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1.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): 1948-1955, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808494

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with type 1 diabetes remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: We examined United States trends in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the COVID-19 pandemic at 7 large US medical centers and factors associated with these trends. METHODS: We compared DKA events among children and adults with T1D during COVID-19 surge 1 (March-May 2020) and COVID-19 surge 2 (August-October 2020) to the same periods in 2019. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. RESULTS: We found no difference in the absolute number of T1D patients experiencing DKA in 2019 vs 2020. However, a higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black (NHB) individuals experienced DKA in 2019 than non-Hispanic White (NHW) individuals (44.6% vs 16.0%; P < .001), and this disparity persisted during the COVID-19 pandemic (48.6% vs 18.6%; P < .001). DKA was less common among patients on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or insulin pump in 2020 compared to 2019 (CGM: 13.2% vs 15.0%, P < .001; insulin pump: 8.0% vs 10.6%, P < .001). In contrast to annual DKA totals, a higher proportion of patients had DKA during COVID-19 surges 1 and 2 compared to the same months in 2019 (surge 1: 7.1% vs 5.4%, P < .001; surge 2: 6.6% vs 5.7%, P = .001). CONCLUSION: DKA frequency increased among T1D patients during COVID-19 surges with highest frequency among NHB patients. DKA was less common among patients using CGM or insulin pumps. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved strategies to prevent DKA among patients with T1D-not only under pandemic conditions, but under all conditions-especially among populations most affected by health inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Insulins , Adult , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792715

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is, next to obesity and asthma, the most common chronic disease in children in Poland. The results of T1D treatment strongly depend on the patient's compliance with therapeutic recommendations, which entails the use of necessary health services. Based on a retrospective analysis of the data on health services provided in 2016-2020 to over 15.5 thousand patients with T1D in Poland, we assessed the compliance of the actual model of treatment of T1D in children with the current guidelines. It was found that only about 50% of patients received the number of diabetes consultations corresponding to the recognized standards, with about 15% of children with T1D remaining outside the public healthcare system. In the case of many outpatient services (ophthalmological, neurological, mental health), the number of consultations was extremely low-one order of magnitude lower than in general population and dropped even lower in 2020. This shows that the health needs of children with T1D are not being met within the public healthcare system. The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant limitations in access to healthcare in Poland. Compared to the pre-pandemic period there was a significant decrease (-27% compared to 2019) in the number of hospitalizations, and a substantial increase (+22% compared to 2019) in the number of diabetic ketoacidoses (DKA) cases. The proportion of hospitalizations caused by DKA rose to 8.9% compared to 7.3% in 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Poland/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Endocr Pract ; 28(5): 479-485, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces a proinflammatory state that causes hyperglycemia and may precipitate diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients with known or new-onset diabetes. We examined the trends in new-onset diabetes and DKA prior to and following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This single-center retrospective observational study included pediatric patients (aged 0 to <18 years) hospitalized with new-onset type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes (T2D) before (March 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020) and after (March 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020) the pandemic onset. Demographic, anthropometrics, laboratory and clinical data, and outcomes were obtained. RESULTS: Among 615 children admitted with new-onset diabetes during the entire study period, 401 were admitted before the pandemic onset, and 214 were admitted after the pandemic onset. Children admitted with new-onset diabetes in the postpandemic period were significantly more likely to present with DKA (odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.52) than in the prepandemic phase. Children with DKA after the pandemic onset had higher lengths of hospitalization and were significantly more likely to experience severe DKA (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-3.52). A higher proportion of children with DKA admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit required oxygen support after the pandemic onset than before the pandemic onset (8.85% vs 1.92%). Most cases of T2D with DKA occurred following the onset of the pandemic (62.5%). CONCLUSION: A significant increase in T2D cases occurred following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic with a greater risk of DKA and severe ketoacidosis. Racial disparity was evident with a higher proportion of Black and American Indian children presenting with ketoacidosis following the pandemic onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Ketosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Ketosis/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 5(3): e00331, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis and associated factors in COVID-19-positive patients. BACKGROUND: High mortality amongst SARS-Cov2 patients may be attributed to diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: A total of 220 COVID-19 positive patients, hospitalized in North West General Hospital & Research Center, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan, from April to September 2020, were analysed using STATA 14. Patients with positive PCR were labelled as COVID-19 positive and were included in the study. Patients with a clinical picture of COVID-19 and negative PCR were excluded from the study. Those having ketonemia >0.6 and random blood glucose level >250mg/dl, while HCO3 (bicarbonate) ≤18, were labelled as diabetic ketoacidosis. The statistical significance level was set at p < .05. RESULTS: A total of 220 COVID-19 patients were admitted; 166 (75.4%) were male and 54 (24.5%) were female. The mean age in years of the patients was 55.95 (SD13.9). About 57.7% of patients had diabetes mellitus, and 15 (6.8%) patients developed diabetic ketoacidosis. Amongst those with DKA, 5 patients died during hospital admission. The use of steroids was significantly higher (p < .001) in the DKA group compared with non-DKA patients. Hypertension (103,46.8%) and fever (170,77.3%) were the most reported comorbidity and symptom respectively. CONCLUSION: The proportion of diabetes mellitus is high in patients with COVID-19. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a frequent complication in this group associated with in-hospital mortality. Steroid administration for COVID-19 should be balanced with strict glycemic control to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis and increase hospital survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Bicarbonates , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102371, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587939

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has claimed millions of lives since its first identification in December 2019. Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of adverse outcomes after COVID-19 infection, whereas infection itself can be associated with severe hyperglycemia, including hyperglycemic emergencies. While the accelerated vaccine development and rollout have considerably decreased morbidity and mortality with reasonable safety, there are emerging reports of worsening of hyperglycemia in response to vaccination, with possible shared pathophysiology with COVID-19 infection-related hyperglycemia. We hereby report two young patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) who presented with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) after receiving second doses of COVISHIELD (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) and COVAXIN (BBV152- inactivated whole virion) vaccines. Though a causal link cannot be established, post-vaccination immune response can potentially explain this transient worsening of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemic emergencies. We, hence report diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) following COVID-19 vaccination in T1DM. We suggest that people with diabetes, particularly patients with T1DM with inadequate glycemic control should ideally be closely monitored for hyperglycemia and ketonemia for at least 2 weeks after receiving vaccination for COVID 19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Adult , Female , Humans , India , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
8.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(1): 10-18, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and severity of ketoacidosis (DKA) at type 1 diabetes diagnosis during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Israel. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based study the product of a national collaboration of Israeli pediatric diabetes centers investigated the presentation of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. The frequencies of DKA and severe DKA observed during the COVID-19 period from March 15, 2020 (commencement of the first nationwide lockdown) until June 30, 2020 were compared with the same periods in 2019, 2018, and 2017 using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 period, DKA incidence was 58.2%, significantly higher than in 2019 (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.18 [95% CI, 1.31-3.60], P = 0.003); 2018 (aOR 2.05 [95% CI, 1.26-3.34], P = 0.004); and 2017 (aOR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.09-2.93], P = 0.022). The incidence of severe DKA was 19.9%, significantly higher than in 2018 (aOR, 2.49 [95% CI, 1.20-5.19], P = 0.015) and 2017 (aOR, 2.73 [95% CI, 1.28-5.82], P = 0.009). In 2020, admissions and duration of stay in the intensive care unit were higher than in previous years (P = 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, children aged 6-11 years had higher incidences of DKA (61.3% vs. 34.0%, 40.6%, and 45.1%, respectively, P = 0.012), and severe DKA (29.3% vs. 15.1%, 10.9%, and 5.9%, respectively, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The dramatic increase in DKA at presentation of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(3): e3506, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479398

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic might have a multifaceted effect on children with type 1 diabetes (T1D), either directly through infection itself or indirectly due to measures implemented by health authorities to control the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To compare data on children newly diagnosed with T1D in Kuwait during the COVID-19 pandemic to the pre-pandemic period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed data on children aged 12 years or less registered in the Childhood-Onset Diabetes electronic Registry (CODeR) in Kuwait. Data were incidence rate (IR), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and its severity and admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). RESULTS: The IR of T1D was 40.2 per 100,000 (95% CI; 36.0-44.8) during the COVID-19 pandemic period and was not statistically different from pre-pandemic. A higher proportion of incident T1D cases presented with DKA and were admitted to the PICU during the pandemic (52.2% vs. 37.8%: p Ë‚ 0.001, 19.8% vs. 10.9%; p = 0.002, respectively). The COVID-19 pandemic was positively associated with presentation of DKA and admission to PICU (AOR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.13-2.65; p = 0.012, AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.13-3.67; p = 0.018, respectively). Children of families with a positive history for diabetes were less likely to present with DKA and get admitted to the PICU during the COVID-19 pandemic (AOR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.74; p = 0.004, AOR = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.61; p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: High rates of DKA at presentation and admission to PICU in incident T1D cases during the COVID-19 pandemic warrant further studies and effective mitigation efforts through increasing awareness, early detection, and timely intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Kuwait/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Diabetes Care ; 44(12): 2645-2655, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463413

ABSTRACT

Certain chronic comorbidities, including diabetes, are highly prevalent in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality. Mild glucose elevations are also common in COVID-19 patients and associated with worse outcomes even in people without diabetes. Several studies have recently reported new-onset diabetes associated with COVID-19. The phenomenon of new-onset diabetes following admission to the hospital has been observed previously with other viral infections and acute illnesses. The precise mechanisms for new-onset diabetes in people with COVID-19 are not known, but it is likely that a number of complex interrelated processes are involved, including previously undiagnosed diabetes, stress hyperglycemia, steroid-induced hyperglycemia, and direct or indirect effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the ß-cell. There is an urgent need for research to help guide management pathways for these patients. In view of increased mortality in people with new-onset diabetes, hospital protocols should include efforts to recognize and manage acute hyperglycemia, including diabetic ketoacidosis, in people admitted to the hospital. Whether new-onset diabetes is likely to remain permanent is not known, as the long-term follow-up of these patients is limited. Prospective studies of metabolism in the setting of postacute COVID-19 will be required to understand the etiology, prognosis, and treatment opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Hyperglycemia , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Diabet Med ; 38(11): e14608, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273085

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Aim of this study is to report severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a possible cause for type 1 diabetes by providing an illustrative clinical case of a man aged 45 years presenting with antibody-negative diabetic ketoacidosis post-recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia and to explore the potential for SARS-CoV-2 to adhere to human islet cells. METHODS: Explanted human islet cells from three independent solid organ donors were incubated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor biding domain (RBD) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a control-GFP, with differential adherence established by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Flow cytometry revealed dose-dependent specific binding of RBD-GFP to islet cells when compared to control-GFP. CONCLUSIONS: Although a causal basis remains to be established, our case and in vitro data highlight a potential mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in antibody-negative type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Medwave ; 21(3): e8176, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256962

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The association of COVID-19 with diabetes mellitus is bidirectional. In one direction, diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. In the opposite direction, in patients with COVID-19 new-onset diabetes mellitus, severe diabetic ketoacidosis and severe metabolic complications have been described. CLINICAL CASE: This report describes two patients with diabetes mellitus who came to our hospital with ketoacidosis resulting from new-onset diabetes mellitus. We describe the clinical course and the management approach during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with metabolic complications such as severe diabetic ketoacidosis.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La relación entre la enfermedad por el coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) secundaria a SARS-CoV-2 y la diabetes mellitus es bidireccional. Por un lado, la diabetes mellitus se asocia con un mayor riesgo de COVID-19 grave. Por otro lado, en pacientes con COVID-19 se han observado diabetes mellitus de nueva aparición con presentaciones de cetoacidosis diabética y complicaciones metabólicas graves de dicha presentación. CASOS CLÍNICOS: En este informe, describimos a dos pacientes pediátricos con diabetes mellitus que acudieron a nuestro hospital con cetoacidosis diabética, de debut inicial. Describimos la evolución y el manejo clínico y terapéutico durante la pandemia de COVID-19. CONCLUSIÓN: La infección por COVID-19 puede precipitar complicaciones como cetoacidosis diabética severa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Brain Edema/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/etiology , Male
15.
Diabetes Care ; 44(6): 1451-1453, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) on the incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unclear. It is unknown whether the coincidence of DKA noted in adult patients with type 2 diabetes is an issue for youth during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a large, urban children's hospital of pediatric subjects presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes between March and August of 2018 to 2020. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes in DKA dramatically increased in 2020 (9% in 2018, 3% in 2019, and 20% in 2020, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, youth with new-onset type 2 diabetes had a greater incidence of DKA at presentation than previously observed. Future studies should examine the impact of SARS-CoV2 exposure on the presentation of type 2 diabetes in all age-groups to inform better patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Diabetes ; 13(8): 681-687, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for poor COVID-19 outcomes, but pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes are poorly represented in current studies. METHODS: T1D Exchange coordinated a US type 1 diabetes COVID-19 registry. Forty-six diabetes centers submitted pediatric cases for patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Associations between clinical factors and hospitalization were tested with Fisher's Exact Test. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for hospitalization. RESULTS: Data from 266 patients with previously established type 1 diabetes aged <19 years with COVID-19 were reported. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was the most common adverse outcome (n = 44, 72% of hospitalized patients). There were four hospitalizations for severe hypoglycemia, three hospitalizations requiring respiratory support (one of whom was intubated and mechanically ventilated), one case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 10 patients who were hospitalized for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 or diabetes. Hospitalized patients (n = 61) were more likely than nonhospitalized patients (n = 205) to have minority race/ethnicity (67% vs 39%, P < 0.001), public insurance (64% vs 41%, P < 0.001), higher A1c (11% [97 mmol/mol] vs 8.2% [66 mmol/mol], P < 0.001), and lower insulin pump and lower continuous glucose monitoring use (26% vs 54%, P < 0.001; 39% vs 75%, P < 0.001). Age and gender were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Higher A1c was significantly associated with hospitalization, with an odds ratio of 1.56 (1.34-1.84) after adjusting for age, gender, insurance, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher A1c remained the only predictor for hospitalization with COVID-19. Diabetic ketoacidosis is the primary concern among this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , United States , Up-Regulation
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 795-801, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 infection predisposes to diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA); whether glucocorticoids enhances this risk is unknown.We aimed to study the occurrence of DKA after initiating glucocorticoids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) and moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and identify predictors for it. METHODS: Patients with T2DM and moderate or severe COVID-19 infection were prospectively observed for development of new-onset DKA for one week following initiation of parenteral dexamethasone. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between those who developed DKA (Group A) and those who didnot (Group B). Logistic regression was done to identify independent risk-factors predicting DKA; ROC-curve analysis to determine cut-offs for the parameters in predicting DKA. RESULTS: Amongst 302 patients screened, n = 196 were finally included, of whom 13.2% (n = 26,Group A) developed DKA. Patients in Group A were younger, had lower BMI, increased severity of COVID-19 infection, higher HbA1c%, CRP, IL-6, D-dimer and procalcitonin at admission (pall < 0.02). Further, admission BMI (OR: 0.43, CI: 0.27-0.69), HbA1c % (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.16-2.43) and serum IL-6 (OR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03) emerged as independent predictors for DKA. Out of these, IL-6 levels had the highest AUROC (0.93, CI: 0.89-0.98) with a cut-off of 50.95 pg/ml yielding a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 85.2% in predicting DKA. CONCLUSION: There is significant incidence of new-onset DKA following parenteral glucocorticoids in T2DM patients with COVID-19, especially in those with BMI <25.56 kg/m2, HbA1c% >8.35% and IL-6 levels >50.95 pg/ml at admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infusions, Parenteral , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 26(4): 167-175, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2020 the WHO announced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Lockdown restrictions, compromised access to medical care and fear of potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 have forced patients with non-COVID-19 illnesses such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) to stay home. This situation can lead to delay in T1D diagnosis and insulin treatment resulting in rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and therefore increased risk of complications and death.  . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of DKA at the onset of T1D in children diagnosed in our department during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from March 2020 till May 2020 in comparison to corresponding period of the previous year. . MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data of children with newly diagnosed T1D. DKA was defined according to ISPAD guidelines. . RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 34 children in group 2020 and 52 in group 2019 with an average age 9.90 ±4.9 vs. 9.59±4.7 years with mean HbA1c 12.9 ±2.4 vs. 11.5 ±2.2%, respectively. The incidence of DKA was higher by 12% in group 2020 vs. 2019 (52.94% vs 40.38%; p = 0.276).  Regarding the DKA severity (2020 vs. 2019) 32.35% vs. 11.54% were severe (p = 0.026), 17.65 vs. 13% were moderate (p = 0.759), and 2.94 vs. 15.38% were mild (p = 0.081). None of the analyzed patients were COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown changes in society and health care system, the DKA rate has increased by 12 percentage points with more severe cases noted in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Regular education of the whole society about the symptoms of diabetes could contribute to faster diagnosis of T1D and reduction of DKA prevalence. .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quarantine/trends , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 2039-2041, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute onset diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can be precipitated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with no history of diabetes. However, data regarding the follow-up of these individuals are scarce. METHODS: Three patients (data of two patients already published) with acute onset diabetes and DKA, precipitated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), were followed for 14 weeks to assess the behavior of the diabetes. Detailed history, anthropometry, laboratory investigations, imaging studies, clinical course and outcomes were documented. RESULTS: Three individuals developed symptoms suggestive of SARS CoV-2 infection. After a few days, they were detected to have COVID-19 pneumonia, based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and chest imaging. In the meantime, they also developed acute onset diabetes and DKA, which were precipitated by COVID-19. They responded well to treatment, including intravenous fluids and insulin. After around one week, they were transitioned to multiple shots of subcutaneous insulin. After about 4-6 weeks, their insulin requirement diminished and oral antihyperglycemic drugs were initiated. At the last follow-up (14 months), they had controlled glycemia with oral antihyperglycemic medicines. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 can induce acute onset diabetes and DKA in some individuals with no history of diabetes. These features resemble type 1 diabetes. However, after 4-6 weeks, their requirement for exogenous insulin diminishes and respond to oral antihyperglycemic medications. Long term follow up is required to further understand the type of diabetes induced by SARS CoV-2 infection in these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Glutamate Decarboxylase/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
20.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020193, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058720

ABSTRACT

Reorganization of healthcare resources due to COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unintentional neglect of essential care, especially for paediatric emergencies. This phenomenon has been observed also for type 1 diabetes patients at onset, and surveys from different countries have shown an increased number of diabetic ketoacidosis during lock-down period. We report the case of two patients admitted late at our emergency care service for type-1 diabetes at onset with ketoacidosis, for reasons related to COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Case report 1: A 5 years old boy, presented with a severe diabetic ketoacidosis, requiring admission in Intensive Care Unit, prolonged intravenous insulin infusion and enteral nutrion via nasogastric tube. Case report 2:  A 10 years old girl presented in the emergency department with a history respiratory distress, due to Kussmaul's breathing, and severe dehydration. Laboratory findings were consistent with a diagnosis of moderate diabetic ketoacidosis. We have further analyzed the experience of our Centre regarding new onset type 1 diabetes patients during lock-down period: we observed a reduction of admissions for type 1 diabetes onset during lock-down period compared to same period of 2019, with a higher prevalence of moderate and severe diabetic ketoacidosis. We conclude highlighting the upcoming necessity, due to the emerging of a 'second wave' of the pandemic, that public opinion and healthcare practitioners provide correct information regarding access to paediatric services, in particular for children with newly onset symptoms, in order to avoid late access to emergency department in critical situations and to prevent avoidable morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Male
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