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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233332

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, although presenting less severe forms of the disease in children, seems to play a role in the development of other conditions, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). After the beginning of the pandemic, an increase in the number of T1DM pediatric patients was observed in several countries, thus leading to many questions about the complex relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and T1DM. Our study aimed to highlight possible correlations between SARS-CoV-2 serology and T1DM onset. Therefore, we performed an observational retrospective cohort study that included 158 children diagnosed with T1DM in the period April 2021-April 2022. The presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2 and T1DM-specific antibodies and other laboratory findings were assessed. In the group of patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 serology, a higher percentage had detectable IA-2A antibodies, more children were positive for all three islet autoantibodies determined (GADA, ICA, and IA-2A), and a higher mean HbA1c value was found. No difference existed between the two groups regarding DKA presence and severity. A lower C-peptide level was found in the patients presenting diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at T1DM onset. When compared to a group of patients diagnosed before the pandemic, an increased incidence of both DKA and severe DKA, as well as a higher age at diagnosis and higher levels of HbA1c were present in our study group. These findings have important implications for the ongoing monitoring and management of children with T1DM after the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the need for further research to better understand the complex relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and T1DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Humans , Autoantibodies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 146-148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231916

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most important metabolic emergency in children. Children mimic many syndromes with a combination of nonspecific symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many syndromes are triggered by changes in children's body conditions. Reporting specific cases can improve the diagnosis process. The present study reports an 18-month-old paediatric case of COVID-19 who presented ketoacidosis (DKA) symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: The case is an 18-month-old child with fever and diarrhoea from 3 days before, who did not respond to outpatient treatment. On the day of the visit, he suffered from deep and abdominal breathing and decreased level of consciousness and sugar levels at admission of 420 mg/dl. He was then admitted with the initial diagnosis of DKA and had a positive PCR test result for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the non-specific symptoms of COVID-19, general practitioners and paediatricians are recommended that special attention be paid to these symptoms, especially those that are similar to life-threatening syndromes. They also should not easily ignore these symptoms and follow up patients and their recovery status and, if patients do not recover, consider the risk of COVID-19 given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 25(7): 2012-2022, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259133

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate characteristics of people hospitalized with coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS), and to identify risk factors for mortality and intensive care admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with anonymized data from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists nationwide audit of hospital admissions with COVID-19 and diabetes, from start of pandemic to November 2021. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. DKA and HHS were adjudicated against national criteria. Age-adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 85 confirmed DKA cases, and 20 HHS, occurred among 4073 people (211 type 1 diabetes, 3748 type 2 diabetes, 114 unknown type) hospitalized with COVID-19. Mean (SD) age was 60 (18.2) years in DKA and 74 (11.8) years in HHS (p < .001). A higher proportion of patients with HHS than with DKA were of non-White ethnicity (71.4% vs 39.0% p = .038). Mortality in DKA was 36.8% (n = 57) and 3.8% (n = 26) in type 2 and type 1 diabetes respectively. Among people with type 2 diabetes and DKA, mortality was lower in insulin users compared with non-users [21.4% vs. 52.2%; age-adjusted odds ratio 0.13 (95% CI 0.03-0.60)]. Crude mortality was lower in DKA than HHS (25.9% vs. 65.0%, p = .001) and in statin users versus non-users (36.4% vs. 100%; p = .035) but these were not statistically significant after age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization with COVID-19 and adjudicated DKA is four times more common than HHS but both associate with substantial mortality. There is a strong association of previous insulin therapy with survival in type 2 diabetes-associated DKA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Hyperglycemia , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/complications , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Hospitalization , Insulin, Regular, Human , Insulin/therapeutic use , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Diabetes Care ; 46(5): 953-958, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolving impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the incidence and presentation of new-onset pediatric type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of youth with new-onset type 2 diabetes comparing the prepandemic period (1 January 2017-29 February 2020) with the first (1 March 2020-31 December 2020) and second pandemic year (1 January 2021-31 December 2021). RESULTS: The annualized incidence of type 2 diabetes increased nearly threefold during the pandemic versus prior, with a 61% increase in the 2nd versus 1st year. BMI increased during the pandemic versus prior (129% of 95th percentile vs. 141%, P = 0.02). In the 1st year, patients were younger (12.9 years vs. 14.8, P < 0.001), with higher incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis and/or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (20% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.02) versus prior. CONCLUSIONS: Providers should be aware of the escalating incidence of youth-onset type 2 diabetes to avoid delays in diagnosis and inform educational programs to combat the continued impact of the pandemic on health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Incidence , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis
7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(11): 786-794, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children was observed in various diabetes centres worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate trends in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of paediatric type 1 diabetes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify potential predictors of changes in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence during the pandemic. METHODS: For this international multicentre study, we used data from 13 national diabetes registries (Australia, Austria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, USA [Colorado], and Wales). The study population comprised 104 290 children and adolescents aged 6 months to younger than 18 years, who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2021. The observed diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence in 2020 and 2021 was compared to predictions based on trends over the pre-pandemic years 2006-19. Associations between changes in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence and the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures were examined with excess all-cause mortality in the whole population and the Stringency Index from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. FINDINGS: 87 228 children and adolescents were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 2006 and 2019, 8209 were diagnosed in 2020, and 8853 were diagnosed in 2021. From 2006 to 2019, diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was present in 23 775 (27·3%) of 87 228 individuals and the mean annual increase in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis in the total cohort from 2006 to 2019 was 1·6% (95% CI 1·3 to 1·9). The adjusted observed prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was 39·4% (95% CI 34·0 to 45·6) in 2020 and 38·9% (33·6 to 45·0) in 2021, significantly higher than the predicted prevalence of 32·5% (27·8 to 37·9) for 2020 and 33·0% (28·3 to 38·5) for 2021 (p<0·0001 for both years). The prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis was associated with the pandemic containment measures, with an estimated risk ratio of 1·037 (95% CI 1·024 to 1·051; p<0·0001) per ten-unit increase in the Stringency Index for 2020 and 1·028 (1·009 to 1·047; p=0·0033) for 2021, but was not significantly associated with excess all-cause mortality. INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a marked exacerbation of the pre-existing increase in diabetic ketoacidosis prevalence at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children. This finding highlights the need for early and timely diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, German Robert Koch Institute, German Diabetes Association, German Diabetes Foundation, Slovenian Research Agency, Welsh Government, Central Denmark Region, and Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Registries
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(12): 1248-1259, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059228

ABSTRACT

Importance: Presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains a risk. Following a 2011 systematic review, considerable additional articles have been published, and the review required updating. Objective: To evaluate factors associated with DKA at the onset of T1D among pediatric patients. Evidence Review: In this systematic review, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and article reference lists were searched using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome search strategy for primary research studies on DKA and T1D onset among individuals younger than 18 years that were published from January 2011 to November 2021. These studies were combined with a 2011 systematic review on the same topic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Findings: A total of 2565 articles were identified; 149 were included, along with 46 from the previous review (total 195 articles). Thirty-eight factors were identified and examined for their association with DKA at T1D onset. Factors associated with increased risk of DKA were younger age at T1D onset (<2 years vs ≥2 years; odds ratio [OR], 3.51; 95% CI, 2.85-4.32; P < .001), belonging to an ethnic minority population (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.74; P = .004), and family history of T1D (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.37-0.57; P < .001), consistent with the 2011 systematic review. Some factors that were not associated with DKA in the 2011 systematic review were associated with DKA in the present review (eg, delayed diagnosis: OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.72-3.01; P < .001). Additional factors associated with risk of DKA among patients with new-onset T1D included participation in screening programs (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.21-0.59; P < .001) and presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.76-3.06; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, age younger than 2 years at T1D onset, belonging to an ethnic minority population, delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis, and presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with increased risk of DKA. Factors associated with decreased risk of DKA included greater knowledge of key signs or symptoms of DKA, such as a family history of T1D or participation in screening programs. Future work should focus on identifying and implementing strategies related to these factors to reduce risk of DKA among new patients with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Minority Groups
9.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased prevalence and mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) globally. With limited access to specialised care, most patients with DKA in South Africa are managed at district hospital level. This study describes the profile of patients admitted to a district hospital in South Africa with DKA and COVID-19 and examines associated risk factors encountered. METHODS:  This was a case series of all patients presenting to a district hospital with DKA and COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and July 2021. Data extracted included patients' demographic profiles, biochemical results, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:  The median age of the 10 patients admitted during the study period was 39 years old (±12), six of whom were male. The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values on admission ranged from 9.7 to 13.8. Five of the patients had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Four of the known DM patients were on metformin only, and one was on biphasic insulin. Three patients had other pre-existing comorbidities, two patients with hypertension and one with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three patients demised, two of whom were hypoxic on admission. CONCLUSION:  Diabetic ketoacidosis appears more commonly in COVID-19 infected patients with type 2 DM and at a young age. Suboptimal glycaemic control was associated with DKA, and hypoxia was a strong predictor for mortality. Treatment inertia was evident in the known DM group, who were on monotherapy despite persistent hyperglycaemia. Greater vigilance is required to detect ketosis in type 2 DM and intensify therapy to improve glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Metformin , Adult , Biphasic Insulins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/therapeutic use , Hospitals, District , Humans , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 878634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997437

ABSTRACT

Aim/Hypothesis: To compare the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with the frequency of DKA during 2017-2019. Methods: Forty-seven pediatric diabetes centers caring for >90% of young people with diabetes in Italy recruited 4,237 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes between 2017 and 2020 in a longitudinal study. Four subperiods in 2020 were defined based on government-imposed containment measures for COVID-19, and the frequencies of DKA and severe DKA compared with the same periods in 2017-2019. Results: Overall, the frequency of DKA increased from 35.7% (95%CI, 33.5-36.9) in 2017-2019 to 39.6% (95%CI, 36.7-42.4) in 2020 (p=0.008), while the frequency of severe DKA increased from 10.4% in 2017-2019 (95%CI, 9.4-11.5) to 14.2% in 2020 (95%CI, 12.3-16.4, p<0.001). DKA and severe DKA increased during the early pandemic period by 10.4% (p=0.004) and 8% (p=0.002), respectively, and the increase continued throughout 2020. Immigrant background increased and high household income decreased the probability of presenting with DKA (OR: 1.55; 95%CI, 1.24-1.94; p<0.001 and OR: 0.60; 95 CI, 0.41-0.88; p=0.010, respectively). Conclusions/Interpretation: There was an increase in the frequency of DKA and severe DKA in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, with no apparent association with the severity of COVID-19 infection severity or containment measures. There has been a silent outbreak of DKA in children during the pandemic, and preventive action is required to prevent this phenomenon in the event of further generalized lockdowns or future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(11): 2071-2080, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985768

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are now seen as an integral part of therapy in type 2 diabetes to control not only blood glucose but to improve cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an uncommon but serious complication of type 2 diabetes, which has a high case fatality rate. The absolute risk of DKA in large, prospective randomized clinical trials in people with type 2 diabetes using SGLT2 inhibitors has been low, although the relative risk is higher in those assigned to SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo. In those without diabetes but prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors for heart failure or chronic kidney disease, the risk of DKA is similar to placebo. Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of DKA have also been reported in cases of COVID-19 hospitalizations. Consensus guidelines have recommended that SGLT2 inhibitors should be avoided in cases of serious illness and suggest they are not recommended for routine in-hospital use. However, recent data suggest potential beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in the setting of acute illness with COVID-19 with no increase in adverse events and low rates of DKA, which were non-severe. Given the low rates of DKA in cardiovascular outcome trials and in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for SGLT2 inhibitors not being re-initiated following discharge and their cardiovascular and kidney benefits, we believe the practice of routine 'sick day' guidance should be re-examined based on current evidence with a call for further research in this area. Furthermore, high-quality trials of initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people admitted to hospital with cardiovascular disease or kidney disease, and trials of continuation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people, with careful monitoring of DKA should be conducted. These should be further supplemented with large observational studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Acute Disease , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Policy , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969363

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes globally, which has also affected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aimed to determine the incidence of T1DM and the characteristics of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during the pandemic comparing it to pre-pandemic period. Materials and Methods: Data from patients <19 years with newly diagnosed T1DM between 1st January 2017 and 31st December 2021 from four regional centers in Vojvodina were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: In 2021, the highest incidence of T1DM in the last five years was recorded, 17.3/100,000. During the pandemic period (2020-2021), there were 99 new-onset T1DM, of which 42.4% presented in DKA, which is significantly higher than in the pre-pandemic period (34.1%). During the pandemic, symptom duration of T1DM lasted significantly longer than before the COVID-19 period. At the age of 10-14 years, the highest incidence of T1DM and COVID-19, the highest frequency rate of DKA, and severe DKA were observed. Conclusions: The pandemic is associated with a high incidence rate of T1DM, longer duration of symptoms of T1DM, a high frequency of DKA, and a severe DKA at diagnosis. Patients aged 10-14 years are a risk group for the occurrence of T1DM with severe clinical presentation. Additional studies are needed with a longer study period and in a wider geographical area, with data on exposure to COVID-19 infection, the permanence of new-onset T1DM, and the psychosocial impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Yugoslavia
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5112-5127, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925953

ABSTRACT

Viral infections may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), and recent reports suggest that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have increased the incidence of pediatric T1D and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE was conducted for articles published up to March 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare the relative risk of T1D and DKA among pediatric patients with T1D between the COVID-19 pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. We also compared glucose and HbA1c values in children who were newly diagnosed with T1D before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The global incidence rate of T1D in the 2019 period was 19.73 per 100 000 children and 32.39 per 100 000 in the 2020 period. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic, the number of worldwide pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 9.5%, 25%, and 19.5%, respectively. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, the median glucose, and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 6.43% and 6.42%, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA. Moreover, higher glucose and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
15.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 183-190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882247

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly become a global threaten since its emergence in the end of 2019. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection could also present with co-infection or secondary infection by other virus, bacteria, or fungi. Among them, mucormycosis is a rare but aggressive fungal disease and it mainly affects patients particularly with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We here did a comprehensive review of literature reporting COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis (CAM) cases, which have been reported worldwide. The prevalence is higher in India, Iran, and Egypt than other countries, particularly highest in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India. Poor diabetic control and the administration of systemic corticosteroids are the common precipitating factors causing mucormycosis in the severe and critical COVID-19 patients. In addition, COVID-19 itself may affect the immune system resulting in vulnerability of the patients to mucormycosis. Appropriate treatments of CAM include strict glycemic control, extensive surgical debridement, and antifungal therapy with amphotericin B formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(22): e176, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital visitation has become challenging during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of quarantine measures and fear of infection. Consequently, newly diagnosed patients may present with more severe diseases during the pandemic. The present study analyzed the differences in the initial clinical presentations of newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with T1D or T2D and aged < 18 years during 2018-2020 were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively from four academic centers in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Initial clinical data were compared between the pre-pandemic (2018-2019) and pandemic (2020) periods. RESULTS: In the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, 99 patients (41 T1D and 58 T2D patients) and 84 patients (51 T1D and 33 T2D patients) were identified, respectively. During the pandemic, the proportion of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) cases increased compared to the pre-pandemic period (21.2% during 2018-2019 vs. 38.1% in 2020; P = 0.012). In the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, initial pH was 7.32 ± 0.14 and 7.27 ± 0.15, respectively (P = 0.040), and HbA1c values were 11.18 ± 2.46% and 12.42 ± 2.87%, respectively (P = 0.002). During the pandemic, there was an increased risk of DKA in patients with T1D (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.62; P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the proportion of DKA in newly diagnosed patients with T1D increased and clinical parameters showed a deteriorating pattern. Increased awareness of pediatric diabetes, especially DKA, could facilitate visit to the hospital for an early diagnosis; thus, reducing the number of DKA cases during the pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
17.
Endocr Pract ; 28(8): 787-794, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is thought to contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and worse outcomes in patients with diabetes. This study compared the cumulative insulin dose required to achieve DKA resolution in the intensive care unit among patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19 infection versus without COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 100 patients-50 patients with COVID-19 in cohort 1 and 50 patients without COVID-19 in cohort 2-treated with insulin infusions for DKA at a tertiary care teaching hospital. The primary outcome was to compare the cumulative insulin dose required to achieve DKA resolution in each cohort. The secondary outcomes included time to DKA resolution, mean insulin infusion rate, and mean weight-based cumulative insulin infusion dose required to achieve DKA resolution. All endpoints were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: The mean cumulative insulin dose was 190.3 units in cohort 1 versus 116.4 units in cohort 2 (P = .0038). Patients receiving steroids had a mean time to DKA resolution of 35.9 hours in cohort 1 versus 15.6 hours in cohort 2 (P = .0014). In cohort 1 versus cohort 2, the mean insulin infusion rate was 7.1 units/hour versus 5.3 units/hour (P = .0025), whereas the mean weight-based cumulative insulin infusion dose was 2.1 units/kg versus 1.5 units/kg (P = .0437), respectively. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-infected patients required a significantly larger cumulative insulin dose, longer time to DKA resolution, higher insulin infusion rate, and higher weight-based insulin infusion dose to achieve DKA resolution versus non-COVID-19-infected patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
18.
R I Med J (2013) ; 105(5): 46-50, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency, severity of presentation and initial presentations of new onset diabetes mellitus (DM) in youth in Rhode Island during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same time frame in 2018 and 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of youth treated for new onset DM at Hasbro Children's Hospital between March 1 and May 15, 2020, compared to those diagnosed in the same period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Fewer youth were diagnosed with new onset DM in Spring 2020 and the percentage of youth with DKA at time of DM diagnosis was higher in Spring 2020 compared to prior years (p=0.048). Age, gender, and DKA complications did not differ by year. CONCLUSION: Nearly 50% fewer youth were diagnosed with DM at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to years prior, and those diagnosed with new onset DM in Spring 2020 were more likely to present with DKA. Delays in both initial health care evaluation and the recognition of DM symptoms may have contributed to the decline in overall DM diagnoses and the more severe presentations. Identification of DM symptoms is essential, especially during future surges of COVID-19 or other events that impact the healthcare system, to reduce the risk of DM complications including DKA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(7): 859-866, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), had a great impact on patients worldwide, including those with chronic diseases. We aim to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on presentation patterns of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Jordan, as an example a developing country with limited resources. METHODS: Medical charts were reviewed for patients presented with new-onset T1D to Jordan University hospital during the first year of pandemic and the preceding year. Categorical data were compared using Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. Continuous data were compared using the Independent Sample t-Test. RESULTS: A total of 137 children were diagnosed with T1D during the study period, with 60.6% of those children were diagnosed in the pre-pandemic year compared to 39.4% during the first year of pandemic, p-value=0.013. Percentage of patients diagnosed with DKA as first presentation of T1D during the pre-pandemic year was 34.9% compared to 51.9% during the pandemic year, p-value=0.049. Significant differences in family monthly income (p-value=0.006) and paternal education level (p-value=0.036) were found between children with DKA and those without DKA in the pre-pandemic year, but they were not significant during the pandemic year. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic had affected presentation pattern of newly diagnosed T1D patients, manifested by lower number of children diagnosed with T1D and higher percentage of DKA as first presentation compared to the preceding year. Health care services should be at utmost preparedness for possible future waves and other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
20.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(4): 433-438, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been posited during the COVID-19 pandemic, but data are conflicting. We aimed to determine trends in newly diagnosed T1D and severity of presentation at diagnosis for pediatric and adolescent patients during COVID-19 (2020) as compared to the previous year (2019) in a multi-center analysis across the United States. METHODS: This retrospective study from seven centers in the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI) included data on new onset T1D diagnosis and proportion in DKA at diagnosis from January 1 to December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic period compared to the prior year. RESULTS: Across seven sites, there were 1399 newly diagnosed T1D patients in 2020, compared to 1277 in 2019 (p = 0.007). A greater proportion of newly diagnosed patients presented in DKA in 2020 compared to 2019 (599/1399(42.8%) vs. 493/1277(38.6%), p = 0.02), with a higher proportion presenting with severe DKA (p = 0.01) as characterized by a pH <7.1 and/or bicarbonate of <5 mmol/L. Monthly data trends demonstrated a higher number of new T1D diagnoses over the spring and summer months (March to September) of 2020 compared to 2019 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase in newly diagnosed T1D and a greater proportion presenting in DKA at diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior year. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings with population level data and determine the long-term impact of COVID-19 on diabetes trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
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