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1.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(4): 306-312, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922409

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide primary care providers (PCPs) with updated practical guidance around the assessment and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents and young adults (AYA). RECENT FINDINGS: Of the three different presentations of ADHD delineated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the Predominantly Inattentive presentation is the most common among AYA. Multiple rating scales exist to assist clinicians in identifying ADHD symptoms and monitoring treatment effects. Importantly, ADHD frequently persists into adulthood with negative impacts in many life domains if left untreated. It is important for PCPs to provide support for AYA as they transition to adulthood, as treatment adherence often drops sharply at that time, and, once treatment is discontinued, it is rarely restarted. Further, clinicians should be aware of the negative psychological, behavioral, and social impacts that COVID-19 has had on AYA with ADHD. SUMMARY: AYA with ADHD often seek care first from PCPs. However, diagnosis and management of ADHD among AYA are challenging, and many clinicians feel ill-equipped, creating concern that many youth may go undiagnosed and untreated. Despite these long-standing challenges, recent advances have opened up critical opportunities for PCPs to proactively address ADHD in primary care settings and make a profound impact on youth as they seek to realize their full potential.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Primary Health Care , Young Adult
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e47, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921539

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Current information about the prevalence of various mental health disorders in the general adult population of the Republic of Ireland is lacking. In this study, we examined the prevalence of 12 common mental disorders, the proportion of adults who screened positive for any disorder, the sociodemographic factors associated with meeting criteria for a disorder and the associations between each disorder and history of attempted suicide. METHODS: A non-probability nationally representative sample (N = 1110) of adults living in Ireland completed self-report measures of 12 mental health disorders. Effect sizes were calculated using odds ratios from logistic regression models, and population attributable risk fractions (PAFs) were estimated to quantify the associations between each disorder and attempted suicide. RESULTS: Prevalence rates ranged from 15.0% (insomnia disorder) to 1.7% (histrionic personality disorder). Overall, 42.5% of the sample met criteria for a mental health disorder, and 11.1% had a lifetime history of attempted suicide. Younger age, being a shift worker and trauma exposure were independently associated with a higher likelihood of having a mental health disorder, while being in university was associated with a lower likelihood of having a disorder. ICD-11 complex posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and insomnia disorder had the highest PAFs for attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health disorder prevalence in Ireland is relatively high compared to international estimates. The findings are discussed in relation to important mental health policy implications.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Comorbidity , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 314: 114677, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882458

ABSTRACT

Sars-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus that can access the central nervous system, as indicated by the presence of the virus in patients' cerebrospinal fluid and the occurrence of several neurological syndromes during and after COVID-19. Growing evidence indicates that Sars-CoV-2 can also trigger the acute onset of mood disorders or psychotic symptoms. COVID-19-related first episodes of mania, in subjects with no known history of bipolar disorder, have never been systematically analyzed. Thus, the present study assesses a potential link between the two conditions. This systematic review analyzes cases of first appearance of manic episodes associated with COVID-19. Clinical features, pharmacological therapies, and relationships with pre-existing medical conditions are also appraised. Medical records of twenty-three patients fulfilling the current DSM-5 criteria for manic episode were included. Manic episodes started, on average, after 12.71±6.65 days from the infection onset. Psychotic symptoms were frequently reported. 82.61% of patients exhibited delusions, whereas 39.13% of patients presented hallucinations. A large discrepancy in the diagnostic workups was observed. Mania represents an underestimated clinical presentation of COVID-19. Further studies should focus on the pathophysiological substrates of COVID-19-related mania and pursue appropriate and specific diagnostic and therapeutic workups.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Mania , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 280, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5) is the most widely used screening tool in assessing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-5) criteria. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly translated Bangla PCL-5. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 10,605 individuals (61.0% male; mean age: 23.6 ± 5.5 [13-71 years]) during May and June 2020, several months after the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh. The survey included the Bangla PCL-5 and the PHQ-9 depression scale. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the four-factor DSM-5 model, the six-factor Anhedonia model, and the seven-factor hybrid model. RESULTS: The Bangla PCL-5 displayed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90). The Bangla PCL-5 score was significantly correlated with scores of the PHQ-9 depression scale, confirming strong convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated the models had a good fit to the data, including the four-factor DSM-5 model, the six-factor Anhedonia model, and the seven-factor hybrid model. Overall, the seven-factor hybrid model exhibited the best fit to the data. CONCLUSIONS: The Bangla PCL-5 appears to be a valid and reliable psychometric screening tool that may be employed in the prospective evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Anhedonia , Checklist , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Young Adult
5.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 90(4): 303-313, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805564

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Investigating the concordance of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) criteria that have been recently introduced to the 5th text revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5-TR) and the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11). METHOD: N = 193 treatment-seeking bereaved adults were assessed with the prolonged grief disorder 13 + 9 interview. Data were examined in terms of (a) diagnostic rates for PGDDSM-5-TR and PGDICD-11, including increases of the PGDICD-11 accessory symptom threshold (PGDICD-11-X+) and time criterion (PGDICD-11-12 months), (b) dimensionality, (c) the frequency with which single PGD symptoms occur, and (d) concurrent validity in terms of psychological symptoms and loss-related characteristics. RESULTS: The diagnostic rate of PGDDSM-5-TR (52%) was significantly lower than that of PGDICD-11 (76%) and agreement between the two criteria sets was moderate, κ = 0.51, 95% CI [0.47-0.55]. Increasing the PGDICD-11 accessory symptom threshold did not improve the diagnostic agreement. In contrast, increasing the ICD-11 time criterion led to almost perfect agreement between PGDICD-11-12 months and PGDDSM-5-TR, κ = 0.91, 95% CI [0.89-0.93]. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated a one-factor model fit best for both PGDDSM-5-TR and PGDICD-11. Emotional pain symptoms (e.g., guilt) were predominantly reported by patients with a PGDICD-11 diagnosis, while attachment disturbance symptoms (e.g., identity disruption) were reported more often by patients with a PGDDSM-5-TR diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Despite methodological limitations of this study, results indicate discordance in PGDDSM-5-TR and PGDICD-11 regarding diagnostic rates and single symptom occurrence, while the factor structure is similar. Changes in the ICD-11 time criterion could reduce these differences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Bereavement , International Classification of Diseases , Adult , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Grief , Humans
6.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(2)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687146

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic and the related containment measures can represent a traumatic experience, particularly for populations living in high incidence areas and individuals with mental disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms since the end of the first COVID-19 pandemic wave and Italy's national lockdown in subjects with mood or anxiety disorders living in 2 regions with increasing pandemic incidence.Methods: 102 subjects with a DSM-5 anxiety or mood disorder were enrolled from June to July 2020 and assessed at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1) with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale. At T1, subjects were also assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self-Report for PTSD.Results: At T0, subjects from the high COVID-19 incidence area showed higher levels of traumatic symptoms than those from the low COVID-19 incidence area (P < .001), with a decrease at T1 with respect to T0 (P = .001). Full or partial DSM-5 PTSD related to the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in 23 subjects (53.5%) from the high COVID-19 incidence area and in 9 (18.0%) from the low COVID-19 incidence area (P < .001).Conclusions: Subjects with mood or anxiety disorders presented relevant rates of PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms in the aftermath of the lockdown, and in most cases these persisted after 3 months. The level of exposure to the pandemic emerged as a major risk factor for PTSD development. Further long-term studies are needed to follow up the course of traumatic burden.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Mood Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cost of Illness , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health Recovery/trends , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560541

ABSTRACT

Depression is a common mental illness characterized by sadness, lack of interest, or pleasure. According to the DSM-5, there are nine symptoms, from which an individual must present 4 or 5 in the last two weeks to fulfill the diagnosis criteria of depression. Nevertheless, the common methods that health care professionals use to assess and monitor depression symptoms are face-to-face questionnaires leading to time-consuming or expensive methods. On the other hand, smart homes can monitor householders' health through smart devices such as smartphones, wearables, cameras, or voice assistants connected to the home. Although the depression disorders at smart homes are commonly oriented to the senior sector, depression affects all of us. Therefore, even though an expert needs to diagnose the depression disorder, questionnaires as the PHQ-9 help spot any depressive symptomatology as a pre-diagnosis. Thus, this paper proposes a three-step framework; the first step assesses the nine questions to the end-user through ALEXA or a gamified HMI. Then, a fuzzy logic decision system considers three actions based on the nine responses. Finally, the last step considers these three actions: continue monitoring through Alexa and the HMI, suggest specialist referral, and mandatory specialist referral.


Subject(s)
Patient Health Questionnaire , Population Health , Depression/diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fuzzy Logic , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1997181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559184

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Prevalent Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) negatively affected individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using network analyses, this study explored the construct of PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in China to identify similarities and differences in PTSD symptom network connectivity between the general Chinese population and individuals reporting PTSD. Methods: We conducted an online survey recruiting 2858 Chinese adults. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PCL-5 and PTSD was determined according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results: In the general population, self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average the most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) avoidance of thoughts and avoidance of reminders, 2) concentration difficulties and sleep disturbance, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours, and 5) hypervigilance and exaggerated startle responses. Besides, negative connections were found between intrusive thoughts and trauma-related amnesia and between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Among individuals reporting PTSD, symptoms such as flashbacks and self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, 2) intrusive thoughts and emotional cue reactivity, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviour, and 5) detachment and restricted affect. In addition, a negative connection was found between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Conclusion: Our results indicate similarly positive connections between concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, and irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours in the general and PTSD-reported populations. We argue that self-destructive/reckless behaviours are a core symptom of COVID-19 related PTSD, worthy of more attention in future psychiatric programmers.


Antecedentes y Objetivos: El Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) prevalente afectó negativamente a los individuos durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Usando análisis de redes, este estudio exploró el constructo de síntomas de TEPT durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en China para identificar las similitudes y diferencias en la conectividad de red de síntomas de TEPT entre la población general china y los individuos que reportan TEPT.Métodos: Realizamos una encuesta en línea que reclutó 2.858 adultos chinos. Los síntomas de TEPT se midieron usando el PCL-5 y el TEPT se determinó de acuerdo a los criterios del DSM-5.Resultados: En la población general, las conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes fueron, en promedio, las más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) evitación de pensamientos y evitación de recordatorios, 2) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes y 5) hipervigilancia y respuestas de sobresalto exageradas. Además, se encontraron conexiones negativas entre pensamientos intrusivos y amnesia relacionada con el trauma y entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes. Entre los individuos que reportaron TEPT, los síntomas como flashbacks y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes estuvieron, en promedio, más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 2) pensamientos intrusivos y reactividad emocional a ciertas señales, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes, y 5) desapego y afecto restringido. Además, se encontró una conexión negativa entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes.Conclusión: Nuestros resultados indican conexiones igualmente positivas entre dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, e irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes en la población general y la que reporto TEPT. Argumentamos que las conductas autodestructivas/imprudentes son un síntoma central de TEPT relacionado con COVID-19, que merece más atención en futuros programas psiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534068

ABSTRACT

After COVID-19 appeared in China in December 2019, the mental health of adolescents, as a vulnerable group in public health emergencies, was negatively affected by the epidemic and the unprecedented prevention and control measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) among Chinese adolescents. A total of 915 participants completed the PTSD. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and multi-group CFAs were used to test the factor structure and psychometric properties of PTSD. The CFA results showed that five-factor PCL was the optimal fitting model with satisfactory reliability and validity; moreover, it was suggested that the properties of PCL were invariant across gender, PTSD and asymptomatic groups, early and late adolescents, as well as over time. In summary, PCL is applicable among Chinese adolescents and can be used for effective measurement of PTSD caused by epidemics and to conduct cross-group studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Checklist , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
10.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 60, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188224

ABSTRACT

Although fear and anxiety have gradually become a shared experience in the time of COVID-19, few studies have examined its content from historical, cultural, and phenomenological perspectives concerning the self-awareness and alterity. We discuss the development of the ubiquitous nature of Taijin-kyofusho (TKS), a subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD) originated and considered culturally-bound in the 1930s Japan involving fear of offending or displeasing other people. Considering the historical processes of disease classification, advances in cognitive neurosciences, and the need to better understand the content of suffering, psychiatric nosology for SAD still appears controversial and requires further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Phobia, Social/psychology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , History, 20th Century , Humans , Japan/ethnology , Phobia, Social/history , SARS-CoV-2
12.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 31(1): 3-8, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare older adults with late-life depression (LLD) and healthy controls in terms of suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to determine predictors of suicidal ideation. METHODS: Between March and April 2020, old adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (single or recurrent episode) as defined by the DSM-5 were recruited from psychiatric clinics or inpatient wards, whereas 31 healthy older adults without a history of depression or other psychiatric illnesses were recruited from voluntary organisations or elderly community centres. Their depressive symptoms, perceived severity of the pandemic, perceived time spent on receiving related information, perceived health, levels of loneliness, perceived coping efficacy, suicidal ideation, and the level of symptomatic responses to a specific traumatic stressor in the past week were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 21 men and 43 women aged 61 to 89 years were interviewed through telephone by trained research assistants. Of them, 33 were older adults with LLD (cases) and 31 were healthy older adults (controls). Older people with LLD had a higher level of suicidal ideation than healthy controls, after controlling for the level of depression and medical comorbidity (F (1, 59) = 5.72, p = 0.020). Regression analyses showed that coping efficacy and loneliness accounted for a significant portion of the variance in suicidal ideation, and loneliness significantly predicted the level of stress. Mediation analyses reveal an indirect effect between group and suicidal ideation through coping efficacy (Z = 2.43, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Older people with LLD are at increased suicidal risk and require timely mental health support. Coping efficacy and loneliness are important predictors for suicidal ideation and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Noncommunicable Diseases , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
13.
J Addict Dis ; 39(4): 450-458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124596

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, individuals worldwide have shown different anxiety-related reactions. Several vulnerability factors may play a role in individuals' psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic. Such factors include pathological personality traits which have been shown to contribute to the development of anxiety-related conditions. Consequently, the present study investigated the relationships between DSM-5 pathological personality domains and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms. Using an online data portal, the relationships between DSM-5 pathological personality domains and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms among a mixed university student and community sample (N = 612) were studied. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between all DSM-5 pathological personality domains and COVID-19-related anxiety. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that DSM-5 pathological personality domains explained 21% of COVID-19-related anxiety variance. Based on standardized coefficients, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) negative affect domain had the main role in COVID-19-related anxiety. The findings suggest that pathological personality domains can be predictors in the symptoms of anxiety in a viral outbreak. The novel findings add to the literature on individual differences in domains of personality in response to pandemic situations. Implications for future clinical applications and research investigations are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , International Classification of Diseases/standards , Personality Disorders/diagnosis , Personality , COVID-19/psychology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Models, Psychological , Personality Disorders/epidemiology
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 68, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately one out of every three people in Germany who meets the diagnostic criteria for major depression has contact with mental health services. Therefore, according to treatment guidelines, two thirds of all individuals with depression are insufficiently treated. In the past, the subjective perspective of people who (do not) make use of mental health services has been neglected. Factors related to the use of health services are described in Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (ABM). The aim of this study is to supplement operationalizations of subjectively perceived and evaluated individual characteristics in the ABM and to evaluate whether the supplemented model can better explain mental health services use in individuals with depression than established operationalizations. METHODS: A representative telephone study with two measurement points will be conducted. In an explanatory mixed-methods design, qualitative interviews will be added to further interpret the quantitative data. A nationwide sample scoring 5 or more on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) will be recruited and interviewed via telephone at T0 and 12 months later (T1). Data on established and subjective characteristics as well as mental health service use will be collected. At T1, conducting a diagnostic interview (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, DIA-X-12/M-CIDI) enables the recording of 12-month diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Ideally, n = 768 datasets will be available and analyzed descriptively by means of regression analysis. Up to n = 32 persons who use or do not use depression-specific health services incongruent with their objective or subjective needs will be interviewed (face-to-face) to better explain their behavior. In addition, theories of non-need-based mental health service use are developed within the framework of the grounded theory-based analysis of the qualitative interviews. DISCUSSION: The study intends to contribute to the theoretical foundation of health services research and to specify the characteristics described in the ABM. Thus, after completion of the study, a further sophisticated and empirically tested model will be available to explain mental health services. The identified modifiable influencing factors are relevant for the development of strategies to increase mental health service use in line with the objective and subjective needs of individuals with depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Germany , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
15.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(5): 556-566, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and burnout are severe and frequent conditions among emergency healthcare workers exposed to repeated work-related traumatic experiences. The aim of the present study was to investigate PTSD, burnout and global functioning in a sample of emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) of a major university hospital in Italy, exploring possible correlations between the two constructs. METHODS: The study sample included 137 medical and nursing Emergency Room and Intensive Care Unit staff members of a major University Hospital in Italy (Pisa), all assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum - Self Report (TALS-SR), for post-traumatic stress spectrum, the Professional Quality of Life Scale - Revision IV (ProQOL R-IV), for burnout related to work activities, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), for global functioning. RESULTS: Forty-nine subjects reported a full (18, 14.3%) or partial (31, 24.6%) symptomatological DSM-5 PTSD. HCWs with PTSD reported significantly higher burnout scores and global functioning impairment compared to those without PTSD. Mean to good significant correlations emerged between the TALS-SR total and domains scores, the ProQOL subscales and the WSAS scores. CONCLUSIONS: This work, conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic, underlines a positive correlation between burnout and post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms in emergency HCWs, showing the need for a deeper assessment of work-related post-traumatic stress symptoms in such population in order to improve the well-being and to prevent burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adult , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Self Report , Social Adjustment , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
17.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 368-374, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies about the reliability and validity of the updated PCL version for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (PCL-5) have only been evaluated in certain samples of the population, which lacks in the sample of Healthcare Workers. Our study focused on the factor structure, reliability and validity of the PCL-5 among Chinese Healthcare Workers during the Outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of frontline healthcare workers using the PCL-5 for PTSD. Total of 212 frontline healthcare providers were included in this study. RESULTS: The findings showed that PCL-5 is a reliable instrument in our sample. The total and subscale scores showed good internal consistency. The convergent and discriminant validity of the PCL-5 were also well demonstrated. Our result showed a better fit with the seven-factor hybrid model compared with other models and supported that the PCL-5 Chinese version can be used as a reliable screening tool to conduct psychological screening for Chinese healthcare workers. LIMITATION: We could not examine other aspects of reliability and validity like test-retest reliability or criterion validity. We didn't use the gold-standard structured interview for PTSD in our study. Besides, most of our samples were young people who had access to the internet. Not all professional levels and seniorities were presented because our sample had a lower mean income and educational level. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the Chinese PCL-5 has good validity and reliability in frontline healthcare workers during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Checklist , China/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
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