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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24266, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transition to digital pathology usually takes months or years to be completed. We were familiarizing ourselves with digital pathology solutions at the time when the COVID-19 outbreak forced us to embark on an abrupt transition to digital pathology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe how the abrupt transition to digital pathology might affect the quality of diagnoses, model possible causes by probabilistic modeling, and qualitatively gauge the perception of this abrupt transition. METHODS: A total of 17 pathologists and residents participated in this study; these participants reviewed 25 additional test cases from the archives and completed a final psychologic survey. For each case, participants performed several different diagnostic tasks, and their results were recorded and compared with the original diagnoses performed using the gold standard method (ie, conventional microscopy). We performed Bayesian data analysis with probabilistic modeling. RESULTS: The overall analysis, comprising 1345 different items, resulted in a 9% (117/1345) error rate in using digital slides. The task of differentiating a neoplastic process from a nonneoplastic one accounted for an error rate of 10.7% (42/392), whereas the distinction of a malignant process from a benign one accounted for an error rate of 4.2% (11/258). Apart from residents, senior pathologists generated most discrepancies (7.9%, 13/164). Our model showed that these differences among career levels persisted even after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are in line with previous findings, emphasizing that the duration of transition (ie, lengthy or abrupt) might not influence the diagnostic performance. Moreover, our findings highlight that senior pathologists may be limited by a digital gap, which may negatively affect their performance with digital pathology. These results can guide the process of digital transition in the field of pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Diagnostic Imaging/standards , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/standards , Pathology, Clinical/methods , Pathology, Clinical/standards , Bayes Theorem , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Microscopy , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(3): 527-528, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403390
3.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(12): 325-328, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and practicality of ultraviolet (UV) germicidal irradiation of the inner bore of a computed tomography (CT) gantry as a means of viral decontamination. METHOD: A UV lamp (PADNUT 38 W, 253 nm UV-C light tube) and UV-C dosimeter (GENERAL UV-C Digital Light Meter No. UV512C) were used to measure irradiance throughout the inner bore of a CT scanner gantry. Irradiance (units µW/cm2 ) was related to the time required to achieve 6-log viral kill (10-6 survival fraction). RESULTS: A warm-up time of ~120 s was required for the lamp to reach stable irradiance. Irradiance at the scan plane (z = 0 cm) of the CT scanner was 580.9 µW/cm2 , reducing to ~350 µW/cm2 at z = ±20 cm toward the front or back of the gantry. The angular distribution of irradiation was uniform within 10% coefficient of variation. A conservative estimate suggests at least 6-log kill (survival fraction ≤ 10-6 ) of viral RNA within ±20 cm of the scan plane with an irradiation time of 120 s from cold start. More conservatively, running the lamp for 180 s (3 min) or 300 s (5 min) from cold start is estimated to yield survival fraction <<10-7 survival fraction within ±20 cm of the scan plane. CONCLUSION: Ultraviolet irradiation of the inner bore of the CT gantry can be achieved with a simple UV-C lamp attached to the CT couch. Such practice could augment manual wipe-down procedures, improve safety for CT technologists or housekeeping staff, and could potentially reduce turnover time between scanning sessions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Calibration , Decontamination/instrumentation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Infection Control/instrumentation , RNA, Viral/radiation effects , Radiometry , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays
4.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1127): 20210753, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379813

ABSTRACT

Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare condition. It can be traumatic or non-traumatic. Most common causes are septicemia, coagulopathy or bleeding diathesis, and underlying neoplasms. Other reported less common causes of AH are COVID-19 and neonatal stress. Clinical diagnosis of AH is challenging due to its non-specific presentation and occurrence in the setting of acute medical illness. Therefore, most cases are diagnosed incidentally on imaging. Having high clinical suspicion in the proper clinical setting for AH is crucial to avoid life-threatening adrenal insufficiency that occurs in 16-50% of patients with bilateral AH. We discuss the clinical situations that predispose to AH, review the imaging features on different imaging modalities, highlight a variety of clinical cases, imaging features that should be concerning for an underlying neoplasm, and outline the potential role of interventional radiology in management of AH.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Gland Diseases/physiopathology , Adrenal Glands/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Glands/physiopathology , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Humans
5.
Radiology ; 302(2): 319-325, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360579

ABSTRACT

This case series reports six patients (four men and two women; median age, 38 years; interquartile range, 26-48 years) who presented with vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis beginning 3-26 days after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine for COVID-19. The patients were admitted to a general hospital between 9 and 31 days after the first dose. All patients had strongly detected antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies and severe thrombosis. Laboratory features included thrombocytopenia and elevated d-dimer levels. Thrombotic events were predominantly venous; two patients had arterial or mixed arterial and venous thrombosis. All patients recovered after receiving intravenous immunoglobulin and nonheparin-based anticoagulation. © RSNA, 2021 An earlier incorrect version appeared online. This article was corrected on August 18, 2021.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
7.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(6): 1076-1078, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230231

ABSTRACT

It seems paradoxical that facts, data and science are still considered controversial despite the harrowing death of a multitude of people from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an unparalleled health care crisis of our lifetime. In addition, while scientists are desperately attempting to produce a vaccine for COVID-19, a large segment of the populace still believes in conspiracies related to vaccines. Therefore, it is not surprising that the diagnosis of abusive head trauma (AHT) faces similar challenges - the difference being that AHT challenges are mostly in the realms of law courts rather than actual clinical management of these infants. Against this backdrop, the Child Abuse Imaging Committee of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) collaborated with other leading experts to develop the consensus statement on AHT. This consensus statement has had a significant impact since its publication. It is now endorsed by 17 multinational, multidisciplinary organizations. The consensus statement has helped educate the diverse stakeholders of AHT and has helped further our understanding of AHT and the issues related to it. This could serve as the template for developing future consensus documents.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse/diagnosis , Consensus , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pediatrics , Radiology , Societies, Medical
8.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(9): 1051-1061, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215666

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Pathology practices have begun integrating digital pathology tools into their routine workflow. During 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged as a pandemic, causing a global health crisis that significantly affected the world population in several areas, including medical practice, and pathology was no exception. OBJECTIVE.­: To summarize our experience in implementing digital pathology for remote primary diagnosis, education, and research during this pandemic. DESIGN.­: We surveyed our pathologists (all subspecialized) and trainees to gather information about their use of digital pathology tools before and during the pandemic. Quality assurance and slide distribution data were also examined. RESULTS.­: During the pandemic, the widespread use of digital tools in our institution allowed a smooth transition of most clinical and academic activities into remote with no major disruptions. The number of pathologists using whole slide imaging (WSI) for primary diagnosis increased from 20 (62.5%) to 29 (90.6%) of a total of 32 pathologists, excluding renal pathology and hematopathology, during the pandemic. Furthermore, the number of pathologists exclusively using whole slide imaging for primary diagnosis also increased from 2 (6.3%) to 5 (15.6%) during the pandemic. In 35 (100%) survey responses from attending pathologists, 21 (60%) reported using whole slide imaging for remote primary diagnosis following the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services waiver. Of these 21 pathologists, 18 (86%) responded that if allowed, they will continue using whole slide imaging for remote primary diagnosis after the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pandemic served as a catalyst to pathologists adopting a digital workflow into their daily practice and realizing the logistic and technical advantages of such tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Pandemics , Pathology, Clinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Telepathology/methods , Academic Medical Centers , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Diagnostic Imaging/trends , Histological Techniques/instrumentation , Histological Techniques/methods , Histological Techniques/trends , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/trends , Information Storage and Retrieval , Ohio , Pathology Department, Hospital , Pathology, Clinical/education , Pathology, Clinical/instrumentation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telepathology/instrumentation , Telepathology/trends , Workflow
9.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1127): 20210149, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature to describe outcomes associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings among adult COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using PubMed and Embase databases. We included all studies reporting abnormal neuroimaging findings among hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 and outcomes. Data elements including patient demographics, neuroimaging findings, acuity of neurological symptoms and/or imaging findings relative to COVID-19 onset (acute, subacute, chronic), and patient outcomes were recorded and summarized. RESULTS: After review of 775 unique articles, a total of 39 studies comprising 884 COVID-19 patients ≥ 18 years of age with abnormal neuroimaging findings and reported outcomes were included in our analysis. Ischemic stroke was the most common neuroimaging finding reported (49.3%, 436/884) among patients with mortality outcomes data. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) had the highest all-cause mortality (49.7%, 71/143), followed by patients with imaging features consistent with leukoencephalopathy (38.5%, 5/13), and ischemic stroke (30%, 131/436). There was no mortality reported among COVID-19 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis without necrosis (0%, 0/8) and leptomeningeal enhancement alone (0%, 0/12). Stroke was a common acute or subacute neuroimaging finding, while leukoencephalopathy was a common chronic finding. CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings, those with ICH had the highest all-cause mortality; however, high mortality rates were also seen among COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke in the acute/subacute period and leukoencephalopathy in the chronic period. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Specific abnormal neuroimaging findings may portend differential mortality outcomes, providing a potential prognostic marker for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Inpatients , Neuroimaging/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25230, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180669

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Pediatric cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. This meta-analysis was aimed at describing the clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of children with COVID-19 based on published data of pediatric COVID-19 cases.Search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, Science Direct, and Google Scholar for articles published until December 14, 2020, that described the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of children with COVID-19. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to report pooled results.Clinical data from 2874 children with COVID-19 from 37 articles were finally included for quantitative analyses. Fever (48.5%, 95% CI: 41.4%-55.6%) and cough (40.6%, 95% CI: 33.9%-47.5%) were the most common symptoms; asymptomatic infection and severe cases, respectively, accounted for 27.7% (95% CI: 19.7%-36.4%) patients and 1.1% of the 1933 patients included. Laboratory tests showed 5.5% (95% CI: 2.8%-8.9%) of the patients had lymphopenia. The pooled prevalence of leukopenia was 7.3% (95% CI: 3.4%-12.2%), and the C-reactive protein level was high in 14.0% (95% CI: 6.8%-22.8%). Chest computed tomography showed unilateral and bilateral lesions, and ground-glass opacity in 29.4% (95% CI: 24.8%-34.3%) and 24.7% (95% CI: 18.2%-31.6%), and 32.9% (95% CI: 25.3%-40.9%), respectively, and normal in approximately 36.0% (95% CI: 27.7%-44.7%).We found that children with COVID-19 had relatively mild disease, with quite a lot of asymptomatic infections and low rate of severe illness. Data from more regions are needed to determine the prevention and treatment strategies for children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Symptom Assessment/methods , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pediatrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Radiol Imaging Cancer ; 2(3): e204013, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155959

ABSTRACT

Background: The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: An expert panel of 24 members, including pulmonologists (n = 17), thoracic radiologists (n = 5), and thoracic surgeons (n = 2), was formed. The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. The panel was convened by video teleconference to discuss and then vote on statements related to 12 common clinical scenarios. A predefined threshold of 70% of panel members voting agree or strongly agree was used to determine if there was a consensus for each statement. Items that may influence decisions were listed as notes to be considered for each scenario. Results: Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. All 12 statements were confirmed as consensus statements according to the voting results. The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusion: There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation. There are multiple local, regional, and patient-related factors that should be considered when applying these statements to individual patient care.© 2020 RSNA; The American College of Chest Physicians, published by Elsevier Inc; and The American College of Radiology, published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Radiol Imaging Cancer ; 2(6): e200058, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155957

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have been negatively impacted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as many of these individuals may be immunosuppressed and of older age. Additionally, cancer follow-up or imaging appointments have been delayed in many clinics around the world. Postponement of routine screening exams will result in delays in new cancer diagnoses. Clinics are continuing to monitor and adapt their appointment schedules based on local outbreaks of COVID-19. Studies on COVID-19 in patients with cancer are limited, but consistently indicate that this population is at risk for more severe COVID-19 illness. Data from recent studies also suggest that pediatric patients with cancer have a lower risk of severe COVID-19 illness compared to adults. Certain features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection detected by lung, brain, and gastrointestinal imaging may confound radiologists' interpretation of cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. Lastly, as clinics begin to re-open for routine appointments, protocols have been put in place to reduce SARS-CoV-2 exposure to patients during their visits. This review details different perspectives on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with cancer and on cancer imaging. Keywords: Abdomen/GI, Cardiac, Infection, Nervous-Peripheral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Patient Care/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138311

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a giant ovarian cyst in a 20-year-old woman who presented atypically at our Emergency Department with left-sided back pain followed by acute left leg swelling. Blood tests showed significantly raised C-Reactive Protein and D-Dimer. CT-Abdomen-Pelvis demonstrated a large mass in the region of the right ovary with suspicious heterogeneous filling defects in the left external iliac vein, confirmed as a left-sided deep-vein thrombosis on ultrasound Doppler. MRI revealed the lesion to be cystic and the deep venous thrombosis was treated with twice-daily Clexane. Prior to removal of the cyst, an Inferior Vena Cava Filter was placed to reduce thromboembolic risk. The cyst was resected without complication and the postoperative period was uneventful. This case occurred while face-to-face services were limited by COVID-19 and illustrates the need for robust systemic measures to safeguard patients against the emergency sequelae of insidious gynaecological pathology.


Subject(s)
Back Pain/etiology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Ovarian Cysts/complications , Ovarian Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Diagnosis, Differential , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ovarian Cysts/surgery , Ovary/diagnostic imaging , Ovary/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
16.
Radiology ; 300(2): E323-E327, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099797

ABSTRACT

Vaccination-associated adenopathy is a frequent imaging finding after administration of COVID-19 vaccines that may lead to a diagnostic conundrum in patients with manifest or suspected cancer, in whom it may be indistinguishable from malignant nodal involvement. To help the medical community address this concern in the absence of studies and evidence-based guidelines, this special report offers recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from three of the leading tertiary care cancer centers in the United States. According to these recommendations, some routine imaging examinations, such as those for screening, should be scheduled before or at least 6 weeks after the final vaccination dose to allow for any reactive adenopathy to resolve. However, there should be no delay of other clinically indicated imaging (eg, for acute symptoms, short-interval treatment monitoring, urgent treatment planning or complications) due to prior vaccination. The vaccine should be administered on the side contralateral to the primary or suspected cancer, and both doses should be administered in the same arm. Vaccination information-date(s) administered, injection site(s), laterality, and type of vaccine-should be included in every preimaging patient questionnaire, and this information should be made readily available to interpreting radiologists. Clear and effective communication between patients, radiologists, referring physician teams, and the general public should be considered of the highest priority when managing adenopathy in the setting of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Periodicals as Topic , Radiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 734-738, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089035

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study uses principles of liquid and gas mechanics to verify and quantify the generation of aerosols in oculoplastic procedures, namely surgery using a scalpel, electrosurgical device, and a mechanized drill. METHODS: Surgical techniques were performed ex vivo using the electrosurgical device, scalpel, and mechanized drill on the muscle and bone of commercially available chicken. The liquid and gas dynamics were observed using a high-speed high-resolution Photron SA5 camera (0.125 to 8 ms temporal resolution, 0.016 to 0.054 mm/pixel spatial resolution) and stroboscopic lighting (Veritas 120 E LED Constellation). The analysis was performed using in-house algorithms and ImageJ software. RESULTS: The use of a mechanized drill at 35000 rpm and a 3 mm fluted burr generated aerosol with particle size 50 to 550 microns with a spread of 1.8 m radius. Surgical smoke was generated by an electrosurgical device in both cutting and coagulation modes. Dispersion of the smoke could be controlled significantly by the use of suction, mean smoke spread ratio being 0.065 without suction and 0.002 with use of suction within 2 cm. CONCLUSION: The quantification of the aerosol generation will help surgeons take practical decisions in their surgical techniques in the pandemic era.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Comorbidity , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/surgery , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Healthc Eng ; 2020: 8838390, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999335

ABSTRACT

Background: With the outbreak of COVID-19, large-scale telemedicine applications can play an important role in the epidemic areas or less developed areas. However, the transmission of hundreds of megabytes of Sectional Medical Images (SMIs) from hospital's Intranet to the Internet has the problems of efficiency, cost, and security. This article proposes a novel lightweight sharing scheme for permitting Internet users to quickly and safely access the SMIs from a hospital using an Internet computer anywhere but without relying on a virtual private network or another complex deployment. Methods: A four-level endpoint network penetration scheme based on the existing hospital network facilities and information security rules was proposed to realize the secure and lightweight sharing of SMIs over the Internet. A "Master-Slave" interaction to the interactive characteristics of multiplanar reconstruction and maximum/minimum/average intensity projection was designed to enhance the user experience. Finally, a prototype system was established. Results: When accessing SMIs with a data size ranging from 251.6 to 307.04 MB with 200 kBps client bandwidth (extreme test), the network response time to each interactive request remained at approximately 1 s, the original SMIs were kept in the hospital, and the deployment did not require a complex process; the imaging quality and interactive experience were recognized by radiologists. Conclusions: This solution could serve Internet medicine at a low cost and may promote the diversified development of mobile medical technology. Under the current COVID-19 epidemic situation, we expect that it could play a low-cost and high-efficiency role in remote emergency support.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Internet , Radiology/methods , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Computer Communication Networks , Computers , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Equipment Design , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Medical Informatics , Programming Languages , Telemedicine
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e039813, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999256

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the threat of a worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, it is important to identify the prognostic factors for critical conditions among patients with non-critical COVID-19. Prognostic factors and models may assist front-line clinicians in rapid identification of high-risk patients, early management of modifiable factors, appropriate triaging and optimising the use of limited healthcare resources. We aim to systematically assess the clinical, laboratory and imaging predictors as well as prediction models for severe or critical illness and mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All peer-reviewed and preprint primary articles with a longitudinal design that focused on prognostic factors or models for critical illness and mortality related to COVID-19 will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of 11 databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, SinoMed, bioRxiv, Arxiv and MedRxiv will be conducted. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data extraction will be performed using the modified version of the Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies checklist and quality will be evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool. The association between prognostic factors and outcomes of interest will be synthesised and a meta-analysis will be conducted with three or more studies reporting a particular factor in a consistent manner. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was not required for this systematic review. We will disseminate our findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD 42020178798.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Services , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
20.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6230-6239, 2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992410

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 has been reported to be associated with high rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the risk of VTE and bleeding after hospitalization for COVID-19 remains unclear, and the optimal hospital VTE prevention strategy is not known. We collected retrospective observational data on thrombosis and bleeding in 303 consecutive adult patients admitted to the hospital for at least 24 hours for COVID-19. Patients presenting with VTE on admission were excluded. Data were collected until 90 days after admission or known death by using medical records and an established national VTE network. Maximal level of care was ward based in 78% of patients, with 22% requiring higher dependency care (12% noninvasive ventilation, 10% invasive ventilation). Almost all patients (97.0%) received standard thromboprophylaxis or were already receiving therapeutic anticoagulation (17.5%). Symptomatic image-confirmed VTE occurred in 5.9% of patients during index hospitalization, and in 7.2% at 90 days after admission (23.9% in patients requiring higher dependency care); half the events were isolated segmental or subsegmental defects on lung imaging. Bleeding occurred in 13 patients (4.3%) during index hospitalization (1.3% had major bleeding). The majority of bleeds occurred in patients on the general ward, and 6 patients were receiving treatment-dose anticoagulation, highlighting the need for caution in intensifying standard thromboprophylaxis strategies. Of 152 patients discharged from the hospital without an indication for anticoagulation, 97% did not receive thromboprophylaxis after discharge, and 3% received 7 days of treatment with low molecular weight heparin after discharge. The rate of symptomatic VTE in this group at 42 days after discharge was 2.6%, highlighting the need for large prospective randomized controlled trials of extended thromboprophylaxis after discharge in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , England/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
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