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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731272, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775862

ABSTRACT

Background: Loose bowels is a clinical sign of gastrointestinal transport channel proteins, channels, and physical and chemical boundaries being harmed, prompting issues of water and electrolyte transport in the intestinal system. It is still considered as a major reason for emergency visits to hospitals in low-middle income countries. Zinc is a suitable treatment along with ORS for diarrhea. KAP surveys are usually conducted to collect information about general or specific topics of a particular population. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude, practices (KAP), and one health perspective regarding diarrhea among the participants from urban and rural populations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods: Data was collected by conducting a survey among residents of twin cities over a period of 6 months (from July 2020 to December 2020). The questionnaire compromised socio-demographic features and the degree of KAP with respect to diarrhea management and control. One way ANOVA tests were applied to observe the demographic relationship and various factors influencing knowledge, attitude, practices, and one health perspective about diarrhea. Results: A total of 338 subjects participated in the study. Female subjects were in the majority with 63% while the rest were male. A majority of the participants were between 15-25 years of age and 79.6% participants were un-married. The leading ethnic group was Punjabi with 52.7%; the lowest ethnic group were of Sindhi ethnicity with 8.6%. Age has a significant association with respect to knowledge and attitude. Religion has a significant association with respect to knowledge, practices, and one health, while education/qualification has an association with knowledge. The rest of the variables found no association with each other. Conclusion: It is concluded from the recent study that most residents of the twin cities of Pakistan knew about diarrhea and had a good attitude and practices toward it. Age, religion, and education have different roles regarding different diseases in the population of Pakistan. The current study has its limitations as well. Parts of the study were conducted in the capital of Pakistan which is more developed as compared to other areas of Pakistan. It would be better to explore the remote areas of Pakistan where basic amenities of life such as education, wealth, and unemployment are not available. It is important to create more awareness among community members. They should be aware how dangerous these viruses and bacteria can be. Other parts of Pakistan should also be explored for better understanding that will help in making a nationwide health policy.


Subject(s)
One Health , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765944

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the major pathogen that causes diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, with devastating impact on the pig industry. To further understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field strains, in this study the complete genomes of four PEDV variants (HN2021, CH-HNYY-2018, CH-SXWS-2018, and CH-HNKF-2016) obtained from immunized pig farms in central China between 2016 to 2021 were characterized and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome and S gene showed that the four strains identified in the present study had evolved into the subgroup G2a, but were distant from the vaccine strain CV777. Additionally, it was noteworthy that a new PEDV strain (named HN2021) belonging to the G2a PEDV subgroup was successfully isolated in vitro and it was further confirmed by RT-PCR that this isolate had a large natural deletion at 207-373 nt of the ORF3 gene, which has never been reported before. Particularly, in terms of pathogenicity evaluation, colostrum deprivation piglets challenged with PEDV HN2021 showed severe diarrhea and high mortality, confirming that PEDV HN2021 was a virulent strain. Hence, PEDV strain HN2021 of subgroup G2a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of recurring porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China. This study lays the foundation for better understanding of the genetic evolution and molecular pathogenesis of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Vaccines , Animals , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea , Phylogeny , Swine , Virulence
3.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760783

ABSTRACT

Shigella species account for the second-leading cause of deaths due to diarrheal diseases among children of less than 5 years of age. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant Shigella isolates and the lack of availability of Shigella vaccines have led to the pertinence in the efforts made for the development of new therapeutic strategies against shigellosis. Consequently, designing small-interfering RNA (siRNA) candidates against such infectious agents represents a novel approach to propose new therapeutic candidates to curb the rampant rise of anti-microbial resistance in such pathogens. In this study, we analyzed 264 conserved sequences from 15 different conserved virulence genes of Shigella sp., through extensive rational validation using a plethora of first-generation and second-generation computational algorithms for siRNA designing. Fifty-eight siRNA candidates were obtained by using the first-generation algorithms, out of which only 38 siRNA candidates complied with the second-generation rules of siRNA designing. Further computational validation showed that 16 siRNA candidates were found to have a substantial functional efficiency, out of which 11 siRNA candidates were found to be non-immunogenic. Finally, three siRNA candidates exhibited a sterically feasible three-dimensional structure as exhibited by parameters of nucleic acid geometry such as: the probability of wrong sugar puckers, bad backbone confirmations, bad bonds, and bad angles being within the accepted threshold for stable tertiary structure. Although the findings of our study require further wet-lab validation and optimization for therapeutic use in the treatment of shigellosis, the computationally validated siRNA candidates are expected to suppress the expression of the virulence genes, namely: IpgD (siRNA 9) and OspB (siRNA 15 and siRNA 17) and thus act as a prospective tool in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. However, the findings of our study require further wet-lab validation and optimization for regular therapeutic use for treatment of shigellosis.


Subject(s)
Dysentery, Bacillary , Shigella , Child , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Dysentery, Bacillary/drug therapy , Dysentery, Bacillary/genetics , Humans , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Shigella/genetics
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1010-1013, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750052

ABSTRACT

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) was first identified in the USA and has been previously described in several countries. In order to test the presence of ECoV in China, we collected 51 small intestinal samples from donkey foals with diarrhoea from a donkey farm in Shandong Province, China between August 2020 and April 2021. Two samples tested positive for ECoV and full-length genome sequences were successfully obtained using next-generation sequencing, one of which was further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The two strains shared 100% sequence identity at the scale of whole genome. Bioinformatics analyses further showed that the two Chinese strains represent a novel genetic variant of ECoV and shared the highest sequence identity of 97.05% with the first identified ECoV strain - NC99. In addition, it may be a recombinant, with the recombination region around the NS2 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of ECoV in China, highlighting its risk to horse/donkey breeding. In addition, its potential risk to public health also warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Coronavirus Infections , Horse Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Equidae , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horses , Phylogeny
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 127, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1728637

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhoea is one of the major problems in cattle farming with high morbidity and mortality in herds. Two enteric viruses, bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV), are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in young calves, whereas picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are often associated with diarrhoea. In the present study, the faecal specimens of 127 diarrhoeic bovines (less than 1-month-old) were employed to investigate the infection frequencies of these three pathogens. Results indicated that frequencies of BRV and BCoV in diarrhoeic calves were 38.58% and 29.92%, respectively. The 7.08% of bovine calf samples (9 out of 127) were found to be positive for PBV genogroup I. Sequence analysis further revealed the high genetic heterogeneity within representative PBV sequences. Additionally, both PBV-BCoV (n = 2) and BCoV-BRV-PBV (n = 1) co-infections were detected in bovine calves for the first time. Consequently, our findings pointed out the highly divergent nature of PBVs without regard to exact host or territory and the occasional co-existence with other enteric agents.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Picobirnavirus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces , Genetic Variation , Picobirnavirus/genetics , Turkey/epidemiology
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28777, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is often accompanied by diarrhea, patients with symptoms such as diarrhea are more likely to develop severe pneumonia, while diarrhea is the most prominent among atypical symptoms. The incidence of diarrhea in COVID-19 patients is 2.0% to 49.5%. Moxibustion has been proven to have a therapeutic effect on diarrhea; however, there is no high-quality evidence on moxibustion for diarrhea in COVID-19 patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for the treatment of diarrhea in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials from December 2019 to December 2021 will be included without restrictions on language or publication date. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database, and VIP database will be searched. Two researchers will independently select studies, extract data and evaluate study quality. Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials will be used to assess the risk of bias of included studies. Statistical analyses will be performed using the Review Manager V.5.3 and stata 14.0. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This study will provide evidence for whether moxibustion therapy is beneficial to the treatment of diarrhea in COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this study. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at conferences, and shared on social media platforms. This review would be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal or conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022302933.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/therapy , Moxibustion , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 15(2): 393-400, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670005

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 exhibit various gastrointestinal symptoms. Although diarrhea is reported in many cases, the pathophysiology of diarrhea has not been fully clarified. Herein, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea that was successfully relieved by the administration of a bile acid sequestrant. The patient was a 59-year-old man whose pneumonia was treated by the administration of glucocorticoids and mechanical ventilation. However, beginning on the 30th hospital day, he developed severe watery diarrhea (up to 10 times a day). Colonoscopy detected ulcers in the terminal ileum and ascending colon. The oral administration of a bile acid sequestrant, colestimide, improved his diarrhea quickly. Ileal inflammation is reported to suppress expression of the gut epithelial apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. It decreases bile acid absorption at the distal ileum and increases colonic delivery of bile acids, resulting in bile acid diarrhea. In summary, the clinical course of the case presented in this report suggests that bile acid diarrhea is a possible mechanism of watery diarrhea observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/etiology , Humans , Ileum , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Male , Middle Aged
10.
Rev Gastroenterol Mex (Engl Ed) ; 87(1): 59-62, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661900

ABSTRACT

Of the 971 patients admitted to our Clinic with suspected COVID-19, 15 (1.5%) presented with two consecutive attacks of diarrhea. One of those patients (a 47-year-old woman) required admission to the intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation. She died on the 11th day of hospitalization (18th day of illness). The first attack of diarrhea in those patients occurred on the 6th (4th-7th) day of disease and lasted 3 (3-5) days. The second attack of diarrhea developed 11 (8-12) days after the initial onset of diarrhea. Despite the existing trend, the difference in the duration of the diarrhea and the maximum number of bowel movements per day between the first and second attacks was not statistically significant (p = 0.130; p = 0.328). There was no significant difference between the patients with a double attack of diarrhea and those with no diarrhea, regarding the results of the complete blood count, biochemical blood tests, and inflammation biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(1): 36-40, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650209

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stool samples of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and this virus can be transmitted via the oral-fecal route. However, there are only few reports on the viral load in the stool samples. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool samples of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using pepper mild mottle virus as a control, which has been proposed as a potential marker of human feces contamination in the environmental water bodies. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the stool samples of four patients (31%), and among them, three exhibited symptoms of diarrhea. One patient who suffered from long-term diarrhea (22 days) exhibited highest level of viral RNA in the stool sample (8.28 log10 copies/g). However, we could not harvest SARS-CoV-2 from the stool sample of any patient, even after culturing with VeroE6/TMPRESS2 cells for four weeks. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in the stool samples of patients with COVID-19 suffering from diarrhea. However, further studies elucidating the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the stool samples and symptoms of diarrhea in large cohorts and upon adjusting other causative factors and virus infectivity are still warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Humans , Pilot Projects , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
12.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 46: 100597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629279

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans are associated with electrolyte shifts and diarrhea. Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIE) in dogs produce inflammatory lesions usually located more diffusely throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence of electrolyte imbalances in canine CIE is unknown. We retrospectively evaluated serum electrolyte (Na+, Cl-, corrected Cl-, and K+) concentrations in 37 dogs with CIE. Hypokalemia was the most frequent electrolyte abnormality, affecting 7 (19%) CIE dogs and with no difference between food-responsive and immunosuppressant-responsive (IRE) cases. Hyponatremia was less common (14%) and predominantly seen with IRE; serum Na+ concentration correlated with the severity of diarrhea and duodenal histologic lesions. Hypo- (5%) and hyperchloridemia (11%) were also detected. Electrolyte imbalances occur with equal frequency in canine CIE and human IBD. Increased K+ secretion might exceed compromised Na+/Cl- absorption or K+ shifts might be more pronounced in canine CIE. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying CIE-associated diarrhea warrant further research.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/veterinary , Dogs , Electrolytes , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/veterinary , Retrospective Studies
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112650, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of the present work was to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous COVID-19 vaccination regimens in clinical trials and observational studies. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, MedRxiv, BioRxiv databases were searched in September 29, 2021. The PRISMA instruction for systemic review was followed. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data and assessed risk of bias. The quality of studies was evaluated using the New Castle-Ottawa and Cochrane risk of instrument. The characteristics and study outcome (e.g., adverse events, immune response, and variant of concern) were extracted. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in the final data synthesis with 5 clinical trials and 14 observational studies. Heterologous vaccine administration showed a trend toward more frequent systemic reactions. However, the total reactogenicity was tolerable and manageable. Importantly, the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens provided higher immunogenic effect either vector/ mRNA-based vaccine or vector/ inactivated vaccine in both humoral and cellular immune response. Notably, the heterologous regimens induced the potential protection against the variant of concern, even to the Delta variant. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provided evidence about the higher induction of robust immunogenicity and tolerated reactogenicity of heterologous vaccination regimens (vector-based/mRNA vaccine or vector-based/inactivated vaccine). Also, this study supports the application of heterologous regimens against COVID-19 which may provide more opportunities to speed up the global vaccination campaign and maximize the capacity to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , /therapeutic use , Arthralgia/chemically induced , /therapeutic use , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Fatigue/chemically induced , Fever/chemically induced , Headache/chemically induced , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Injection Site Reaction/etiology , Myalgia/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit/therapeutic use
14.
Nutrition ; 96: 111602, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627692

ABSTRACT

Probiotics and their food sources, prebiotics, are known to have qualities that help with gastrointestinal issues along with overall improvement in health and well-being. Pro- and prebiotics play a key role in neuroimmune processes. Their beneficial effects on health are linked to interactions of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system, and neurologic systems. The interaction between the microflora-gut-brain axis has a profound effect on brain function, thereby influencing the overall well-being of an individual. Nutritionists, researchers, regulatory bodies (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization), pharmaceutical, and food manufacturers are currently engaged in enhancing the potential of nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention. Nutrition has the potential to increase psychological well-being and could be used much as are psychiatric drugs. Probiotics and prebiotics have evolved as promising therapeutic techniques to treat several disease conditions associated with the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this review was to provide useful information about the use of probiotics and prebiotics in mitigation of various diseases such as COVID-19, congenital heart disease, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, hypertension, genitourinary tract infection, colon cancer, immune system defense, mineral absorption, allergic disorders, and atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Diarrhea , Humans , Immune System , Prebiotics , Probiotics/therapeutic use
15.
Vopr Pitan ; 90(6): 18-30, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626717

ABSTRACT

In addition to the typical clinical picture of respiratory symptoms and intoxication, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is also characterized by a gastroenterotropic effect. Diarrhea is one of the most common gastroenterological symptoms of COVID-19 and is detected, according to the various authors, in 2-49.5% of cases, including children. The presence of diarrhea aggravates the patient's clinical condition, limits the possibility of carrying out the necessary diagnostic manipulations, and complicates the selection of therapy. The article provides an overview of the scientific literature on the formation of diarrheal syndrome in patients with COVID-19. Objective. Analysis of scientific publications studying the pathogenesis, incidence, clinical features, aspects of diagnosis and therapy of diarrhea in patients with COVID-19. Material and methods. A search was made for scientific publications on the electronic resources PubMed, Google Scholar and eLIBRARY.ru. Results. The pathogenesis of diarrhea in a new coronavirus infection is complex and includes, among other things, the effect of the virus on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, inducing an inflammatory process in the gastrointestinal tract mucosa, neurotropic effect on the autonomic regulation of intestinal motor activity, disturbance of the colon microbiota, liver and pancreas damage. Another important pathogenetic aspect of diarrhea in COVID-19 is iatrogenic one, i.e. a side effect of drugs used in the treatment of a new coronavirus infection and its complications, and the activation of opportunistic clostridial intestinal flora against the background of antibiotic therapy. The variety of pathogenetic mechanisms of diarrheal syndrome formation allows us to speak of "COVID-associated diarrhea" as an independent clinical phenomenon characteristic for the new coronavirus infection. Mandatory diagnostic algorithm of a patient with COVID-19 and diarrhea is the fecal analysis test for toxins Cl. difficile, while the possibility of endoscopic examinations during the pandemic is limited. Compliance with the hygiene measures, diet correction and nutritional support, rational antibiotic therapy of COVID-19 complications, careful use of antiperistaltic antidiarrheal drugs, nonspecific therapy (antiviral, rehydration, adsorbents) are considered as the main therapeutic approaches for diarrheal syndrome against the background of COVID-19. The administration of probiotics and antibacterials should be considered in case of confirmed clostridial co-infection. Conclusion. Diarrhea is a frequent clinical manifestation of COVID-19 and can affect the course of the disease. The complex genesis of diarrheal syndrome requires further study of therapeutic strategies and nutritional support for patients after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(12): 12374-12380, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the incidence of diarrhea in severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and to observe the efficacy and prognosis of probiotic use in such patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the symptoms and incidence of diarrhea in 156 cases of COVID-19 confirmed by the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and the Xinyang Fifth People's Hospital, China. A total of 58 cases of severe and critical COVID-19 were identified and divided into the treatment group or the control group. The control group was given standard treatment according to the Protocols for Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19: Prevention, Control, Diagnosis and Management. Patients in the treatment group were administered oral probiotics as well as the standard treatment. The 2 groups were compared in terms of nutritional status (serum albumin), improvement of diarrhea symptoms, changes in inflammatory condition [procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], the time taken to register a negative result for respiratory tract pathogens on the nucleic acid test, and changes to white blood cell and lymphocyte cell counts. RESULTS: In this study cohort, diarrhea was detected in 15.38% (24/156) of COVID-19 patients. The incidence of diarrhea in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 was approximately 8.16% (8/98), and the incidence of diarrhea in severe and critically ill patients was approximately 27.59% (16/58). In patients with severe and critical COVID-19, probiotic treatment obviously shortened the duration of diarrhea. Furthermore, compared with the control group, patients treated with probiotics showed a significantly reduced time to achieving a negative nucleic acid test and the inflammation indexes including PCT and CRP were significantly reduced (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of diarrhea in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than that in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. Probiotics may have a good supporting role in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and its early application is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Diarrhea , Humans , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 661-671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603045

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Three outbreaks of fatal diarrhoea occurred in bush dog (Speothos venaticus) groups at two zoological collections in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2017. In all cases, the predominant clinical signs were diarrhoea, anorexia and severe loss of condition. Despite supportive treatment, a number of fatalities occurred during each outbreak. Common gross post mortem findings were emaciation, with erythema, mucosal haemorrhage, and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathological features included villus blunting and fusion, crypt epithelial loss and lymphoid depletion, supporting a viral aetiology and canine coronavirus was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of serology (rising antibody titres) and the detection of viral nucleic acid using polymerase chain reaction. The canine coronavirus was subtyped as type 2a, which is known to cause systemic fatal disease in immature domestic dogs. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases of fatal diarrhoea associated with canine coronavirus type 2a in bush dogs. These outbreaks suggest that adult bush dogs are highly susceptible to canine coronavirus infection and may succumb to viral enteritis.


INTRODUCTION: Trois foyers de diarrhée mortelle sont survenus dans des groupes de chiens de brousse (Speothos venaticus) dans deux parcs zoologiques au Royaume-Uni entre 2009 et 2017. Dans tous les cas, les signes cliniques prédominants étaient la diarrhée, l'anorexie et une grave perte de condition. Malgré un traitement de soutien, un certain nombre de décès sont survenus au cours de chaque épidémie. Les résultats macroscopiques courants post-mortem étaient l'émaciation, un érythème, des hémorragies des muqueuses et des ulcération du tractus gastro-intestinal. Les caractéristiques histopathologiques comprenaient un émoussement et une fusion des villosités, une perte épithéliale des cryptes et une déplétion lymphoïde, ce qui confortait une étiologie virale. Un coronavirus canin a été suspecté. Le diagnostic a été confirmé sur la base de la sérologie (augmentation des titres d'anticorps) et de la détection d'acide nucléique viral par amplification en chaîne par polymérase. Le coronavirus canin a été sous-typé comme type 2a, qui est connu pour provoquer une maladie systémique mortelle chez les chiens domestiques immatures. À la connaissance des auteurs, il s'agit des premiers cas signalés de diarrhée mortelle associée au coronavirus canin de type 2a chez les chiens des buissons. Ces épidémies suggèrent que les chiens des buissons adultes sont très sensibles à l'infection par le coronavirus canin et peuvent succomber à une entérite virale.


Subject(s)
Canidae , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , United Kingdom
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009629, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581906

ABSTRACT

Identifying order of symptom onset of infectious diseases might aid in differentiating symptomatic infections earlier in a population thereby enabling non-pharmaceutical interventions and reducing disease spread. Previously, we developed a mathematical model predicting the order of symptoms based on data from the initial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China using symptom occurrence at diagnosis and found that the order of COVID-19 symptoms differed from that of other infectious diseases including influenza. Whether this order of COVID-19 symptoms holds in the USA under changing conditions is unclear. Here, we use modeling to predict the order of symptoms using data from both the initial outbreaks in China and in the USA. Whereas patients in China were more likely to have fever before cough and then nausea/vomiting before diarrhea, patients in the USA were more likely to have cough before fever and then diarrhea before nausea/vomiting. Given that the D614G SARS-CoV-2 variant that rapidly spread from Europe to predominate in the USA during the first wave of the outbreak was not present in the initial China outbreak, we hypothesized that this mutation might affect symptom order. Supporting this notion, we found that as SARS-CoV-2 in Japan shifted from the original Wuhan reference strain to the D614G variant, symptom order shifted to the USA pattern. Google Trends analyses supported these findings, while weather, age, and comorbidities did not affect our model's predictions of symptom order. These findings indicate that symptom order can change with mutation in viral disease and raise the possibility that D614G variant is more transmissible because infected people are more likely to cough in public before being incapacitated with fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mutation , Nausea/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
19.
Dig Dis ; 39(6): 622-625, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The COVID-19 disease, which was declared epidemic by the WHO, is a global emergency public health problem. Patients with extrapulmonary symptoms are the group of patients who should be considered for person-to-person transmission in the community. In our study, it was aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients with COVID-19-related diarrhea symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted retrospectively in CO-VID-19 rtRT-PCR-positive patients in 5 medical centers. Three or more loose/liquid stools per day or increased number of defecations compared to normal defecation were defined as diarrhea. The patients were analyzed in 2 groups as those with and without diarrhea. RESULTS: One thousand eighty-six patients were included in the study. Seventy-eight (7.2%) of the patients had diarrhea. Diarrhea was watery in 54 (69.2%) patients while with blood and mucus in 18 (23.1%) patients. Diarrhea continued for an average of 5.2 ± 1.6 (2-11) days. The clinical and laboratory findings of patients with diarrhea were more serious than those without diarrhea. Diarrhea is more common in the elderly and people with comorbid disease, and patients with diarrhea had higher CMI score and CRP and higher complaints of fever, cough, shortness of breath, myalgia, and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of diarrhea should indicate a suspected COVID-19 infection and suggest testing for early diagnosis of the disease. It should be kept in mind that the course of the disease may be more severe in these patients, and precautions should also be taken in terms of fecal transmission during discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diarrhea , Aged , Diarrhea/virology , Feces , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e336, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572279

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread worldwide and remains an ongoing medical challenge. This case series reports on the clinical features and characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and confirmed COVID-19 infection. From February 2020 to March 2021, nine patients with IBD had confirmed COVID-19 across four hospitals in Korea. The median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 42 years. Six patients were male, and seven patients had ulcerative colitis (UC). No patients required oxygen therapy, intensive care unit hospitalizations, or died. The most common symptom was fever, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms developed as diarrhea in five patients with UC. Oral steroids were used to combat UC aggravation in two patients. In this case series of nine IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Korea, the clinical presentation was predominately a mild respiratory tract infection. Most patients with UC developed new GI symptoms including diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Administration, Oral , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Young Adult
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