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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0081621, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526453

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-PCRs (RT-PCRs) targeting SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) mutations have been developed to simplify their tracking. We evaluated an assay targeting E484K/N501Y to identify B.1.351/P1. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) confirmed only 72 (59.02%) of 122 consecutive RT-PCR P.1/B.1.351 candidates. Prescreening RT-PCRs must target a wider set of mutations, updated from WGS data from emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Whole Genome Sequencing
3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(1): 34-44, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) accounts for a large burden of illness in Indonesia. However, epidemiology of SARI in tertiary hospitals in Indonesia is unknown. This study sought to assess the burden, clinical characteristics, and etiologies of SARI and concordance of clinical diagnosis with confirmed etiology. METHODS: Data and samples were collected from subjects presenting with SARI as part of the acute febrile Illness requiring hospitalization study (AFIRE). In tertiary hospitals, clinical diagnosis was ascertained from chart review. Samples were analyzed to determine the "true" etiology of SARI at hospitals and Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Diseases (INA-RESPOND) laboratory. Distribution and characteristics of SARI by true etiology and accuracy of clinical diagnosis were assessed. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty of 1464 AFIRE subjects presented with SARI; etiology was identified in 242 (57.6%), including 121 (28.8%) viruses and bacteria associated with systemic infections, 70 (16.7%) respiratory bacteria and viruses other than influenza virus, and 51 (12.1%) influenza virus cases. None of these influenza patients were accurately diagnosed as having influenza during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza was misdiagnosed among all patients presenting with SARI to Indonesian tertiary hospitals in the AFIRE study. Diagnostic approaches and empiric management should be guided by known epidemiology. Public health strategies to address the high burden of influenza should include broad implementation of SARI screening, vaccination programs, clinician education and awareness campaigns, improved diagnostic capacity, and support for effective point-of-care tests.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Tract Infections , Diagnostic Errors , Hospitalization , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Infant , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
4.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 316, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overlap with those of other disorders, especially cardiovascular disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein describe a 58-year-old woman who presented with syncopal episodes and dyspnea on exertion with a left atrial (LA) mass, scheduled for surgical removal and mitral valve replacement. Nearly 3 months later, the patient developed dyspnea, fever, and a sore throat, resulting in hospital admission with suspected COVID-19. During the diagnostic evaluation, a larger LA mass was detected. The mass seemed to be a COVID-19-induced organized thrombus with prosthetic mitral valve malfunction. Resection was, therefore, planned. An immunohistochemistry study revealed a liposarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: The unusual early recurrence of liposarcomas and the misdiagnosis with COVID-19-induced thrombosis are the hallmark of the present case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Heart Atria/surgery , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis
6.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 63: 461.e1-461.e5, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454027

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old man was scheduled for the robotic resection of a 21×16 × 30 mm thymic nodule incidentally detected by a computed tomography scan (CT) for thoracic trauma after a domestic accident. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan confirmed a low [18F]-FDG uptake (SUVmax = 1,9). During the surgery, the mass showed to be a saccular aneurysm of the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV). A complete tangential resection of the aneurysm, with the use of EndoGIA stapler (Covidien® Endo GIA™) at its origin, was performed. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and postoperative CT with contrast administration confirmed the patency of the vein.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm/surgery , Brachiocephalic Veins/surgery , Positron-Emission Tomography , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Surgical Stapling , Thymoma/diagnostic imaging , Thymus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vascular System Injuries/surgery , Aged , Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Brachiocephalic Veins/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome , Vascular System Injuries/diagnostic imaging
10.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 54: 151807, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356125

ABSTRACT

Digital pathology has become an integral part of pathology education in recent years, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, for its potential utility as a teaching tool that augments the traditional 1-to-1 sign-out experience. Herein, we evaluate the utility of whole slide imaging (WSI) in reducing diagnostic errors in pigmented cutaneous lesions by pathology fellows without subspecialty training in dermatopathology. Ten cases of 4 pigmented cutaneous lesions commonly encountered by general pathologists were selected. Corresponding whole slide images were distributed to our fellows, along with two sets of online surveys, each composed of 10 multiple-choice questions with 4 answers. Identical cases were used for both surveys to minimize variability in trainees' scores depending on the perceived level of difficulty, with the second set being distributed after random shuffling. Brief image-based teaching slides as self-assessment tool were provided to trainees between each survey. Pre- and post-self-assessment scores were analyzed. 61% (17/28) and 39% (11/28) of fellows completed the first and second surveys, respectively. The mean score in the first survey was 5.2/10. The mean score in the second survey following self-assessment increased to 7.2/10. 64% (7/11) of trainees showed an improvement in their scores, with 1 trainee improving his/her score by 8 points. No fellow scored less post-self-assessment than on the initial assessment. The difference in individual scores between two surveys was statistically significant (p = 0.003). Our study demonstrates the utility of WSI-based self-assessment learning as a source of improving diagnostic skills of pathology trainees in a short period of time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Competence , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Pathology, Clinical/education , Skin Diseases/pathology , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Pathology, Clinical/methods , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , United States
11.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 8(4): 525-531, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced strains in the diagnostic process through uncertainty in diagnosis, changes to usual clinical processes, and introduction of a unique social context of altered health care delivery and fear of the medical environment. These challenges created a context ripe for diagnostic error involving both systems and cognitive factors. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a series of three pediatric cases presenting to care during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic that highlight the heightened potential for diagnostic errors in the pandemic context with particular focus on the interplay of systems and cognitive factors leading to delayed and missed diagnoses. These cases illustrate the particular power of availability bias, diagnostic momentum, and premature closure in the diagnostic process. CONCLUSIONS: Through integrated commentary and a fishbone analysis of the cognitive and systems factors at play, these three cases emphasize the specific influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Bias , Child , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 140-143, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340555

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is significant. The vast majority of COVID-19 patients spend their quarantine at home in a self-isolation condition. The occurrence of Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a dangerous event that needs prompt diagnosis and management with time-dependent recanalization outcomes. We present a case series of three COVID-19 patients who suffered from ALI that occurred during home self-isolation, and that were diagnosed and treated with a significant time-delay due to COVID-19 social implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Embolectomy , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(6): 581-588, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330387

ABSTRACT

The ratio of COVID-19-attributable deaths versus "true" COVID-19 deaths depends on the synchronicity of the epidemic wave with population mortality; duration of test positivity, diagnostic time window, and testing practices close to and at death; infection prevalence; the extent of diagnosing without testing documentation; and the ratio of overall (all-cause) population mortality rate and infection fatality rate. A nomogram is offered to assess the potential extent of over- and under-counting in different situations. COVID-19 deaths were apparently under-counted early in the pandemic and continue to be under-counted in several countries, especially in Africa, while over-counting probably currently exists for several other countries, especially those with intensive testing and high sensitization and/or incentives for COVID-19 diagnoses. Death attribution in a syndemic like COVID-19 needs great caution. Finally, excess death estimates are subject to substantial annual variability and include also indirect effects of the pandemic and the effects of measures taken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 167-174, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316471

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of people around the world. Fortunately, sufficient vaccines are now available. Local reactions with ipsilateral lymphadenopathy are among the most common side effects. We investigated the impact of lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination on the value of ultrasound in tumour patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma were included who underwent lymph node excision and received COVID-19 vaccination within 6 weeks before surgery. The consistency of the preoperative ultrasound findings with the histopathologic findings was investigated. RESULTS: Eight patients were included (two Merkel cell carcinoma and six melanoma patients) who underwent lymph node excision between 16th April 2021 and 19th May 2021 and had previously received COVID-19 vaccination. In three of the eight patients (one Merkel cell carcinoma and two melanoma patients), lymph node metastases were erroneously diagnosed preoperatively during tumour follow-up with physical examination, ultrasound, and or fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In these three patients, the suspected lymph node metastases were located in the left axilla after COVID-19 vaccination in the left upper arm, which resulted in selective lymph node removal in two patients and complete lymphadenectomy in one patient. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy is expected to be observed much more frequently in the near future because of increasing vaccination rates. This cause of lymphadenopathy, which may in ultrasound as well as in FDG PET/CT resemble lymph node metastases, must be considered, especially in oncologic patients undergoing tumour follow-up. In addition, COVID-19 vaccination should be given as far away as possible from an underlying primary on the contralateral side to avoid oncologic misdiagnosis followed by malpractice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/secondary , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Melanoma/secondary , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Germany , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
15.
BJS Open ; 5(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has brought an unprecedented challenge to healthcare services. The authors' COVID-adapted pathway for suspected bowel cancer combines two quantitative faecal immunochemical tests (qFITs) with a standard CT scan with oral preparation (CT mini-prep). The aim of this study was to estimate the degree of risk mitigation and residual risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer. METHOD: Decision-tree models were developed using a combination of data from the COVID-adapted pathway (April-May 2020), a local audit of qFIT for symptomatic patients performed since 2018, relevant data (prevalence of colorectal cancer and sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tools) obtained from literature and a local cancer data set, and expert opinion for any missing data. The considered diagnostic scenarios included: single qFIT; two qFITs; single qFIT and CT mini-prep; two qFITs and CT mini-prep (enriched pathway). These were compared to the standard diagnostic pathway (colonoscopy or CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC)). RESULTS: The COVID-adapted pathway included 422 patients, whereas the audit of qFIT included more than 5000 patients. The risk of missing a colorectal cancer, if present, was estimated as high as 20.2 per cent with use of a single qFIT as a triage test. Using both a second qFIT and a CT mini-prep as add-on tests reduced the risk of missed cancer to 6.49 per cent. The trade-off was an increased rate of colonoscopy or CTVC, from 287 for a single qFIT to 418 for the double qFIT and CT mini-prep combination, per 1000 patients. CONCLUSION: Triage using qFIT alone could lead to a high rate of missed cancers. This may be reduced using CT mini-prep as an add-on test for triage to colonoscopy or CTVC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Occult Blood , Triage/organization & administration , Clinical Audit , Colonoscopy , Decision Trees , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Scotland , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(2): 020713, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290399

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Following a pandemic, laboratory medicine is vulnerable to laboratory errors due to the stressful and high workloads. We aimed to examine how laboratory errors may arise from factors, e.g., flexible working order, staff displacement, changes in the number of tests, and samples will reflect on the total test process (TTP) during the pandemic period. Materials and methods: In 12 months, 6 months before and during the pandemic, laboratory errors were assessed via quality indicators (QIs) related to TTP phases. QIs were grouped as pre-, intra- and postanalytical. The results of QIs were expressed in defect percentages and sigma, evaluated with 3 levels of performance quality: 25th, 50th and 75th percentile values. Results: When the pre- and during pandemic periods were compared, the sigma value of the samples not received was significantly lower in pre-pandemic group than during pandemic group (4.7σ vs. 5.4σ, P = 0.003). The sigma values of samples transported inappropriately and haemolysed samples were significantly higher in pre-pandemic period than during pandemic (5.0σ vs. 4.9σ, 4.3σ vs. 4.1σ; P = 0.046 and P = 0.044, respectively). Sigma value of tests with inappropriate IQC performances was lower during pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period (3.3σ vs. 3.2σ, P = 0.081). Sigma value of the reports delivered outside the specified time was higher during pandemic than pre-pandemic period (3.0σ vs. 3.1σ, P = 0.030). Conclusion: In all TTP phases, some quality indicators improved while others regressed during the pandemic period. It was observed that preanalytical phase was affected more by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Laboratories, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quality Indicators, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Quality Indicators, Health Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey/epidemiology
17.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 129-133, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282843

ABSTRACT

We describe a child with acute fever and abdominal pain who developed rash and edema of extremities. Blood test revealed thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, positive dengue-IgM, and hypoalbuminemia with elevated procalcitonin. Right pleural effusion revealed from chest x-ray. Diagnosed as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) grade 1, however, at 7th day of illness, altered mental status, respiratory and circulatory failure occurred. Laboratory examination showed marked thrombocytopenia, transaminitis, metabolic acidosis, elevated D-dimer, decrease fibrinogen, and elevated cardiac marker (troponin I and CKMB). The patient then developed catecholamine-resistant shock and did not survive after 48 hours. Although rapid test of SARS CoV-2 infection was negative, rapid deterioration with some unusual clinical feature suggest multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This case raises an awareness of MIS-C that clinical features resemble dengue infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diagnostic Errors/mortality , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Child , Critical Care , Dengue Virus , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(2): 020710, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278714

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed several challenges to clinical laboratories across the globe. Amidst the outbreak, errors occurring in the preanalytical phase of sample collection, transport and processing, can further lead to undesirable clinical consequences. Thus, this study was designed with the following objectives: (i) to determine and compare the blood specimen rejection rate of a clinical laboratory and (ii) to characterise and compare the types of preanalytical errors between the pre-pandemic and the pandemic phases. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a trauma-care hospital, presently converted to COVID-19 care centre. Data was collected from (i) pre-pandemic phase: 1st October 2019 to 23rd March 2020 and (ii) pandemic phase: 24th March to 31st October 2020. Blood specimen rejection rate was calculated as the proportion of blood collection tubes with preanalytical errors out of the total number received, expressed as percentage. Results: Total of 107,716 blood specimens were screened of which 43,396 (40.3%) were received during the pandemic. The blood specimen rejection rate during the pandemic was significantly higher than the pre-pandemic phase (3.0% versus 1.1%; P < 0.001). Clotted samples were the commonest source of preanalytical errors in both phases. There was a significant increase in the improperly labelled samples (P < 0.001) and samples with insufficient volume (P < 0.001), whereas, a significant decline in samples with inadequate sample-anticoagulant ratio and haemolysed samples (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In the ongoing pandemic, preanalytical errors and resultant blood specimen rejection rate in the clinical laboratory have significantly increased due to changed logistics. The study highlights the need for corrective steps at various levels to reduce preanalytical errors in order to optimise patient care and resource utilisation.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pre-Analytical Phase , Blood Specimen Collection/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211024431, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268186

ABSTRACT

The term "COVID arm" has been coined to describe a harmless delayed hypersensitivity reaction occurring approximately a week after administration of the novel SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. It appears as a red, warm, pruritic, indurated, or swollen area in the vicinity of the vaccine site. These reactions, especially if accompanied by systemic symptoms, have been mistaken for cellulitis. We report 3 cases of COVID arm, 2 of which were mistaken for cellulitis. Distinguishing features of COVID arm from cellulitis include pruritus as a common finding, occurrence approximately a week after vaccination, a lack of progression of symptoms, rapid response to topical steroids, and/or spontaneous resolution usually over 4 to 5 days.Practice Points:• Patients receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may experience delayed hypersensitivity reactions characterized by erythema, swelling, and itching occurring near the vaccination site (COVID arm), approximately a week after vaccination.• Clinicians can distinguish SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactions from cellulitis by the time of onset (approximately a week vs 5 days), by the lack of progression of symptoms, and resolution over 4 to 5 days.• Severe cases of COVID arm may be treated with topical steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Vaccines , Arm , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cellulitis/chemically induced , Cellulitis/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/chemically induced , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
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