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1.
Arch Virol ; 168(6): 166, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238472

ABSTRACT

Clostridium perfringens is a constituent of the normal gut microbiome in pigs; however, it can potentially cause pre- and post-weaning diarrhea. Nevertheless, the importance of this bacterium as a primary pathogen of diarrhea in piglets needs to be better understood, and the epidemiology of C. perfringens in Korean pig populations is unknown. To study the prevalence and typing of C. perfringens, 203 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal piglets on 61 swine farms during 2021-2022 and examined for the presence of C. perfringens and enteric viruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). We determined that the most frequently identified type of C. perfringens was C. perfringens type A (CPA; 64/203, 31.5%). Among the CPA infections, single infections with CPA (30/64, 46.9%) and coinfections with CPA and PEDV (29/64, 45.3%) were the most common in diarrheal samples. Furthermore, we conducted animal experiments to investigate the clinical outcome of single infections and coinfections with highly pathogenic (HP)-PEDV and CPA in weaned piglets. The pigs infected with HP-PEDV or CPA alone showed mild or no diarrhea, and none of them died. However, animals that were co-inoculated with HP-PEDV and CPA showed more-severe diarrheal signs than those of the singly infected pigs. Additionally, CPA promoted PEDV replication in coinfected piglets, with high viral titers in the feces. A histopathological examination revealed more-severe villous atrophy in the small intestine of coinfected pigs than in singly infected pigs. This indicates a synergistic effect of PEDV and CPA coinfection on clinical disease in weaned piglets.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Clostridium perfringens , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Weaning , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/pathology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Patient Acuity
2.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(6): 465-474, 2023 02 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are causative agents of diarrhea, respiratory diseases in calves and winter cow dysentery. The study of genetic diversity of these viruses is topical issue. The purpose of the research is studying the genetic diversity of BCoV isolates circulating among dairy cattle in Siberia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens used in this study were collected from animals that died or was forcedly slaughtered before the start of the study. The target for amplification were nucleotide sequences of S and N gene regions. RESULTS: Based on the results of RT-PCR testing, virus genome was present in 16.3% of samples from calves with diarrheal syndrome and in 9.9% with respiratory syndrome. The nucleotide sequences of S gene region were determined for 18 isolates, and N gene sequences - for 12 isolates. Based on S gene, isolates were divided into two clades each containing two subclades. First subclade of first clade (European line) included 11 isolates. Second one included classic strains Quebec and Mebus, strains from Europe, USA and Korea, but none of sequences from this study belonged to this subclade. 6 isolates belonged to first subclade of second clade (American-Asian line). Second subclade (mixed line) included one isolate. N gene sequences formed two clades, one of them included two subclades. First subclade included 3 isolates (American-Asian line), and second subclade (mixed) included one isolate. Second clade (mixed) included 8 sequences. No differences in phylogenetic grouping between intestinal and respiratory isolates, as well as according to their geographic origin were identified. CONCLUSION: The studied population of BCoV isolates is heterogeneous. Nucleotide sequence analysis is a useful tool for studying molecular epidemiology of BCoV. It can be beneficial for choice of vaccines to be used in a particular geographic region.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Coronavirus , Female , Cattle , Animals , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 23-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The primary symptom of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is diarrhea of varying severity. Both malnutrition and clinical nutrition increase the risk for contracting Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection and the likelihood of relapses. Moreover, the risk for recurrence is higher if there is infection with a hypervirulent strain (NAP1/BI/027). Hypoalbuminemia predisposes to a severe course of the disease and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was carried out of the data regarding patients hospitalized at the Regional Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw from 01 January 2020 to 31 December 2021 who were diagnosed with C. difficile infection. A severe course of infection was diagnosed when a blood test showed a leukocyte count greater than or equal to 15,000/µl and/or a creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dl (>132.6 mmol/l). RESULTS: Clostridioides difficile infection was the reason for 185 hospitalizations (involving 108 women and 77 men), of 167 patients aged from 22 to 93 years old. There were 68 (37%) cases of recurrent infection. Seventy-five (41%) infections met the study's criteria for severe CDI, and 12 (7%) patients died. Out of the total number of hospitalizations, 41 (22%) were due SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. PCR tests detecting binary toxin revealed 34 (18%) positive results. Infection with a hypervirulent strain was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of diarrhea which had C. difficile etiology. Overall, during an episode of diarrhea, one antibacterial drug was used in 139 cases (75%), two in 27 (15%), three in 14 (8%) situations, and four - twice (1%). Among these, drugs not recommended for the treatment of CDI were used in 21 (11%) cases. The number of antibacterial drugs administered during an episode of diarrhea was an independent risk factor for the death of the infected person. Clinical nutrition was applied during 19 hospitalizations (10%), out of which 12 (63%) cases showed a severe course of C. difficile infection, while four patients (21%) died. Using clinical nutrition methods was an independent risk factor for a severe course of the disease and patient death. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical nutrition and the number of antibiotics used during an episode of diarrhea are independent risk factors for the death of a patient with CDI. Infection with a hypervirulent strain increases the risk for relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Poland/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Recurrence
4.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235501

ABSTRACT

This multicenter cohort study used Sankey plots and exponential bar plots to visualize the fluctuating evolution and the trajectory of gastrointestinal symptoms in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors during the first 18 months after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 1266 previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors were assessed at four points: hospital admission (T0), at 8.4 months (T1), at 13.2 months (T2), and at 18.3 months (T3) after hospitalization. Participants were asked about their overall gastrointestinal symptoms and particularly diarrhea. Clinical and hospitalization data were collected from hospital medical records. The prevalence of overall gastrointestinal post-COVID symptomatology was 6.3% (n = 80) at T1, 3.99% (n = 50) at T2 and 2.39% (n = 32) at T3. The prevalence of diarrhea decreased from 10.69% (n = 135) at hospital admission (T0), to 2.55% (n = 32) at T1, to 1.04% (n = 14) at T2, and to 0.64% (n = 8) at T3. The Sankey plots revealed that just 20 (1.59%) and 4 (0.32%) patients exhibited overall gastrointestinal post-COVID symptoms or diarrhea, respectively, throughout the whole follow-up period. The recovery fitted exponential curves revealed a decreasing prevalence trend, showing that diarrhea and gastrointestinal symptoms recover during the first two or three years after COVID-19 in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. The regression models did not reveal any symptoms to be associated with the presence of gastrointestinal post-COVID symptomatology or post-COVID diarrhea at hospital admission or at T1. The use of Sankey plots revealed the fluctuating evolution of gastrointestinal post-COVID symptoms during the first two years after infection. In addition, exponential bar plots revealed the decreased prevalence of gastrointestinal post-COVID symptomatology during the first three years after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Survivors
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 919-928, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241735

ABSTRACT

Although Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) incidence is high in the United States, standard-of-care (SOC) stool collection and testing practices might result in incidence overestimation or underestimation. We conducted diarrhea surveillance among inpatients >50 years of age in Louisville, Kentucky, USA, during October 14, 2019-October 13, 2020; concurrent SOC stool collection and CDI testing occurred independently. A study CDI case was nucleic acid amplification test‒/cytotoxicity neutralization assay‒positive or nucleic acid amplification test‒positive stool in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis. Study incidence was adjusted for hospitalization share and specimen collection rate and, in a sensitivity analysis, for diarrhea cases without study testing. SOC hospitalized CDI incidence was 121/100,000 population/year; study incidence was 154/100,000 population/year and, in sensitivity analysis, 202/100,000 population/year. Of 75 SOC CDI cases, 12 (16.0%) were not study diagnosed; of 109 study CDI cases, 44 (40.4%) were not SOC diagnosed. CDI incidence estimates based on SOC CDI testing are probably underestimated.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Adult , United States , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Kentucky/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Errors , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Specimen Handling
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1286-1288, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324863

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with gastrointestinal manifestations, its effect on the pancreas remains unclear. We aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of hyperlipasemia in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients across 6 US centers with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 71 patients, 9 (12.1%) developed hyperlipasemia, with 2 (2.8%) greater than 3 times upper limit of normal. No patient developed acute pancreatitis. Hyperlipasemia was not associated with poor outcomes or symptoms. DISCUSSION: Although a mild elevation in serum lipase was observed in some patients with COVID-19, clinical acute pancreatitis was not seen.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lipase/blood , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anorexia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology
7.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28709, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326322

ABSTRACT

Since early May 2022, outbreaks of Monkeypox (Mpox) cases have emerged and become a global concern. Studies exploring the gastrointestinal symptoms and/or liver injury of Mpox are still very limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to summarize the gastrointestinal symptoms reported by Mpox patients. We searched for Mpox studies published until October 21, 2022, in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and organization websites. Mpox studies were observational studies that reported at least one of either gastrointestinal symptoms and/or liver injury in Mpox patients. Meta-analysis was done to obtain the pooled prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Mpox patients. Subgroup analyses were done based on the study location, age groups, and Mpox Clades. The quality of included studies was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool. Overall, 31 studies that reported gastrointestinal symptoms and/or liver injury in Mpox patients were included. The reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. There is a lack of reporting for liver injury. The most prevalent gastrointestinal symptoms in Mpox patients were anorexia (47%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 41%-53%), followed by vomiting (12%; 95% CI 11%-13%), nausea (10%; 95% CI 9%-11%), abdominal pain (9%; 95% CI 8%-10%), and diarrhea (5%; 95% CI 4%-6%). Additionally, the prevalence of proctitis, rectal/anal pain, and rectal bleeding were 11% (95% CI 11%-12%), 25% (95% CI 24%-27%), and 12% (95% CI 11%-13%), respectively. Anorexia was the most frequently reported gastrointestinal symptom in Mpox patients, followed by vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Proctitis is a novel presentation of Mpox in the 2022 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Monkeypox , Proctitis , Humans , Anorexia , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Vomiting/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nausea , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology
8.
Arch Virol ; 168(5): 152, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317672

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious virus. PED was first identified in 2008 and has greatly affected the Vietnamese pig production economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PEDV in piglet herds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Diarrheal stool and intestinal samples from 2262 piglets from 191 herds in five provinces were collected to test for the presence of PEDV. Ten PEDV strains were randomly selected for sequencing, and four genes encoding PEDV structural proteins were analyzed. The rates of herds and samples positive for PEDV were 27.23% and 27.72%, respectively. In positive herds, the morbidity and mortality of PEDV-positive piglets were 97.97% and 79.06%, respectively, with most of the infected piglets under 7 days of age. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 10 PEDV strains from this study clustered with genotype G2 strains from Vietnam and neighboring countries. Many amino acid substitutions were identified in important antigenic regions in the spike protein of the 10 strains when compared to four PEDV vaccine strains. This study provides novel insights into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of circulating PEDV strains, which could facilitate the development of an appropriate and proactive strategy for controlling PED.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Vietnam/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Molecular Epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5623, 2023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262548

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the cause of an outbreak of an acute respiratory disease syndrome followed by episodes of diarrhea in a dairy cattle herd from Southern Brazil. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from asymptomatic calves, calves with pulmonary discomfort, and diarrheic calves after episodes of respiratory distress were used in molecular assays designed to detect the principal pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Fecal samples were used for the molecular detection of bovine enteric disease agents. Pulmonary tissues from three calves and a cow that died were evaluated by molecular assays to identify 11 agents associated with the development of BRD. The intestinal and pulmonary fragments of one calf and the cow revealed atrophic enteritis and interstitial pneumonia by histopathology, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified intralesional antigens of a malignant catarrhal fever virus, genus Macavirus, within epithelial cells of the lungs and intestines. Molecular assays amplified ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2) from most of the DNS, and the pulmonary and intestinal fragments from the animals that died, confirming that the Macavirus identified by IHC was OvGHV2. Concomitant pulmonary infections of OvGHV2 with bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 and bovine coronavirus were identified. Additionally, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b and Aichivirus B were detected in the fecal samples. These findings demonstrated that OvGHV2, a Macavirus, was the disease agent most frequently (81.2%; 13/16) associated with singular pulmonary infections during this outbreak of BRD, suggesting that this virus may be another potential agent of respiratory disease of cattle.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Gammaherpesvirinae , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Female , Sheep , Cattle , Animals , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Gammaherpesvirinae/genetics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 301: 114966, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285406

ABSTRACT

Rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are disproportionately burdened by a pervasive lack of access to safe drinking water. Widespread programmatic failure in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) sector has resulted in particularly slow progress in alleviating these challenges in the region. Drawing from decolonial and participatory methodological scholarship, this research demonstrates how geographically and demographically specific, locally controlled, and long-term educational programming can improve health and wellness outcomes when associated with a technological intervention. Specifically, consultations between January 2015 and August 2018 were followed by an iterative and community-driven program development process between January and July 2019. Fifty Maasai women were subsequently recruited to participate and were provided with a point-of-use water treatment technology in August 2019. These women engaged in a series of three 14-week WaSH education programs over an 18-month evaluation period. Results showed that 38% of participants reported regular diarrhea at baseline, decreasing to 8%, 0%, and 3% immediately after each of the three WaSH education programs were provided at 3, 12, and 18 months. Interim measurements taken between WaSH programs showed 35% of participants (at 6 months) and 5% of participants (at 15 months) reporting regular diarrhea. A trend of improvement was thus observed over the study period, though the increase in reported diarrhea at 6 months demonstrates the need for long-term commitment on the part of WASH practitioners when engaging with end users to achieve sustained change. Further, this research highlights the importance of participatory program development and pedagogical approaches in WaSH interventions, where local control of study objective determination and implementation, combined with consistent and long-term engagement, can facilitate sustained technology use and associated reductions in diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Rural Population , Sanitation , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Tanzania , Water Supply
11.
Ter Arkh ; 94(10): 1163-1170, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270273

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) CNCM I-745 probiotic drug in preventing and treating diarrhea in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative study was conducted in two parallel groups. The study included males and females aged 18 to 60 with the following diagnosis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction: U07.2 Coronavirus infection COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus (grade 1-3 pneumonia according to CT scan). All patients received antibiotic therapy. The patients were subdivided into two equal groups (n=60) depending on the administration of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic drug in addition to standard treatment. The probiotic was prescribed by the attending physician; the dose was 2 capsules per day (500 mg/day) 30 min before the meal for 10 days. All patients were monitored for main clinical, laboratory, and instrumental parameters during the study. In addition, the symptom of diarrhea (stool with a frequency of more than 3 times a day of type 6 and 7 according to the Bristol stool scale), including its frequency, duration, and the number of bowel movements of loose stool per day were precisely evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: In the overall patient pool, diarrhea was reported in 21.7% of in-patients during the observation period (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2-29.1) with a mean duration of 4.6154 days (95% CI 3.7910-5.4398). The incidence of diarrhea in group 1 was 13.3% (95% CI 4.5-22.2), and in group 2, it was 30.0% (95% CI 18.1-41.9). Relative risk showed that the use of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic drug leads to a significant reduction in the risk of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection receiving antibiotic therapy (odds ratio [OR] 0.3590, 95% CI 0.1421-0.9069; p=0.0303). In group 1, the duration of diarrhea was 3.1250 days (95% CI 2.5892-3.6608) versus 5.2778 days (95% CI 4.2290-6.3265) in group 2, p=0.0112. The mean daily frequency of loose stools in patients with diarrhea in group 1 was 3.2500 (95% CI 2.6588-3.8412) versus 4.3889 (95% CI 3.7252-5.0525) in group 2, p=0.0272. The secondary endpoint, duration of hospital stay, was also significantly shorter in group 1 patients - 11.6833 days (95% CI 11.2042-12.1625) versus 12.7333 days (95% CI 12.1357-13.3309) in group 2, p=0.0120. CONCLUSION: The present prospective comparative study demonstrated that adding S. boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic drug into the standard treatment regimen of patients with new coronavirus infection COVID-19 receiving antibiotic therapy helps reduce the incidence of diarrhea and its severity during hospitalization, as well as the duration of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Saccharomyces boulardii , Male , Female , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 249: 114138, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243284

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Consistent and effective practice of water treatment, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviour is an indispensable requisite for realizing health improvements among children living in low-income areas with challenging hygienic conditions. Sustainably achieving such a behaviour change is challenging but more likely to be realized during epidemics, when health threats are high and the dissemination of information on preventative measures is intense. Our study conducted cross-sectional surveys in Surkhet District Nepal, before and during the Covid-19 pandemic to assess the impact of water safety interventions and hygiene training implemented before and during the pandemic on WASH conditions and practices and to assess the association of these changes with child health. METHODS: Information on WASH infrastructure, WASH behaviour, nutrition, and child health, including on parasitic infections, was obtained before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in spring 2018 and spring 2021, from 589 children aged between 6 months and 10 years and their caregivers. Data was collected through quantitative, structured face-to-face interviews, observations, health examinations of children including anthropometric measurements, analysis of children's stool, and water quality analysis. The association of changes in WASH factors with changes in child health was analysed using multivariate generalized estimating equations for repeated measures. RESULTS: Water safety management was significantly improved by the introduction of chlorination to piped water supply systems, which served 40% of households. In addition, the percentage of households using a ceramic water filter increased from 12.2% to 34.8%. Large and significant changes were observed in handwashing behaviour (frequency, use of soap and washing at critical times) and infrastructure: 35% of households constructed a new handwashing station. Kitchen and household hygiene also improved. An additional 22% of households improved the cleanliness of the toilet. The number of houses with a cemented floor increased by 20%. WASH changes were significantly associated with improved child health: the chlorination of piped water supply reduced odds ratios for diarrhoea (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15-0.88, p = 0.025), respiratory difficulties (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16-0.92, p = 0.033), fever (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26-0.71, p = 0.001) and cough (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.93, p = 0.024), and. The frequency of handwashing with soap was associated with significantly reduced odds ratios for infections with Giardia lamblia (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50-0.91, p = 0.011), stunting and wasting (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.66-0.92, p = 0.003) and fever (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.96, p = 0.008),. The presence of a handwashing station at baseline was associated with significantly reduced odds ratios for respiratory difficulties (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.26-0.78, p = 0.004). The construction of a handwashing station between baseline and endline was significantly associated with reduced odds ratios for pale conjunctiva (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.17-0.60, p < 0.001), which is a clinical sign of iron deficiency and anaemia, respiratory difficulties (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17-0.89, p = 0.026) and cough (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.26-0.76, p = 0.003). Using a clean container for the transport of drinking water was significantly associated with reduced odds ratios for infections with Giardia lamblia (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16-0.93, p = 0.033) and diarrhoea (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.24-0.96, p = 0.038). Similarly, a cemented floor in the household was significantly associated with reduced odd ratios for diarrhoea (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.16-0.87, p = 0.022) and infections with Giardia lamblia (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.19-1.02, p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: WASH training and the promotion of preventative measures during the Covid-19 pandemic supported improved water safety management and hygiene behaviour, which resulted in a reduction in infectious diseases among children in the study area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Purification , Child , Humans , Infant , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child Health , Nepal/epidemiology , Soaps , Cough/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hygiene , Sanitation , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Water Supply
13.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 34(4): 322-331, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to find the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and to investigate the effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on the course of the disease during hospitalization. METHODS: Patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study. The diagnostic method of COVID-19 was either a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test or a typical finding in chest computed tomography. This study was conducted by contacting patients by phone 1 month after they were discharged from hospital to investigate gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients' laboratory findings at the time of admission, medications they used, and clinical findings were obtained from hospital records retrospectively. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were divided into 2 groups according to the start of treatment: pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. RESULTS: At least 1 gastrointestinal symptom (anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) was present in 67.5% of 435 patients (55.6% male, mean age 52.8). If anorexia and weight loss are excluded, the rate of the presence of at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom is 54%. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 48.9% before the initiation of COVID-19 treatment. The most prevalent 3 symptoms were anorexia, weight loss, and diarrhea (56%, 52%, and 35.6%, respectively). Presence of pre-treatment gastrointestinal symptoms was associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels. Pre-treatment gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in those who received oxygen supply and who were intubated. Resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms takes longer time in those who were admitted to intensive care unit. Weight loss and diarrhea were more common in COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who were intubated than who were not intubated. Abdominal pain was not found to be a significant predictor of disease severity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 67%. The most prevalent symptoms were anorexia, weight loss, and diarrhea. Presence of pre-treatment gastrointestinal symptoms was associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels, use of oxygen supply, and intubation. Gastrointestinal symptoms persist longer in those admitted to intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Anorexia/etiology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Hospitalization , Disease Progression , Oxygen
14.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1103518, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242113

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Diarrhea is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh. Of the different spectrums of diarrheal diseases, cholera occurs every year, causing outbreaks and epidemics following a biannual seasonal pattern. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitalization for diarrheal diseases decreased in 2020 compared to the previous years. However, in 2021, massive outbreaks occurred in different geographical locations of the country. We described that an outbreak of diarrheal diseases causes mortality in different geographical locations in Bangladesh. Method: In this study, we present a report of diarrhea outbreaks that were reported in 2018-2021 in different parts of Bangladesh, and data have been captured from different sources such as print and electronic media as well as from a nationwide surveillance system. Results: Among these locations, districts of Barisal Division, Kishorganj, Noakhali, Gopalganj, Bandarban, and Chattogram were the major hotspots of the outbreaks where high morbidity due to acute watery diarrhea and even mortality, which is usually low in Bangladesh, were recorded. Conclusion: Early detection and prevention and strengthening of the surveillance system are needed to combat the diarrheal upsurge, take immediate control, and adopt preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(3)2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222665

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus in dipterans that commonly inhabit the environment of dairy farms. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected 217 insect specimens from nine dairy farms, which were examined through hemi-nested RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing in search of VP1 and N genes for rotavirus and bovine coronavirus-BCoV, respectively. With a predominance of Muscidae (152/217 = 70%) 11 families of Diptera were identified. Rotavirus A (RVA) and betacoronavirus (BCoV) were detected in 14.7% (32/217) and 4.6% (10/217) of the dipterans, respectively. Sequencing of the amplicons was possible for 11.5% (25/217) of RVA and 0.5% (1/217) of BCoV, confirming the presence of these pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the role of dipterans as carriers of RVA and BCoV of great relevance for public and animal health.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Diptera , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Cattle , Rotavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus , Farms , Insecta , Feces , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Genotype
16.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200866

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a pathogen with enteric tropism. We compared the clinical, biochemical and radiological features of children hospitalized for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, classified in two groups based on the presence of diarrhea. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the variables associated with diarrhea. Overall, 407 children were included in the study (226 males, 55.5%, mean age 3.9 ± 5.0 years), of whom 77 (18.9%) presented with diarrhea, which was mild in most cases. Diarrhea prevalence was higher during the Alpha (23.6%) and Delta waves (21.9%), and in children aged 5-11 y (23.8%). Other gastrointestinal symptoms were most commonly reported in children with diarrhea (p < 0.05). Children with diarrhea showed an increased systemic inflammatory state (higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and ferritin levels, p < 0.005), higher local inflammation as judged by mesenteric fat hyperechogenicity (adjusted Odds Ratio 3.31, 95%CI 1.13-9.70) and a lower chance of previous immunosuppressive state (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.19, 95%CI 0.05-0.70). Diarrhea is a frequent feature of pediatric COVID-19 and is associated with increased systemic inflammation, which is related to the local mesenteric fat inflammatory response, confirming the implication of the gut not only in multisystem inflammatory syndrome but also in the acute phase of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation/complications , Diarrhea/epidemiology
17.
Vaccine ; 41(4): 945-954, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The introduction of vaccination programs in more than 100 countries has contributed to a decrease in hospitalizations and mortality. This study investigates the epidemiological impact of the rotavirus vaccine ROTAVAC® in the Palestinian Territories, the first country to switch from ROTARIX® to this new vaccine. METHODS: Clinical surveillance data was collected fromchildren younger than 5attendingoutpatient clinics throughout Gaza withdiarrhea between 2015 and 2020. The incidence of all-cause diarrhea was assessed using an interrupted time-series approach. Rotavirus prevalence was determined at the Caritas Baby Hospital in the West Bank usingELISA on stool specimen of children younger than 5with diarrhea. Genotyping was performed on 325 randomly selected rotavirus-positive samples from January 2015 through December 2020 using multiplex PCR analysis. RESULTS: Average monthly diarrhea casesdropped by 16.7% annually fromintroduction of rotavirus vaccination in May 2016 to the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in March 2020 for a total of 53%. Case count declines were maintained afterthe switchto ROTAVAC® in October 2018. Rotavirus positivity in stool samples declined by 67.1% over the same period without change followingthe switch to ROTAVAC®. The distribution of predominant genotypes in rotavirus-positive stool samples changed from a pre-vaccination G1P [8] to G9P[8] and G12P[8] during the ROTARIX® period and G2P[4] after the introduction of ROTAVAC®. CONCLUSION: ROTAVAC® has shown epidemiological impact on par with ROTARIX® after its introduction to the national immunization schedule in the Palestinian Territories. A molecular genotype shift from a pre-vaccination predominance of G1P[8] to a current predominance of G2P[4] requires more long-term surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , Infant , Child , Humans , Rotavirus/genetics , Prevalence , Incidence , Arabs , SARS-CoV-2 , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genotype , Rotavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Feces
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1011592, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163183

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 may prevent the spread of other infectious diseases. Our purpose was to assess the effects of NPIs against COVID-19 on infectious diarrhea in Xi'an, China. Methods: Based on the surveillance data of infectious diarrhea, and the different periods of emergence responses for COVID-19 in Xi'an from 2011 to 2021, we applied Bayesian structural time series model and interrupted time series model to evaluate the effects of NPIs against COVID-19 on the epidemiological characteristics and the causative pathogens of infectious diarrhea. Findings: A total of 102,051 cases of infectious diarrhea were reported in Xi'an from 2011 to 2021. The Bayesian structural time series model results demonstrated that the cases of infectious diarrhea during the emergency response period was 40.38% lower than predicted, corresponding to 3,211 fewer cases, during the COVID-19 epidemic period of 2020-2021. The reduction exhibited significant variations in the demography, temporal and geographical distribution. The decline in incidence was especially evident in children under 5-years-old, with decreases of 34.09% in 2020 and 33.99% in 2021, relative to the 2017-2019 average. Meanwhile, the incidence decreased more significantly in industrial areas. Interpretation: NPIs against COVID-19 were associated with short- and long-term reductions in the incidence of infectious diarrhea, and this effect exhibited significant variations in epidemiological characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Incidence , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 887, 2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persons in Pakistan have suffered from various infectious diseases over the years, each impacted by various factors including climate change, seasonality, geopolitics, and resource availability. The COVID-19 pandemic is another complicating factor, with changes in the reported incidence of endemic infectious diseases and related syndromes under surveillance. METHODS: We assessed the monthly incidence of eight important infectious diseases/syndromes: acute upper respiratory infection (AURI), viral hepatitis, malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, typhoid fever, measles, and neonatal tetanus (NNT), before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Administrative health data of monthly reported cases of these diseases/syndromes from all five provinces/regions of Pakistan for a 3-year interval (March 2018-February 2021) were analyzed using an interrupted time series approach. Reported monthly incidence for each infectious disease agent or syndrome and COVID-19 were subjected to time series visualization. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between each infectious disease/syndrome and COVID-19 was calculated and median case numbers of each disease before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic were compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Subsequently, a generalized linear negative binomial regression model was developed to determine the association between reported cases of each disease and COVID-19. RESULTS: In late February 2020, concurrent with the start of COVID-19, in all provinces, there were decreases in the reported incidence of the following diseases: AURI, pneumonia, hepatitis, diarrhea, typhoid, and measles. In contrast, the incidence of COVID was negatively associated with the reported incidence of NNT only in Punjab and Sindh, but not in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Balochistan, or Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) & Gilgit Baltistan (GB). Similarly, COVID-19 was associated with a lowered incidence of malaria in Punjab, Sindh, and AJK & GB, but not in KPK and Balochistan. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was associated with a decreased reported incidence of most infectious diseases/syndromes studied in most provinces of Pakistan. However, exceptions included NNT in KPK, Balochistan and AJK & GB, and malaria in KPK and Balochistan. This general trend was attributed to a combination of resource diversion, misdiagnosis, misclassification, misinformation, and seasonal patterns of each disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Malaria , Measles , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Syndrome , Malaria/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(42): e31090, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087897

ABSTRACT

The study describes epidemiological features and transmission of other infectious diarrhea (OID) before and during the epidemic of COVID-19 in China, which lays a foundation for OID prevention and control. Incidence rate and mortality data of OID containing detailed epidemiological information such as date, age and region from 2004 to 2017, and total OID case number from 2018 to 2020 were obtained from the Data Center of China's Public Health Science and the National Bureau of Statistics' statistical yearbook. The Joinpoint regression model and Z test was used to analyze, while R language and ArcGIS 10.5 for drawing. The autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to predict the influence of COVID-19 on OID. The OID incidence rate increased from 31.69/10 million in 2004 to 92.42/10 million in 2017, and the mortality rate decreased from 1.82/10,000 to 0.14/10,000. The male to female incidence ratio was 1.39:1 (P < .001). The patients' age showed a decreased trend with age (P < .001). The scattered children devoted the most OID incidence rate. The bimodal distribution of OID incidence was summer peak in northern China, 2 apparent peaks in central and eastern, and winter peak in southern. The autoregressive integrated moving average model predicted 1,406,557 in 2020, comparing the actual OID cases in 2020 to 1,062,277. Affected by the epidemic control measures of COVID-19, the number of OID cases declined by 32.4% (Absolute percentage error = 32.4%). The OID incidence rate in China continuously increased and showed a bimodal distribution in summer and winter with inconspicuous regional characteristics, gender and age susceptibility differences, and occupational differences. Meanwhile, COVID-19 significantly reduced OID incidence in 2020. The discoveries might bring a beneficial effect on OID prevention and control policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysentery , Child , Female , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Dysentery/epidemiology , Incidence
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