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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(2): 59-65, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people with diabetes, who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19.* Increases in the number of type 1 diabetes diagnoses (1,2) and increased frequency and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the time of diabetes diagnosis (3) have been reported in European pediatric populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In adults, diabetes might be a long-term consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4-7). To evaluate the risk for any new diabetes diagnosis (type 1, type 2, or other diabetes) >30 days† after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), CDC estimated diabetes incidence among patients aged <18 years (patients) with diagnosed COVID-19 from retrospective cohorts constructed using IQVIA health care claims data from March 1, 2020, through February 26, 2021, and compared it with incidence among patients matched by age and sex 1) who did not receive a COVID-19 diagnosis during the pandemic, or 2) who received a prepandemic non-COVID-19 acute respiratory infection (ARI) diagnosis. Analyses were replicated using a second data source (HealthVerity; March 1, 2020-June 28, 2021) that included patients who had any health care encounter possibly related to COVID-19. Among these patients, diabetes incidence was significantly higher among those with COVID-19 than among those 1) without COVID-19 in both databases (IQVIA: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.98-3.56; HealthVerity: HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.20-1.44) and 2) with non-COVID-19 ARI in the prepandemic period (IQVIA, HR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.64-2.86). The observed increased risk for diabetes among persons aged <18 years who had COVID-19 highlights the importance of COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, for all eligible persons in this age group,§ in addition to chronic disease prevention and management. The mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 might lead to incident diabetes is likely complex and could differ by type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Monitoring for long-term consequences, including signs of new diabetes, following SARS-CoV-2 infection is important in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk , United States/epidemiology
3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(10): 671-680, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been reported to be increasing in frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to examine the rates of DKA hospital admissions and the patient demographics associated with DKA during the pandemic compared with in prepandemic years. METHODS: Using a comprehensive, multiethnic, national dataset, the Secondary Uses Service repository, we extracted all emergency hospital admissions in England coded with DKA from March 1 to June 30, 2020 (first wave of the pandemic), July 1 to Oct 31, 2020 (post-first wave), and Nov 1, 2020, to Feb 28, 2021 (second wave), and compared these with DKA admissions in the equivalent periods in 2017-20. We also examined baseline characteristics, mortality, and trends in patients who were admitted with DKA. FINDINGS: There were 8553 admissions coded with DKA during the first wave, 8729 during the post-first wave, and 10 235 during the second wave. Compared with preceding years, DKA admissions were 6% (95% CI 4-9; p<0·0001) higher in the first wave of the pandemic (from n=8048), 6% (3-8; p<0·0001) higher in the post-first wave (from n=8260), and 7% (4-9; p<0·0001) higher in the second wave (from n=9610). In the first wave, DKA admissions reduced by 19% (95% CI 16-21) in those with pre-existing type 1 diabetes (from n=4965 to n=4041), increased by 41% (35-47) in those with pre-existing type 2 diabetes (from n=2010 to n=2831), and increased by 57% (48-66) in those with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1072 to n=1681). Compared with prepandemic, type 2 diabetes DKA admissions were similarly common in older individuals and men but were higher in those of non-White ethnicities during the first wave. The increase in newly diagnosed DKA admissions occurred across all age groups and these were significantly increased in men and people of non-White ethnicities. In the post-first wave, DKA admissions did not return to the baseline level of previous years; DKA admissions were 14% (11-17) lower in patients with type 1 diabetes (from n=5208 prepandemic to n=4491), 30% (24-36) higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (from n=2011 to n=2613), and 56% (47-66) higher in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1041 to n=1625). During the second wave, DKA admissions were 25% (22-27) lower in patients with type 1 diabetes (from n=5769 prepandemic to n=4337), 50% (44-56) higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (from n=2608 to n=3912), and 61% (52-70) higher in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1234 to n=1986). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence for differences in the numbers and characteristics of people presenting with DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with in the preceding 3 years. Greater awareness of risk factors for DKA in type 2 diabetes and vigilance for newly diagnosed diabetes presenting with DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic might help mitigate the increased impact of DKA. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Factual/trends , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance/methods , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 146-148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most important metabolic emergency in children. Children mimic many syndromes with a combination of nonspecific symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many syndromes are triggered by changes in children's body conditions. Reporting specific cases can improve the diagnosis process. The present study reports an 18-month-old paediatric case of COVID-19 who presented ketoacidosis (DKA) symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: The case is an 18-month-old child with fever and diarrhoea from 3 days before, who did not respond to outpatient treatment. On the day of the visit, he suffered from deep and abdominal breathing and decreased level of consciousness and sugar levels at admission of 420 mg/dl. He was then admitted with the initial diagnosis of DKA and had a positive PCR test result for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the non-specific symptoms of COVID-19, general practitioners and paediatricians are recommended that special attention be paid to these symptoms, especially those that are similar to life-threatening syndromes. They also should not easily ignore these symptoms and follow up patients and their recovery status and, if patients do not recover, consider the risk of COVID-19 given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5928-5935, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A positive relationship between the recently emerged Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) and diabetes has been inferred, but not confirmed, in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible impact of COVID-19 on new-onset Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in a pediatric population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of all children and adolescents diagnosed with T1DM during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-February 2021) in Western Greece (population coverage ≈1,000,000). The incidence and severity of T1DM, the age and sex of the participants and HbA1c and c-peptide concentrations at diagnosis were recorded and compared to those of the previous year (pre-COVID-19 year). RESULTS: 21 children aged 8.03±0.90 years old were diagnosed with T1DM in the COVID-19 year and 17, aged 9.44±3.72 years old, in the pre-COVID-19 year. A different seasonality pattern of new onsets was observed during the COVID-19 year compared to the previous year, with increasing trend from spring to winter (spring: 9.5% vs. 23.5%, autumn: 23.8% vs. 29.4%, summer: 19% vs. 11.8%, winter: 47.6% vs. 35.3%). Also, compared to the preceding year, HbA1c was significantly higher (p=0.012) and the incidence and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis greater (p=0.045, p=0.013, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report a different seasonality pattern and increased severity of new-onset T1DM during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research should further investigate the possible role of SARS-CoV-2 and the different pattern of overall infection incidence during the COVID-19 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Adolescent , C-Peptide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , Seasons
6.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(9): 632-641, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387687

ABSTRACT

Aims: To investigate the short-term effects of the first wave of COVID-19 on clinical parameters in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from 82 worldwide centers participating in the Better Control in Pediatric and Adolescent DiabeteS: Working to CrEate CEnTers of Reference (SWEET) registry. Materials and Methods: Aggregated data per person with T1D ≤21 years of age were compared between May/June 2020 (first wave), August/September 2020 (after wave), and the same periods in 2019. Hierarchic linear and logistic regression models were applied. Models were adjusted for gender, age-, and diabetes duration-groups. To distinguish the added burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, the centers were divided into quartiles of first wave COVID-19-associated mortality in their country. Results: In May/June 2019 and 2020, respectively, there were 16,735 versus 12,157 persons, 52% versus 52% male, median age 13.4 (Q1; Q3: 10.1; 16.2) versus13.5 (10.2; 16.2) years, T1D duration 4.5 (2.1; 7.8) versus 4.5 (2.0; 7.8) years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 60.7 (53.0; 73.8) versus 59.6 (50.8; 70.5) mmol/mol [7.8 (7.0; 8.9) versus 7.6 (6.8; 8.6) %]. Across all country quartiles of COVID-19 mortality, HbA1c and rate of severe hypoglycemia remained comparable to the year before the first wave, while diabetic ketoacidosis rates increased significantly in the centers from countries with the highest mortality rate, but returned to baseline after the wave. Continuous glucose monitoring use decreased slightly during the first wave (53% vs. 51%) and increased significantly thereafter (55% vs. 63%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although glycemic control was maintained, a significant rise in DKA at follow-up was seen during first wave in the quartile of countries with the highest COVID mortality. Trial Registration: NCT04427189.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Glycemic Control , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Pandemics
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This review aims to report the current status of COVID-19 among people with diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, and programmatic efforts including vaccinations. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Google, and Scopus until July 15, 2021. RESULTS: In Saudi Arabia, most studies have reported diabetes as one of the highly prevalent comorbidities among patients with COVID-19. Currently, there are limited studies from Saudi Arabia on the newly diagnosed diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis caused by COVID-19. The Saudi ministry has taken several measures to control the impact of COVID-19 among people with diabetes, including comprehensive guidelines and prioritized vaccinations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telehealth services dramatically increased in diabetes clinics in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSIONS: Focused and evidence-based interventions are essential to control the impact of COVID-19 among people with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(10): 1303-1309, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate patients who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the pandemic and evaluate the effect of the pandemic on the clinical findings of these patients by comparing them with findings from a year prior. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus between 2019 and 2021 were separated into two groups: Patients diagnosed prepandemic and those diagnosed during the pandemic. RESULTS: The number of newly diagnosed diabetes cases increased from 46 in the prepandemic period to 74 in the pandemic period. The number of cases diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the clinic increased from 58.7 to 91.9%. We found that moderate and severe DKA rates from 18.5 and 14.8% to 23.5 and 22.1%, respectively. Besides, the average HbA1c was higher, while the average bicarbonate was lower in cases diagnosed during the pandemic period compared to the prepandemic period (p=0.048 and p<0.001, respectively). We found that celiac autoantibody positivity antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti GAD) positivity, and islet cell antibodies (ICA), ICA and anti GAD positivity coexistence were higher (p=0.045, p=0.008, and p=0.007, respectively) among the patients diagnosed during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increase in the number of patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, an increase in autoantibody positivity, and higher rates and severity of DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic period compared to the prepandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Autoantibodies/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Tertiary Care Centers , Turkey/epidemiology
10.
Diabet Med ; 38(9): e14640, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Children are usually mildly affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19). However, the pandemic has caused collateral damage to those with non-COVID-19 diseases. We aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation of newly diagnosed childhood onset type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a 1-year period. We compared the severity of presentation of new-onset type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 18 presenting to the multi-centre North Central London diabetes network before (1 July 2019 to 22 March 2020) and during (23 March 2020 to 30 June 2020) the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Over the 1-year study period, a total of 30 children presented with new-onset type 1 diabetes during the pre-pandemic period and 17 presented during the first COVID-19 wave. Children presented more frequently in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during the first COVID-19 wave compared with pre-pandemic (pre-pandemic: mild 13%, moderate 6.7%, severe 10%; first COVID-19 wave: mild 5.9%, moderate 24%, severe 47%; p = 0.002). During the first COVID-19 wave, DKA presentations in children with a family history of type 1 diabetes were fewer compared to those without a family history (33.3% vs. 100.0%; p = 0.006). Children presenting in severe DKA pre-pandemic were younger than those not in severe DKA (3.9 years vs. 12.2 years, p < 0.001) but this difference was not significant during the first COVID-19 wave (10.1 years vs. 11.2 years, p = 0.568). Presenting HbA1c measurement was higher in those presenting during the first COVID-19 wave (13.0 ± 1.7 vs. 10.4 ± 3.2%; 119 ± 19 vs. 90 ± 35 mmol/mol; p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with increased severity of presentation of childhood onset type 1 diabetes. Whatever the context, young people with suspected new-onset type 1 diabetes should be referred for urgent clinical review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 599-602, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266889

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In early March 2020, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly in New York City. Shortly thereafter, in response to the shelter-in-place orders and concern for infection, emergency department (ED) volumes decreased. While a connection between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia/insulin deficiency is well described, its direct relation to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is not. In this study we describe trends in ED volume and admitted patient diagnoses of DKA among five of our health system's EDs, as they relate to peak SARS-CoV-2 activity in New York City. METHODS: For the five EDs in our hospital system, deidentified visit data extracted for routine quality review was made available for analysis. We looked at total visits and select visit diagnoses related to DKA, across the months of March, April and May 2019, and compared those counts to the same period in 2020. RESULTS: A total of 93,218 visits were recorded across our five EDs from March 1-May 31, 2019. During that period there were 106 diagnoses of DKA made in the EDs (0.114% of visits). Across the same period in 2020 there were 59,009 visits, and 214 diagnoses of DKA (0.363% of visits) CONCLUSION: Despite a decrease in ED volume of 26.9% across our system during this time period, net cases of DKA diagnoses rose drastically by 70.1% compared to the prior year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Adv Ther ; 38(6): 3314-3324, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication associated with poorly managed or undiagnosed diabetes. DKA is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs, but can be prevented with appropriate management of diabetes. The FreeStyle Libre is flash glucose monitoring device that measures glucose levels in the interstitial subcutaneous tissue and has been shown to reduce HbA1c, time in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, as well as improve health-related quality of life. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and recurrent DKA and who initiated FreeStyle Libre (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA) was conducted. DKA frequency and severity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and frequency of blood glucose monitoring were compared between the 2-year period before FreeStyle Libre initiation and the 2-year period after FreeStyle Libre initiation. RESULTS: A total of 47 patients with T1DM with recurrent DKA were included. FreeStyle Libre was associated with a reduction in the frequency of DKA events, with a mean of 0.2 (standard deviation [SD] 0.4) events per person during the 2 years after FreeStyle Libre initiation versus 2.9 (SD 0.9) during the 2 years before FreeStyle Libre initiation. Severity of DKA events was also reduced, with fewer severe (before mean 0.3 [SD 0.5] versus after 0.0 [SD 0.0]; p < 0.001) DKA events. A reduction in HbA1c (mean 7.4% [SD 0.5] after versus 9.9% [SD 1.2] before [p < 0.001]) and an increase in frequency of blood glucose testing (mean 8.1 scans/day [SD 1.7] after versus 2.2 finger-pricks/day [SD 0.7] at before [p < 0.001]) were also observed. CONCLUSION: FreeStyle Libre is associated with a reduction in the frequency and severity of DKA events, reduction in HbA1c, and increase in frequency of blood glucose testing in patients with T1DM and recurrent DKA. The use of such a glucose monitoring tool can help to reduce the burden of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with complications of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
15.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With this study, our aim was to quantify the relative risk (RR) of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes during the year 2020 and to assess whether it was associated with the regional incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths. METHODS: Multicenter cohort study based on data from the German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry. The monthly RR for ketoacidosis in 2020 was estimated from observed and expected rates in 3238 children with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Expected rates were derived from data from 2000 to 2019 by using a multivariable logistic trend regression model. The association between the regional incidence of COVID-19 and the rate of ketoacidosis was investigated by applying a log-binomial mixed-effects model to weekly data with Germany divided into 5 regions. RESULTS: The observed versus expected frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis was significantly higher from April to September and in December (mean adjusted RRs, 1.48-1.96). During the first half of 2020, each increase in the regional weekly incidence of COVID-19 by 50 cases or 1 death per 100 000 population was associated with an increase in the RR of diabetic ketoacidosis of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.77; P = .006) and 1.23 (1.14-1.32; P < .001), respectively. This association was no longer evident during the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the local severity of the pandemic rather than health policy measures appear to be the main reason for the increase in diabetic ketoacidosis and thus the delayed use of health care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Models, Statistical , Registries , Risk , Time Factors
16.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 146-148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234883

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most important metabolic emergency in children. Children mimic many syndromes with a combination of nonspecific symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many syndromes are triggered by changes in children's body conditions. Reporting specific cases can improve the diagnosis process. The present study reports an 18-month-old paediatric case of COVID-19 who presented ketoacidosis (DKA) symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: The case is an 18-month-old child with fever and diarrhoea from 3 days before, who did not respond to outpatient treatment. On the day of the visit, he suffered from deep and abdominal breathing and decreased level of consciousness and sugar levels at admission of 420 mg/dl. He was then admitted with the initial diagnosis of DKA and had a positive PCR test result for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the non-specific symptoms of COVID-19, general practitioners and paediatricians are recommended that special attention be paid to these symptoms, especially those that are similar to life-threatening syndromes. They also should not easily ignore these symptoms and follow up patients and their recovery status and, if patients do not recover, consider the risk of COVID-19 given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Diabetes Care ; 44(7): 1540-1546, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes without evidence of autoimmunity and the respective frequencies of ketoacidosis in children, adolescents, and young adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany compared with the previous decade. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on data from the German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry (DPV), we compared data from 715 children, adolescents, and young adults, newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between 1 March and 30 June 2020, with data from 5,428 children, adolescents, and young adults of the same periods from 2011 to 2019. Adjusted differences and relative risks (RRs) of negative ß-cell autoantibody test results and diabetic ketoacidosis were estimated using multivariable log-binomial regression analysis. An upper noninferiority test (margin 1%) was applied to evaluate whether the autoantibody-negativity rate in 2020 was not higher than that in 2011 to 2019. RESULTS: The estimated frequencies of autoantibody negativity in 2020 and 2011-2019 were 6.6% (95% CI 5.1-8.4) and 7.2% (95% CI 6.5-8.0), respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.68% (90% CI -2.07 to 0.71; P upper noninferiority = 0.023). The increase of the estimated frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar between autoantibody-negative and -positive type 1 diabetes (adjusted RRs 1.28 [95% CI 0.80-2.05] and 1.57 [1.41-1.75], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic leads to a significantly increased number of new cases with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults. In addition, autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes showed no particular susceptibility to ketoacidosis, neither before nor during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Diabetes Care ; 44(6): 1451-1453, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) on the incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unclear. It is unknown whether the coincidence of DKA noted in adult patients with type 2 diabetes is an issue for youth during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a large, urban children's hospital of pediatric subjects presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes between March and August of 2018 to 2020. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes in DKA dramatically increased in 2020 (9% in 2018, 3% in 2019, and 20% in 2020, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, youth with new-onset type 2 diabetes had a greater incidence of DKA at presentation than previously observed. Future studies should examine the impact of SARS-CoV2 exposure on the presentation of type 2 diabetes in all age-groups to inform better patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(7): 925-936, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and its acute complications. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes hospitalized during the first wave of the pandemic and the prevalence of new onset diabetes among patients with evidence of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: A single-center surveillance study included all patients with diabetes admitted to Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, in Egypt between May to August 2020. Data were collected to evaluate patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics as well as their outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were admitted during the study period. The mean age was 8.4 ± 3.8 years. Patients presented late to the emergency department with a mean delay of 3.05 ± 1.19 days from onset of symptoms. 34/36 patients presented in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 50% presenting in severe DKA. Almost 81% of the patients were newly diagnosed. During the study period, SARS-CoV-2 PCR was found positive in four patients, COVID Ig M antibodies were positive in another two patients; all were symptomatic requiring ICU admission. Four patients showed a picture suggestive of the multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C); cardiac affection was a constant feature. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic affected both the prevalence and severity of DKA among pediatric patients. The increased prevalence of severe DKA could be partly related to delayed hospital admission or the effect of COVID-19 in triggering DKA. Efforts should be done to continuously raise awareness about diabetes in children as well as the importance of seeking timely medical guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 669302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191679

ABSTRACT

Background: Overburdened healthcare systems during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic led to suboptimal chronic disease management, including that of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The pandemic also caused delayed detection of new-onset diabetes in children; this increased the risk and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We therefore investigated the frequency of new-onset pediatric T1DM and DKA in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared it to the same period in 2019. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study, including patients aged 1-14 years admitted with new-onset T1DM or DKA during the COVID-19 pandemic (March-June 2020) and the same period in 2019. We assessed factors including age, sex, anthropometric measures, nationality, duration of diabetes, diabetes management, HbA1c levels, glycemic control, cause of admission, blood gas levels, etiology of DKA, DKA complications, length of hospital stay, and COVID-19 test status. Result: During the lockdown, 106 children, compared with 154 in 2019, were admitted to 6 pediatric diabetes centers. Among the admissions, DKA was higher in 2020 than in 2019 (83% vs. 73%; P=0.05; risk ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.26), after adjusting for age and sex. DKA frequency among new-onset T1DM and HbA1c levels at diagnosis were higher in 2020 than in 2019 (26% vs. 13.4% [P=<0.001] and 12.1 ± 0.2 vs. 10.8 ± 0.25 [P<0.001], respectively). Females and older patients had a higher risk of DKA. Conclusion: The lockdown implemented in Saudi Arabia has significantly impacted children with T1DM and led to an increased DKA frequency, including children with new-onset T1DM, potentially owing to delayed presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Anthropometry , Blood Gas Analysis , Child , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Glycemic Control , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors
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