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1.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 43: e20210088, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze how university students self-evaluate their academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic in a public university in southern Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 527 students of undergraduate courses in the health field. Descriptive statistical analyses and the chi-square test were performed to assess associations. RESULTS: For 49.5% of participants their academic performance was insufficient; for 24.1%, sufficient; 19.40%, good; 5.90% very good; and 1.10% excellent. It was found that there was an association between the variables, course (p=0.034), form of enrollment into the institution (p=0.016) and work activity (p=0.010) in academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Academic performance during the suspension of face-to-face classes is insufficient for many students, and groups of students from the occupational therapy course, who entered the university through the system of quotas and who work in addition to studying showed an inferior academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 678-684, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1823637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of psychological distress and religious coping in quality of life of nursing students during the second wave of the pandemic in Greece. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among nursing students. Data were collected via an e-survey consisting of five parts including HADS Questionary, SF-36, B-RCOPE and Subjective Happiness scale. RESULTS: Results: From the total of 200 nursing students the 86.5% were female, 35.5% were in their first year of study, 54% were single and 65.5 were urban residents. 51.9% of the students were experiencing anxiety and 31,5% were depressed. In regard to subjective happiness, the mean value was 4.51±1.27. In addition, the majority of the students consider themselves unhappy (67.5%). Finally, in regard to SF-36 scores, we observed that PCS mean score was 68.49±13.19, MCS56.12±24.23. Depression, as well as negative religious coping, can have a negative effect on both physical and mental health components of quality of life. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Nursing students experience very high levels of stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic and need support and guidance to better manage stress and fear in this unusual situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Female , Happiness , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Nursing/psychology
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 180, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed COVID-19 vaccination as an emergent and important method to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Since China started vaccination programs in December 2020, vaccination has spread to provinces and municipalities nationwide. Previous research has focused on people's vaccination willingness and its influencing factors but has not examined vaccination behavior. We examine the effectiveness of psychosocial factors in predicting vaccination behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was performed among Chinese adults on 8 May and 4 June 2021. The statistical analysis of the data included univariate analysis, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis and ordinal multiclassification logistic regression model analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1300 respondents, 761 (58.5%) were vaccinated. Univariate analysis showed that a high education level and good subjective health status were protective factors for vaccination behavior, while suffering from chronic diseases was a risk factor. ROC analysis showed that subjective health status (AUC = 0.625, 95% CI: 0.594-0.656, P < 0.001) was the best predictor of vaccination behavior. Logistic regression analysis with subjective health status as a dependent variable indicated that older age, female sex, depression, neurasthenia, obsession, hypochondriasis and chronic disease were significant risk factors, while positive coping tendencies were a significant protective factor. CONCLUSION: Our study found a simple and effective marker, subjective health status, that can predict vaccination behavior. This finding can guide future epidemic prevention work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prometaphase , Vaccination/psychology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523451

ABSTRACT

Nurses are facing real stressors due to patients' needs and leaders' demands. The aim of this study is to explore the perceived level of core self-evaluation (CSE), leader empowering behavior (LEB), and job security among Jordan University Hospital nurses in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Furthermore, it investigates the relationship between the selected variables. Differences of gender, educational level, experience, and site of work are also examined with job security. Moreover, it evaluates the contribution of CSE, LEB, gender, educational level, experience, and site of work in predicting job security among Jordan University Hospital nurses. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. A convenience sample of 214 nurses from Jordan University Hospital was completed the CSE scale, LEB scale, and job security scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and stepwise regression were used to analyze the results. The results indicate that job security is found to be at high level, whereas LEB and CSE are found to be at moderate levels among nurses. Significant positive relationships are found between CSE, LEB, and job security. Male nurses and medical/surgical floors reported higher levels of job security than female nurses and intensive care units. Finally, the results show that LEB and gender are significant predictors of job security among nurses. We suggest that managers of nurses should apply leadership behaviors in order to increase their job security and career empowerment.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Jordan , Self-Assessment
5.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(11): 1053-1059, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438005

ABSTRACT

AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a major global public health issue, and it has led to restrictions in physical and social activities among community-dwelling people, including frail older adults. This study aimed to determine the impact of the pandemic on the subjective health status and characteristics of community-dwelling frail older adults by assessing their knowledge of infection, behaviors and negative psychological response. METHODS: During October 2019, 720 older adults participated in "The Otassha Study." A year after the COVID-19 outbreak, between June 29 and July 31, 2020, a health status questionnaire, comprising questions concerning knowledge about infection, behaviors and psychological responses during the pandemic, was sent to all participants of the health examination in 2019. Respondents were divided into the robust and frail groups, and their responses were compared. RESULTS: Although the self-reported health status of the older adults in both groups was worse in 2020 than in 2019, differences were not observed in the degree of deterioration between the groups. Those in the frail group had fewer resources of information related to COVID-19 and had fewer coping behaviors for health maintenance compared with the robust group. CONCLUSION: Information gathering and actions aimed at health maintenance tended to be weaker among older adults with frailty, although the influence of COVID-19 on subjective health status did not differ significantly between robust and frail adults. Therefore, robust and frail older adults may need to adopt different countermeasures to prevent worse health during this pandemic. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 1053-1059.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frail Elderly , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Geriatric Assessment , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 26(2): 377-383, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406548

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, dental schools were required to reformat their curricula to accommodate regulations mandated to protect the health of students and faculty. For students enrolled in the Operative Dentistry preclinical courses at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM), this modified curriculum included frontloading the course with lectures delivered remotely, followed by in-person laboratory exercises of learned concepts. The aim of this article was to determine the impact that the modifications had on student performance and student self-evaluation capabilities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight students were introduced to this restructured course. Their performance in a final multiple-choice (MC) examination, four preclinical laboratory competency assessments (class II amalgam preparation and restoration, class III composite preparation and restoration) and their self-assessment of these preclinical competency assessments were then compared with the pre-COVID pandemic (P-CP) classes from years 2014 to 2019 (n = 216 students). Linear regressions were performed to determine differences in mean faculty scores, self-assessment scores, student-faculty score gaps (S-F gaps) and absolute S-F gaps seen between the class impacted by the pandemic and the P-CP classes. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that students during the COVID-19 pandemic (D-CP) had a higher average faculty score in all four preclinical laboratory competency assessments and in the final MC examination. In addition, the S-F gap was smaller in this cohort as compared with the P-CP classes. CONCLUSION: Despite the challenges of restructuring the preclinical curricula, D-CP students performed better than their P-CP predecessors in multiple facets of this Operative Dentistry course including self-assessment accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dentistry, Operative , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Dentistry, Operative/education , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Education, Dental/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Self-Assessment , Students, Dental
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389140

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 192, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspora. We analyzed the relationship and pathways of perceived discrimination's effect on health among the Chinese diaspora in the context of the pandemic to contribute to the literature on discrimination in this population under the global public health crisis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 705 individuals of Chinese descent residing in countries outside of China who participated in a cross-sectional online survey between April 22 and May 9, 2020. This study utilized a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH) and to assess the mediating roles of psychological distress (namely, anxiety and depression) and social support from family and friends. RESULTS: This online sample comprised predominantly young adults and those of relatively high socioeconomic status. This study confirmed the total and direct effect of recently perceived discrimination on SRH and found the indirect effect was mainly mediated by depression. Mediating roles of anxiety and social support on the discrimination-health relationship were found insignificant in this SEM. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest discrimination negatively affected the well-being of the Chinese diaspora, and depression acted as a major mediator between the discrimination-health relationship. Therefore, interventions for reducing discrimination to preserve the well-being of the Chinese diaspora are necessary. Prompt intervention to address depression may partially relieve the disease burden caused by the surge of discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pandemics , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Racism/psychology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(8): e27892, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing apps are considered useful means to monitor SARS-CoV-2 infections during the off-peak stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their effectiveness is, however, dependent on the uptake of such COVID-19 apps. OBJECTIVE: We examined the role of individuals' general health status in their willingness to use a COVID-19 tracing app as well as the roles of socioeconomic characteristics and COVID-19 proximity. METHODS: We drew data from the WageIndicator Foundation Living and Working in Coronavirus Times survey. The survey collected data on labor market status as well as the potential confounders of the relationship between general health and COVID-19 tracing app usage, such as sociodemographics and regular smartphone usage data. The survey also contained information that allowed us to examine the role of COVID-19 proximity, such as whether an individual has contracted SARS-CoV-2, whether an individual has family members and colleagues with COVID-19, and whether an individual exhibits COVID-19 pandemic-induced depressive and anxiety symptoms. We selected data that were collected in Spain, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands from individuals aged between 18 and 70 years (N=4504). Logistic regressions were used to measure individuals' willingness to use a COVID-19 tracing app. RESULTS: We found that the influence that socioeconomic factors have on COVID-19 tracing app usage varied dramatically between the four countries, although individuals experiencing forms of not being employed (ie, recent job loss and inactivity) consistently had a lower willingness to use a contact tracing app (effect size: 24.6%) compared to that of employees (effect size: 33.4%; P<.001). Among the selected COVID-19 proximity indicators, having a close family member with SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with higher contact tracing app usage (effect size: 36.3% vs 27.1%; P<.001). After accounting for these proximity factors and the country-based variations therein, we found that having a poorer general health status was significantly associated with a much higher likelihood of contact tracing app usage; compared to a self-reported "very good" health status (estimated probability of contact tracing app use: 29.6%), the "good" (estimated probability: +4.6%; 95% CI 1.2%-8.1%) and "fair or bad" (estimated probability: +6.3%; 95% CI 2.3%-10.3%) health statuses were associated with a markedly higher willingness to use a COVID-19 tracing app. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health policies aim to promote the use of smartphone-based contact tracing apps during the off-peak periods of the COVID-19 pandemic. Campaigns that emphasize the health benefits of COVID-19 tracing apps may contribute the most to the uptake of such apps. Public health campaigns that rely on digital platforms would also benefit from seriously considering the country-specific distribution of privacy concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Privacy , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(4): 189-197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence highlights healthcare workers (HCWs) facing outbreaks, particularly the ongoing covid-19 pandemic, are at increased risk of negative mental health outcomes, particularly post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), anxiety and depression. Data from previous outbreaks highlighted the risk for a negative impact on HCWs' social and occupational functioning, but scant data have investigated this issue in the framework of the covid-19 pandemic. A number of effective interventions have been proposed to support mental health and well-being of HCWs in emerging infectious outbreaks, but it is important to acknowledge the differential impact of mental disorders on different dimensions of functioning. METHODS: The study explored the associations between work and social functioning and PTSS, depression and anxiety in a sample of 265 frontline HCWs employed at a major university hospital in Italy (Pisa), facing the first period of the covid-19 pandemic. Individuals were assessed by means of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for PTSS, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7) for anxiety symptoms and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) to assess work and social functioning. RESULTS: Higher levels of functioning impairment were found among individuals with moderate to severe acute PTSS, depressive and anxiety symptoms with respect to those without. Acute PTSS and depressive symptoms were predictive factors of impairment in each domain of functioning analyzed. Anxiety symptoms were associated with impairment in both work and home management activities. Frontline activity was associated with impairment in both private and social leisure activities. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term perspective studies are warranted to better investigate the psychopathological burden on HCWs' work and social functioning and to promote adequate intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Family Relations , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uncertainty , Workload
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e168, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286068

ABSTRACT

This study explored the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6) scale for assessing people's anxiety in response to the viral epidemic in Lebanon. The 406 participants responded voluntarily to the online survey that included the SAVE-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tools. The single-structure SAVE-6 model showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.773). The SAVE-6 scale also showed good convergent validity with the GAD-7 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42, P < 0.001) and PHQ-9 (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an Arabic SAVE-6 cut-off score of 12 points (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753; sensitivity = 62.74%; specificity = 78.26%) for an at least mild degree of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5). The Arabic version of the SAVE-6 was a reliable, valid, and solely usable scale for measuring the anxiety response of the general population to the viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , Quarantine/psychology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
14.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 90, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO has raised concerns about the psychological consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic, negatively affecting health across societies, cultures and age-groups. METHODS: This online survey study investigated mental health, subjective experience, and behaviour (health, learning/teaching) among university students studying in Egypt or Germany shortly after the first pandemic lockdown in May 2020. Psychological assessment included stable personality traits, self-concept and state-like psychological variables related to (a) mental health (depression, anxiety), (b) pandemic threat perception (feelings during the pandemic, perceived difficulties in describing, identifying, expressing emotions), (c) health (e.g., worries about health, bodily symptoms) and behaviour including perceived difficulties in learning. Assessment methods comprised self-report questions, standardized psychological scales, psychological questionnaires, and linguistic self-report measures. Data analysis comprised descriptive analysis of mental health, linguistic analysis of self-concept, personality and feelings, as well as correlational analysis and machine learning. N = 220 (107 women, 112 men, 1 = other) studying in Egypt or Germany provided answers to all psychological questionnaires and survey items. RESULTS: Mean state and trait anxiety scores were significantly above the cut off scores that distinguish between high versus low anxious subjects. Depressive symptoms were reported by 51.82% of the student sample, the mean score was significantly above the screening cut off score for risk of depression. Worries about health (mental and physical health) and perceived difficulties in identifying feelings, and difficulties in learning behaviour relative to before the pandemic were also significant. No negative self-concept was found in the linguistic descriptions of the participants, whereas linguistic descriptions of feelings during the pandemic revealed a negativity bias in emotion perception. Machine learning (exploratory) predicted personality from the self-report data suggesting relations between personality and subjective experience that were not captured by descriptive or correlative data analytics alone. CONCLUSION: Despite small sample sizes, this multimethod survey provides important insight into mental health of university students studying in Egypt or Germany and how they perceived the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in May 2020. The results should be continued with larger samples to help develop psychological interventions that support university students across countries and cultures to stay psychologically resilient during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Egypt/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Germany , Humans , Linguistics , Machine Learning , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
15.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 934-942, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243768

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, a critical measure to manage COVID-19 transmission, is consistently associated with social isolation, a major health issue. Social isolation negatively impacts mental and physical health, particularly among older adults. A pre-post comparison study examined changes in cognitive function and perceived health among 36 community-dwelling Brazilian older adults, assessed pre and post social distancing measures enacted due to COVID-19. A significant increase in cognitive function was found 1 month into social distancing (M = 16.3, p = .002, power = 0.88), with declining scores for vitality (M = -29.3, p < .001, power = 0.99) and mental health (M = -38.1, p < .001, power = 0.99), particularly among participants who lived alone (t = -3.8, p = .001). Older adults exhibit rapid changes in perceived health when excluded from participation in social activities. Health care professionals should consider holistic approaches when addressing the impacts of social isolation on this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Independent Living , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2046-2055, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217366

ABSTRACT

To date, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a worldwide distribution. Risk factors for mortality in critically ill patients, especially detailed self-evaluation indicators and laboratory-examination indicators, have not been well described. In this paper, a total of 192 critically ill patients (142 were discharged and 50 died in the hospital) with COVID-19 were included. Self-evaluation indicators including demographics, baseline characteristics, and symptoms and detailed lab-examination indicators were extracted. Data were first compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was performed to identify possible risk factors for mortality of COVID-19 patients. MVPA achieved a relatively high classification accuracy of 93% when using both self-evaluation indicators and laboratory-examination indicators. Several self-evaluation factors related to COVID-19 were highly associated with mortality, including age, duration (time from illness onset to admission), and the Barthel index (BI) score. When the duration, age increased by 1 day, 1 year, BI decreased by 1 point, the mortality increased by 3.6%, 2.4%, and 0.9% respectively. Laboratory-examination indicators including C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, platelet count, fibrin degradation products, oxygenation index, lymphocyte count, and d-dimer were also risk factors. Among them, duration was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality. Several self-evaluation indicators that can simply be obtained by questionnaires and without clinical examination were the risk factors of all-cause mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The prediction model can be used by individuals to improve health awareness, and by clinicians to identify high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Risk Factors
19.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Identifying those individuals requiring medical care is a basic tenet of the pandemic response. Here, we examine the COVID-19 community triage pathways employed by four nations, specifically comparing the safety and efficacy of national online 'symptom checkers' used within the triage pathway. METHODS: A simulation study was conducted on current, nationwide, patient-led symptom checkers from four countries (Singapore, Japan, USA and UK). 52 cases were simulated to approximate typical COVID-19 presentations (mild, moderate, severe and critical) and COVID-19 mimickers (eg, sepsis and bacterial pneumonia). The same simulations were applied to each of the four country's symptom checkers, and the recommendations to refer on for medical care or to stay home were recorded and compared. RESULTS: The symptom checkers from Singapore and Japan advised onward healthcare contact for the majority of simulations (88% and 77%, respectively). The USA and UK symptom checkers triaged 38% and 44% of cases to healthcare contact, respectively. Both the US and UK symptom checkers consistently failed to identify severe COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia and sepsis, triaging such cases to stay home. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that whilst 'symptom checkers' may be of use to the healthcare COVID-19 response, there is the potential for such patient-led assessment tools to worsen outcomes by delaying appropriate clinical assessment. The key features of the well-performing symptom checkers are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Public Health Informatics/organization & administration , Symptom Assessment/methods , Triage/organization & administration , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan , Singapore
20.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(4): 364-369, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082744

ABSTRACT

AIM: Perceived health status, including physical and cognitive fitness, will be negatively associated with future health conditions among old-old adults. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused sudden changes in lifestyle. Thus, this study examined the associations of participation in an exercise class before the COVID-19 pandemic and the exercise habits and disruption to the rhythms of daily life during the COVID-19 state of emergency with perceived declining physical and cognitive fitness among community-dwelling old-old adults. METHODS: In July 2020, we carried out a mail survey of community-dwelling old-old adults aged between 77 and 99 years in Bibai, Hokkaido, Japan, to determine their perceived declining physical and cognitive fitness during the COVID-19 state of emergency. RESULTS: Of the 774 responders, 339 (43.8%) participants reported a decline in physical fitness, whereas 259 (33.5%) perceived declining cognitive fitness during the COVID-19 state of emergency. In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders, exercise habits during the COVID-19 state of emergency were significantly associated with a lower perception of declining physical fitness. Disruption to the rhythms of daily life during the COVID-19 state of emergency was significantly associated with a higher perception of declining physical and cognitive fitness. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half and more than one-third of community-dwelling old-old adults perceived declining physical and cognitive fitness, respectively, during the COVID-19 state of emergency. During this period, exercise habits were positively correlated with perceived health status among old-old adults, whereas disruption to the rhythms of daily life was negatively correlated. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 364-369.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Exercise , Health Status , Physical Fitness , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Japan , Male , Self Report
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