 and examines associated risk factors encountered. METHODS:  This was a case series of all patients presenting to a district hospital with DKA and COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and July 2021. Data extracted included patients' demographic profiles, biochemical results, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:  The median age of the 10 patients admitted during the study period was 39 years old (±12), six of whom were male. The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values on admission ranged from 9.7 to 13.8. Five of the patients had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Four of the known DM patients were on metformin only, and one was on biphasic insulin. Three patients had other pre-existing comorbidities, two patients with hypertension and one with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three patients demised, two of whom were hypoxic on admission. CONCLUSION:  Diabetic ketoacidosis appears more commonly in COVID-19 infected patients with type 2 DM and at a young age. Suboptimal glycaemic control was associated with DKA, and hypoxia was a strong predictor for mortality. Treatment inertia was evident in the known DM group, who were on monotherapy despite persistent hyperglycaemia. Greater vigilance is required to detect ketosis in type 2 DM and intensify therapy to improve glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Metformin , Adult , Biphasic Insulins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/therapeutic use , Hospitals, District , Humans , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 878634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997437

ABSTRACT

Aim/Hypothesis: To compare the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with the frequency of DKA during 2017-2019. Methods: Forty-seven pediatric diabetes centers caring for >90% of young people with diabetes in Italy recruited 4,237 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes between 2017 and 2020 in a longitudinal study. Four subperiods in 2020 were defined based on government-imposed containment measures for COVID-19, and the frequencies of DKA and severe DKA compared with the same periods in 2017-2019. Results: Overall, the frequency of DKA increased from 35.7% (95%CI, 33.5-36.9) in 2017-2019 to 39.6% (95%CI, 36.7-42.4) in 2020 (p=0.008), while the frequency of severe DKA increased from 10.4% in 2017-2019 (95%CI, 9.4-11.5) to 14.2% in 2020 (95%CI, 12.3-16.4, p<0.001). DKA and severe DKA increased during the early pandemic period by 10.4% (p=0.004) and 8% (p=0.002), respectively, and the increase continued throughout 2020. Immigrant background increased and high household income decreased the probability of presenting with DKA (OR: 1.55; 95%CI, 1.24-1.94; p<0.001 and OR: 0.60; 95 CI, 0.41-0.88; p=0.010, respectively). Conclusions/Interpretation: There was an increase in the frequency of DKA and severe DKA in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, with no apparent association with the severity of COVID-19 infection severity or containment measures. There has been a silent outbreak of DKA in children during the pandemic, and preventive action is required to prevent this phenomenon in the event of further generalized lockdowns or future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(11): 2071-2080, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985768

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are now seen as an integral part of therapy in type 2 diabetes to control not only blood glucose but to improve cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an uncommon but serious complication of type 2 diabetes, which has a high case fatality rate. The absolute risk of DKA in large, prospective randomized clinical trials in people with type 2 diabetes using SGLT2 inhibitors has been low, although the relative risk is higher in those assigned to SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo. In those without diabetes but prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors for heart failure or chronic kidney disease, the risk of DKA is similar to placebo. Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of DKA have also been reported in cases of COVID-19 hospitalizations. Consensus guidelines have recommended that SGLT2 inhibitors should be avoided in cases of serious illness and suggest they are not recommended for routine in-hospital use. However, recent data suggest potential beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in the setting of acute illness with COVID-19 with no increase in adverse events and low rates of DKA, which were non-severe. Given the low rates of DKA in cardiovascular outcome trials and in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for SGLT2 inhibitors not being re-initiated following discharge and their cardiovascular and kidney benefits, we believe the practice of routine 'sick day' guidance should be re-examined based on current evidence with a call for further research in this area. Furthermore, high-quality trials of initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people admitted to hospital with cardiovascular disease or kidney disease, and trials of continuation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people, with careful monitoring of DKA should be conducted. These should be further supplemented with large observational studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Acute Disease , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Policy , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969363

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes globally, which has also affected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aimed to determine the incidence of T1DM and the characteristics of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during the pandemic comparing it to pre-pandemic period. Materials and Methods: Data from patients <19 years with newly diagnosed T1DM between 1st January 2017 and 31st December 2021 from four regional centers in Vojvodina were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: In 2021, the highest incidence of T1DM in the last five years was recorded, 17.3/100,000. During the pandemic period (2020-2021), there were 99 new-onset T1DM, of which 42.4% presented in DKA, which is significantly higher than in the pre-pandemic period (34.1%). During the pandemic, symptom duration of T1DM lasted significantly longer than before the COVID-19 period. At the age of 10-14 years, the highest incidence of T1DM and COVID-19, the highest frequency rate of DKA, and severe DKA were observed. Conclusions: The pandemic is associated with a high incidence rate of T1DM, longer duration of symptoms of T1DM, a high frequency of DKA, and a severe DKA at diagnosis. Patients aged 10-14 years are a risk group for the occurrence of T1DM with severe clinical presentation. Additional studies are needed with a longer study period and in a wider geographical area, with data on exposure to COVID-19 infection, the permanence of new-onset T1DM, and the psychosocial impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Yugoslavia
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5112-5127, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925953

ABSTRACT

Viral infections may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), and recent reports suggest that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have increased the incidence of pediatric T1D and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE was conducted for articles published up to March 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare the relative risk of T1D and DKA among pediatric patients with T1D between the COVID-19 pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. We also compared glucose and HbA1c values in children who were newly diagnosed with T1D before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The global incidence rate of T1D in the 2019 period was 19.73 per 100 000 children and 32.39 per 100 000 in the 2020 period. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic, the number of worldwide pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 9.5%, 25%, and 19.5%, respectively. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, the median glucose, and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 6.43% and 6.42%, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA. Moreover, higher glucose and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 183-190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882247

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly become a global threaten since its emergence in the end of 2019. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection could also present with co-infection or secondary infection by other virus, bacteria, or fungi. Among them, mucormycosis is a rare but aggressive fungal disease and it mainly affects patients particularly with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We here did a comprehensive review of literature reporting COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis (CAM) cases, which have been reported worldwide. The prevalence is higher in India, Iran, and Egypt than other countries, particularly highest in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India. Poor diabetic control and the administration of systemic corticosteroids are the common precipitating factors causing mucormycosis in the severe and critical COVID-19 patients. In addition, COVID-19 itself may affect the immune system resulting in vulnerability of the patients to mucormycosis. Appropriate treatments of CAM include strict glycemic control, extensive surgical debridement, and antifungal therapy with amphotericin B formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(22): e176, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital visitation has become challenging during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of quarantine measures and fear of infection. Consequently, newly diagnosed patients may present with more severe diseases during the pandemic. The present study analyzed the differences in the initial clinical presentations of newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with T1D or T2D and aged < 18 years during 2018-2020 were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively from four academic centers in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Initial clinical data were compared between the pre-pandemic (2018-2019) and pandemic (2020) periods. RESULTS: In the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, 99 patients (41 T1D and 58 T2D patients) and 84 patients (51 T1D and 33 T2D patients) were identified, respectively. During the pandemic, the proportion of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) cases increased compared to the pre-pandemic period (21.2% during 2018-2019 vs. 38.1% in 2020; P = 0.012). In the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, initial pH was 7.32 ± 0.14 and 7.27 ± 0.15, respectively (P = 0.040), and HbA1c values were 11.18 ± 2.46% and 12.42 ± 2.87%, respectively (P = 0.002). During the pandemic, there was an increased risk of DKA in patients with T1D (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.62; P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the proportion of DKA in newly diagnosed patients with T1D increased and clinical parameters showed a deteriorating pattern. Increased awareness of pediatric diabetes, especially DKA, could facilitate visit to the hospital for an early diagnosis; thus, reducing the number of DKA cases during the pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
Endocr Pract ; 28(8): 787-794, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is thought to contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and worse outcomes in patients with diabetes. This study compared the cumulative insulin dose required to achieve DKA resolution in the intensive care unit among patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19 infection versus without COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 100 patients-50 patients with COVID-19 in cohort 1 and 50 patients without COVID-19 in cohort 2-treated with insulin infusions for DKA at a tertiary care teaching hospital. The primary outcome was to compare the cumulative insulin dose required to achieve DKA resolution in each cohort. The secondary outcomes included time to DKA resolution, mean insulin infusion rate, and mean weight-based cumulative insulin infusion dose required to achieve DKA resolution. All endpoints were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: The mean cumulative insulin dose was 190.3 units in cohort 1 versus 116.4 units in cohort 2 (P = .0038). Patients receiving steroids had a mean time to DKA resolution of 35.9 hours in cohort 1 versus 15.6 hours in cohort 2 (P = .0014). In cohort 1 versus cohort 2, the mean insulin infusion rate was 7.1 units/hour versus 5.3 units/hour (P = .0025), whereas the mean weight-based cumulative insulin infusion dose was 2.1 units/kg versus 1.5 units/kg (P = .0437), respectively. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-infected patients required a significantly larger cumulative insulin dose, longer time to DKA resolution, higher insulin infusion rate, and higher weight-based insulin infusion dose to achieve DKA resolution versus non-COVID-19-infected patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
12.
R I Med J (2013) ; 105(5): 46-50, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency, severity of presentation and initial presentations of new onset diabetes mellitus (DM) in youth in Rhode Island during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same time frame in 2018 and 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of youth treated for new onset DM at Hasbro Children's Hospital between March 1 and May 15, 2020, compared to those diagnosed in the same period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Fewer youth were diagnosed with new onset DM in Spring 2020 and the percentage of youth with DKA at time of DM diagnosis was higher in Spring 2020 compared to prior years (p=0.048). Age, gender, and DKA complications did not differ by year. CONCLUSION: Nearly 50% fewer youth were diagnosed with DM at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to years prior, and those diagnosed with new onset DM in Spring 2020 were more likely to present with DKA. Delays in both initial health care evaluation and the recognition of DM symptoms may have contributed to the decline in overall DM diagnoses and the more severe presentations. Identification of DM symptoms is essential, especially during future surges of COVID-19 or other events that impact the healthcare system, to reduce the risk of DM complications including DKA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(7): 859-866, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), had a great impact on patients worldwide, including those with chronic diseases. We aim to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on presentation patterns of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Jordan, as an example a developing country with limited resources. METHODS: Medical charts were reviewed for patients presented with new-onset T1D to Jordan University hospital during the first year of pandemic and the preceding year. Categorical data were compared using Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. Continuous data were compared using the Independent Sample t-Test. RESULTS: A total of 137 children were diagnosed with T1D during the study period, with 60.6% of those children were diagnosed in the pre-pandemic year compared to 39.4% during the first year of pandemic, p-value=0.013. Percentage of patients diagnosed with DKA as first presentation of T1D during the pre-pandemic year was 34.9% compared to 51.9% during the pandemic year, p-value=0.049. Significant differences in family monthly income (p-value=0.006) and paternal education level (p-value=0.036) were found between children with DKA and those without DKA in the pre-pandemic year, but they were not significant during the pandemic year. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic had affected presentation pattern of newly diagnosed T1D patients, manifested by lower number of children diagnosed with T1D and higher percentage of DKA as first presentation compared to the preceding year. Health care services should be at utmost preparedness for possible future waves and other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
14.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(4): 433-438, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been posited during the COVID-19 pandemic, but data are conflicting. We aimed to determine trends in newly diagnosed T1D and severity of presentation at diagnosis for pediatric and adolescent patients during COVID-19 (2020) as compared to the previous year (2019) in a multi-center analysis across the United States. METHODS: This retrospective study from seven centers in the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI) included data on new onset T1D diagnosis and proportion in DKA at diagnosis from January 1 to December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic period compared to the prior year. RESULTS: Across seven sites, there were 1399 newly diagnosed T1D patients in 2020, compared to 1277 in 2019 (p = 0.007). A greater proportion of newly diagnosed patients presented in DKA in 2020 compared to 2019 (599/1399(42.8%) vs. 493/1277(38.6%), p = 0.02), with a higher proportion presenting with severe DKA (p = 0.01) as characterized by a pH <7.1 and/or bicarbonate of <5 mmol/L. Monthly data trends demonstrated a higher number of new T1D diagnoses over the spring and summer months (March to September) of 2020 compared to 2019 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase in newly diagnosed T1D and a greater proportion presenting in DKA at diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior year. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings with population level data and determine the long-term impact of COVID-19 on diabetes trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(8): e3264-e3272, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833436

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Data is needed regarding the effect of SARS-CoV-19 infection on young people with established type 1 diabetes. Identifying the disease outcomes, short and long-term sequelae may help to establish an evidence-based prevention and education policy for sick days management and DKA prevention. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to describe clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, adolescents, and young adults with established type 1 diabetes (T1D) and explore the effects of COVID-19 on glycemic control and disease course. METHODS: An observational study was conducted at 3 pediatric diabetes clinics in Israel between mid-March 2020 and mid-March 2021. Included were young people with established T1D, age younger than 30 years, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction). Data were collected from medical files, diabetes devices, and COVID-19 questionnaire. Outcome measures were analyzed by the presence/absence of clinical symptoms (symptomatic/asymptomatic) and by age group (pediatric, < 19 years/young adults, 19-30 years). RESULTS: Of 132 patients, mean age 16.9 ±â€…5.3years, with COVID-19-confirmed infection, 103 (78%) had related symptoms; the most common were headaches, fatigue, fever, and loss of sense of smell. All had a mild disease course, but 4 required hospitalization and 2 cases were directly related to COVID-19 infection (pleuropneumonia in a patient with immunodeficiency syndrome, 1 case of diabetic ketoacidosis). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23; P = .033), elevated glucose levels (OR = 5.23; 95% CI, 1.12-24.41; P = .035), and comorbidities (OR = 8.21; 95% CI, 1.00-67.51; P = .050) were positively associated with symptomatic infection. Persistent symptoms occurred in 16.5% of the cohort over a median of 6.7 months; age (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29; P = .030) and elevated glucose levels (OR = 3.42; 95% CI, 1.12-10.40; P = .031) were positively associated with persistent symptoms. Usually, no change was reported in glucose levels (64%) except for a temporary deterioration in glycemic control during the short infection period. CONCLUSION: Young people with established T1D experience mild COVID-19 infection. Elevated glucose levels during COVID-19 infection and older age were associated with prolonged disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Glucose , Glycemic Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820334

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The incidence of severe and moderate forms of DKA as the initial presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is increasing, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This poses a higher risk of developing cerebral edema as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), as well as morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to determine the trend and clinical features of children treated in the last 10 years in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to the development of DKA. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the PICU, Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, in Croatia. All children diagnosed with DKA from 2011-2020 were included in this study. Data were received from hospital medical documentation and patient paper history. The number of new cases and severity of DKA were identified and classified using recent International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) guidelines. Results: In this investigation period, 194 children with newly diagnosed T1D were admitted to our hospital: 58 of them were treated in the PICU due to DKA; 48 had newly diagnosed T1D (48/58); and ten previously diagnosed T1D (10/58). DKA as the initial presentation of T1D was diagnosed in 24.7% (48/194). Moderate or severe dehydration was present in 76% of the children at hospital admission. Polyuria, polydipsia, and Kussmaul breathing were the most common signs. Three patients (5.2%) developed cerebral edema, of whom one died. Conclusions: During the investigation period a rising trend in T1D was noted, especially in 2020. About one quarter of children with T1D presented with DKA at initial diagnosis in western Croatia, most of them with a severe form. Good education of the general population, along with the patients and families of children with diabetes, is crucial to prevent the development of DKA and thus reduce severe complications.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/etiology , Child , Croatia/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): 1948-1955, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808494

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with type 1 diabetes remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: We examined United States trends in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the COVID-19 pandemic at 7 large US medical centers and factors associated with these trends. METHODS: We compared DKA events among children and adults with T1D during COVID-19 surge 1 (March-May 2020) and COVID-19 surge 2 (August-October 2020) to the same periods in 2019. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. RESULTS: We found no difference in the absolute number of T1D patients experiencing DKA in 2019 vs 2020. However, a higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black (NHB) individuals experienced DKA in 2019 than non-Hispanic White (NHW) individuals (44.6% vs 16.0%; P < .001), and this disparity persisted during the COVID-19 pandemic (48.6% vs 18.6%; P < .001). DKA was less common among patients on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or insulin pump in 2020 compared to 2019 (CGM: 13.2% vs 15.0%, P < .001; insulin pump: 8.0% vs 10.6%, P < .001). In contrast to annual DKA totals, a higher proportion of patients had DKA during COVID-19 surges 1 and 2 compared to the same months in 2019 (surge 1: 7.1% vs 5.4%, P < .001; surge 2: 6.6% vs 5.7%, P = .001). CONCLUSION: DKA frequency increased among T1D patients during COVID-19 surges with highest frequency among NHB patients. DKA was less common among patients using CGM or insulin pumps. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved strategies to prevent DKA among patients with T1D-not only under pandemic conditions, but under all conditions-especially among populations most affected by health inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Insulins , Adult , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics
18.
Am J Nurs ; 122(5): 49, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806593

ABSTRACT

According to this study: There was an increase in the incidence of new-onset type 1 diabetes in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.More children had diabetic ketoacidosis at the time of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266809, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) diagnosis following COVID-19 diagnosis and the impact of COVID-19 diagnosis on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients with prior T1D diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective data consisting of 27,292,879 patients from the Cerner Real-World Data were used. Odds ratios, overall and stratified by demographic predictors, were calculated to assess associations between COVID-19 and T1D. Odds ratios from multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic and clinical predictors, were calculated to assess adjusted associations between COVID-19 and DKA. Multiple imputation with multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE) was used to account for missing data. RESULTS: The odds of developing new-onset T1D significantly increased in patients with COVID-19 diagnosis (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.38, 1.46) compared to those without COVID-19. Risk varied by demographic groups, with the largest risk among pediatric patients ages 0-1 years (OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 2.75, 17.02) American Indian/Alaskan Natives (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.82), Asian or Pacific Islanders (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.61, 2.53), older adult patients ages 51-65 years (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.66, 1.88), those living in the Northeast (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.81), those living in the West (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.56, 1.74), and Black patients (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.47, 1.71). Among patients with diagnosed T1D at baseline (n = 55,359), 26.7% (n = 14,759) were diagnosed with COVID-19 over the study period. The odds of developing DKA for those with COVID-19 were significantly higher (OR 2.26, 95% CI: 2.04, 2.50) than those without COVID-19, and the largest risk was among patients with higher Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with significantly increased risk of new-onset T1D, and American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Black populations are disproportionately at risk. In patients with pre-existing T1D, the risk of developing DKA is significantly increased following COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 856958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771035

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous reports suggest that the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might have affected incidences of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and new diagnoses of type 1 diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of DKA, including severe DKA, during the COVID-19 pandemic versus the prior-to-COVID-19 period among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for observational studies investigating the risk of DKA among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic and the prior-to-COVID-19 period. A random meta-analysis model was performed to estimate the relative risk of DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the type 1 diabetes status, established or newly diagnosed. In addition, sensitivity analysis was conducted for studies that reported results from adjusted analysis for potential confounders using fixed effect model. Results: A total of 20 observational studies reported the risk of DKA, of which 18 reported the risk of severe DKA. The risks of DKA and severe DKA were 35% (RR 1.35, 95%CI 1.2-1.53, I 2 = 71%) and 76% (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.33-2.33, I 2 = 44%) higher in the during-COVID-19 group compared to the prior-to-COVID-19 group, respectively. Among patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, the risk of DKA was 44% higher for the during-COVID-19 group compared to the prior-to-COVID-19 group (RR 1.44, 95%CI 1.26-1.65; I 2 = 64%). Only two studies reported the risk of DKA among patients with established type 1 diabetes and the cumulative risk was not statistically significant. In the sensitivity analysis, four studies reported an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of the risk of DKA during COVID-19 compared to the prior-to-COVID-19 period. The fixed estimate from the meta-analysis found an increase in the risk of DKA in the during-COVID-19 group compared to the prior-to-COVID-19 group (aOR 2.04, 95%CI 1.66-2.50). Conclusions: This study showed that DKA risk, especially the risk of severe DKA, has increased significantly during the pandemic. Healthcare systems must be aware and prepared for such an increase in DKA cases and take all necessary measures to prevent future spikes during the pandemic. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=272775, identifier PROSPERO [CRD42021272775].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Pediatrics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
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