Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 81
Filter
1.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(8): 464-471, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095369

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is leading to high mortality and a global health crisis. The primary involvement is respiratory; however, the virus can also affect other organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and liver. The most common symptoms are anorexia and diarrhea. In about half of the cases, viral RNA could be detected in the stool, which is another line of transmission and diagnosis. covid19 has a worse prognosis in patients with comorbidities, although there is not enough evidence in case of previous digestive diseases. Digestive endoscopies may give rise to aerosols, which make them techniques with a high risk of infection. Experts and scientific organizations worldwide have developed guidelines for preventive measures. The available evidence on gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement, the impact on patients with previous digestive diseases and operating guidelines for Endoscopy Units during the pandemic are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aerosols , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anorexia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diarrhea/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Feces/virology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Intestines/chemistry , Intestines/virology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Receptors, Virus/analysis , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033055

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the clinical form, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and Clostridioides difficile co-infections. Methods: This retrospective study (2 September 2021-1 April 2022) included all patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Covid Hospital of the University Clinical Center of Vojvodina. Results: A total of 5124 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the Covid Hospital, and 326 of them (6.36%) developed hospital-onset CDI. Of those, 326 of the CDI patients (88.65%) were older than 65 years. The median time of CDI onset was 12.88 days. Previous hospitalizations showed 69.93% of CDI patients compared to 38.81% in the non-CDI group (p = 0.029). The concomitant antibiotics exposure was higher among the CDI group versus the non-CDI group (88.65% vs. 68.42%, p = 0.037). Albumin levels were ≤ 25 g/L among 39.57% of the CDI patients and 21.71% in the non-CDI patients (p = 0.021). The clinical manifestations of CDI ranged from mild diarrhea (26.9%) to severe diarrhea (63.49%) and a complicated form of colitis (9.81%). Regarding outcomes, 79.14% of the CDI patients recovered and 20.86% had fatal outcomes in-hospital. Although a minority of the patients were in the non-CDI group, the difference in mortality rate between the CDI and non-CDI group was not statistically significant (20.86% vs. 15.13%, p = 0.097). Conclusions: Elderly patients on concomitant antibiotic treatments with hypoalbuminemia and with previous healthcare exposures were the most affected by COVID-19 and CD co-infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Aged , Albumins , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Serbia/epidemiology , Universities , Yugoslavia
4.
5.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(11): 955-963, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019, the gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported increasingly in addition to the respiratory system symptoms. The studies show that the prevalence of gastrointestinal system symptoms and how the gastrointestinal system contributes to the severity and prognosis of the disease is still not clear. This study aims to find the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the correlation between the gastrointestinal symptoms and the clinical results in hospitalized patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzes patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and hospitalized in the pandemic unit between March 2020 and August 2020 and compares their demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiologic findings, coronavirus disease 2019 treatments received, the clinical course of the disease, and the gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: In our study, we included 322 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and hospitalized; 39 patients (12.1%) were admitted to the hospital with at least one gastrointestinal symptom (nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and the loss of taste). Nausea and vomiting are the most common gastrointestinal symptoms with a prevalence of 7.1%, followed by diarrhea with 2.8%, the loss of taste with 2.2%, and abdominal pain with 1.5%. The mean age and D-dimer levels of the patients showing gastrointestinal symptoms were lower than those who did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms. We did not find a significant correlation between the presence of the gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of the disease, treatment received, risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock, admission to the intensive care unit, the need for mechanical ventilation, the mortality rate or the length of hospitalization in the medical floor or the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that 12.1% of coronavirus disease 2019 patients apply to the hospital due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal symptoms do not seem to affect the severity and the course of the disease, it is important to identify coronavirus disease 2019 patients showing unusual symptoms such as the gastrointestinal symptoms at an early stage to protect healthcare professionals from infection risk.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Vomiting , Nausea
6.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(9): 925-932, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-coronavirus disease (post-COVID) symptoms arise mostly from impaired function of respiratory tract although in many patients, the dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract and liver among other organ systems may persist. METHODS: Primary data collection was based on a short gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire at the initial screening. A brief telephone survey within the patient and control group was performed 5-8 months after the initial screening. R ver. 4.0.5 and imbalanced RandomForest (RF) machine-learning algorithm were used for data explorations and analyses. RESULTS: A total of 590 patients were included in the study. The general presence of gastrointestinal symptoms 208.2 days (153-230 days) after the initial acute severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was 19% in patients with moderate-to-serious course of the disease and 7.3% in patients with mild course compared with 3.0% in SARS-CoV-2 negative controls (P < 0.001). Diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most prevalent post-COVID gastrointestinal symptoms. RF machine-learning algorithm identified acute diarrhea and antibiotics administration as the strongest predictors for gastrointestinal sequelae with area under curve of 0.68. Variable importance for acute diarrhea is 0.066 and 0.058 for antibiotics administration. CONCLUSION: The presence of gastrointestinal sequelae 7 months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection is significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe course of the acute COVID-19 compared with asymptomatic patients or those with mild course of the disease. The most prevalent post-COVID gastrointestinal symptoms are diarrhea and abdominal pain. The strongest predictors for persistence of these symptoms are antibiotics administration and acute diarrhea during the initial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 60(249): 473-477, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863659

ABSTRACT

Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome is a rare disease characterised by diffuse gastrointestinal polyposis, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation, alopecia, and onychodystrophy. Here we report a case of a 40-year-old female with Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome, who presented with the complaints of diffuse abdominal pain, blood mixed stools, and diarrhoea associated with tenesmus. She had nausea and reduced appetite and lost 10 kgs in 3 months. She had hair fall (alopecia), atrophic changes of nails (onychodystrophy), and hyperpigmentation of the skin in fingers, tongues, and lips. Histopathological biopsy of the gastric and colonic biopsy revealed polypoid edematous mucosa and the colonic biopsies showed scattered dilated glands with inflammatory exudate and mucin. She got Entamoeba histolytica and COVID-19. She received respective antibiotics and protein diets that helped relieve the symptoms. After 4 weeks of steroids, her symptoms improved drastically. Corticosteroids, treating co-infection along with nutritional counselling can be helpful to relieve the symptoms. Keywords: alopecia; case reports; cronkhite-canada syndrome; hyperpigmentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperpigmentation , Intestinal Polyposis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adult , Alopecia/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Humans , Hyperpigmentation/complications , Hyperpigmentation/etiology , Intestinal Polyposis/complications , Intestinal Polyposis/diagnosis , Intestinal Polyposis/pathology
8.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 23(2): 134-137, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814025

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a new type of acute infectious respiratory syndrome that usually presents with mild flu-like symptoms. However, the disease caused widespread illness and death worldwide, and new sequelae are still being discovered. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was isolated from the fecal samples of some infected patients. Many pathogens, including many viral infections, were linked either to the onset or the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With this, we report a series of 2 IBD cases that were diagnosed shortly after recovery from COVID-19. This is the first report that discusses the possibility of developing IBD following COVID-19 infection to the best of our knowledge. This could highlight the importance of thoroughly investigating COVID-19 patients who presented with diarrhea, particularly those with bloody diarrhea, and not consider it a simple manifestation of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(3): 465-467, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796693

ABSTRACT

Cyclospora spp. is an important cause of traveler's diarrhea or water and food-borne diarrhoeal diseases. We present an interesting but rare case report of cyclosporiasis in a 51-year-old male who had undergone renal allograft transplant six years ago. He also had a past history of tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and hepatitis C infection and was being treated with immunosuppressants. The patient had a prolonged history of gastrointestinal manifestations with recent acute onset of watery diarrhea associated with abdominal cramps. Stool examination after modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed oocysts of Cyclospora spp. The patient was successfully treated with cotrimoxazole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclospora , Cyclosporiasis , Foodborne Diseases , Kidney Transplantation , Allografts , Cyclosporiasis/complications , Cyclosporiasis/diagnosis , Cyclosporiasis/drug therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Feces , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
11.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 15(2): 393-400, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670005

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 exhibit various gastrointestinal symptoms. Although diarrhea is reported in many cases, the pathophysiology of diarrhea has not been fully clarified. Herein, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea that was successfully relieved by the administration of a bile acid sequestrant. The patient was a 59-year-old man whose pneumonia was treated by the administration of glucocorticoids and mechanical ventilation. However, beginning on the 30th hospital day, he developed severe watery diarrhea (up to 10 times a day). Colonoscopy detected ulcers in the terminal ileum and ascending colon. The oral administration of a bile acid sequestrant, colestimide, improved his diarrhea quickly. Ileal inflammation is reported to suppress expression of the gut epithelial apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. It decreases bile acid absorption at the distal ileum and increases colonic delivery of bile acids, resulting in bile acid diarrhea. In summary, the clinical course of the case presented in this report suggests that bile acid diarrhea is a possible mechanism of watery diarrhea observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/etiology , Humans , Ileum , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(11): 5034-5043, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to understand the association of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms at initial presentation with clinical outcomes during COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients from a single, large health system. The presence of GI symptoms was assessed at initial presentation and included one or more of the following: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Patients were divided into three cohorts: Only GI symptoms, GI and non-GI symptoms and only non-GI symptoms. The primary outcome was association of GI symptoms with mortality. Secondary outcomes included prevalence of GI symptoms and survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1672 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized (mean age: 63 ± 15.8 years, females: 50.4%) in our system during the study period. 40.7% patients had at least one GI symptom (diarrhea in 28.3%, nausea/vomiting in 23%, and abdominal pain in 8.8% patients), and 2.6% patients had only GI symptoms at initial presentation. Patients presenting with GI symptoms (with or without non-GI symptoms) had a lower mortality rate compared to patients presenting with only non-GI symptoms (20% vs. 26%; p < 0.05). The time from hospitalization to being discharged was less for patients presenting with only GI symptoms (7.4 days vs. > 9 days, p < 0.0014). After adjusting for other factors, the presence of GI symptoms was not associated with mortality (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among a hospitalized COVID-19 positive Southern US population, 41% patients presented with either diarrhea, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain initially. The presence of GI symptoms has no association with in-hospital all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/etiology , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009629, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581906

ABSTRACT

Identifying order of symptom onset of infectious diseases might aid in differentiating symptomatic infections earlier in a population thereby enabling non-pharmaceutical interventions and reducing disease spread. Previously, we developed a mathematical model predicting the order of symptoms based on data from the initial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China using symptom occurrence at diagnosis and found that the order of COVID-19 symptoms differed from that of other infectious diseases including influenza. Whether this order of COVID-19 symptoms holds in the USA under changing conditions is unclear. Here, we use modeling to predict the order of symptoms using data from both the initial outbreaks in China and in the USA. Whereas patients in China were more likely to have fever before cough and then nausea/vomiting before diarrhea, patients in the USA were more likely to have cough before fever and then diarrhea before nausea/vomiting. Given that the D614G SARS-CoV-2 variant that rapidly spread from Europe to predominate in the USA during the first wave of the outbreak was not present in the initial China outbreak, we hypothesized that this mutation might affect symptom order. Supporting this notion, we found that as SARS-CoV-2 in Japan shifted from the original Wuhan reference strain to the D614G variant, symptom order shifted to the USA pattern. Google Trends analyses supported these findings, while weather, age, and comorbidities did not affect our model's predictions of symptom order. These findings indicate that symptom order can change with mutation in viral disease and raise the possibility that D614G variant is more transmissible because infected people are more likely to cough in public before being incapacitated with fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mutation , Nausea/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e336, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572279

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread worldwide and remains an ongoing medical challenge. This case series reports on the clinical features and characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and confirmed COVID-19 infection. From February 2020 to March 2021, nine patients with IBD had confirmed COVID-19 across four hospitals in Korea. The median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 42 years. Six patients were male, and seven patients had ulcerative colitis (UC). No patients required oxygen therapy, intensive care unit hospitalizations, or died. The most common symptom was fever, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms developed as diarrhea in five patients with UC. Oral steroids were used to combat UC aggravation in two patients. In this case series of nine IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Korea, the clinical presentation was predominately a mild respiratory tract infection. Most patients with UC developed new GI symptoms including diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Administration, Oral , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Young Adult
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e301, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526760

ABSTRACT

We used serial rectal swabs to investigate the amount and duration of virus secretion through the gastrointestinal tract and assessed the association between fecal shedding and gastrointestinal symptoms and to clarify the clinical usefulness testing rectal swabs. We enrolled ten adult patients hospitalized with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and stool specimens were collected by physicians. The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was confirmed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. All ten patients had respiratory symptoms, six had diarrhea, and seven were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on rectal swabs. The viral loads in the respiratory specimens was higher than those in the rectal specimens, and no rectal specimens were positive after the respiratory specimens became negative. There was no association between gastrointestinal symptoms, pneumonia, severity, and rectal viral load. Rectal swabs may play a role in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with suspected COVID-19, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Viral Load
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(8): 3860-3871, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The most common symptoms of Covid-19 are respiratory; however, gastrointestinal symptoms are present in up to 50% of patients. We aimed to determine characteristics associated with the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with Covid-19. METHODS: A case-control study of adults hospitalized for Covid-19 was conducted across a geographically diverse alliance of 36 US and Canadian medical centers. Data were manually abstracted from electronic health records and analyzed using regression analyses to determine characteristics associated with any gastrointestinal symptoms and diarrhea specifically. RESULTS: Of 1406 patients, 540 (38%) reported at least one gastrointestinal symptom and 346 (25%) reported diarrhea. Older patients (≥ 80 years) had significantly lower rates of any gastrointestinal symptoms and diarrhea (vs. patients 18-79 years, OR 0.41, p < 0.01 and OR 0.43 p = 0.01, respectively), while those with IBS (OR 7.70, p = 0.02 and OR 6.72, p < 0.01, respectively) and on immunosuppressive therapy (OR = 1.56, p = 0.02) had higher rates of any gastrointestinal symptom and diarrhea. Patients with constitutional symptoms exhibited significantly higher rates (OR 1.91, p < 0.01), while those with pulmonary disease alone had lower rates of gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 0.23, p = 0.01). A significant interaction between constitutional symptoms and pre-existing pulmonary conditions was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Several patient- and disease-specific characteristics associate with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with Covid-19. Knowledge of these may provide insights into associated pathophysiologic mechanisms, and help health care professionals provide targeted attention to reduce morbidity related to Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Canada , Case-Control Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19713, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454811

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents with non-specific clinical features. This may result in misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis, and lead to further transmission in the community. We aimed to derive early predictors to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza and dengue. The study comprised 126 patients with COVID-19, 171 with influenza and 180 with dengue, who presented within 5 days of symptom onset. All cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests. We used logistic regression models to identify demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory markers in classifying COVID-19 versus influenza, and COVID-19 versus dengue. The performance of each model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Shortness of breath was the strongest predictor in the models for differentiating between COVID-19 and influenza, followed by diarrhoea. Higher lymphocyte count was predictive of COVID-19 versus influenza and versus dengue. In the model for differentiating between COVID-19 and dengue, patients with cough and higher platelet count were at increased odds of COVID-19, while headache, joint pain, skin rash and vomiting/nausea were indicative of dengue. The cross-validated area under the ROC curve for all four models was above 0.85. Clinical features and simple laboratory markers for differentiating COVID-19 from influenza and dengue are identified in this study which can be used by primary care physicians in resource limited settings to determine if further investigations or referrals would be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dengue/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Dengue/complications , Dengue/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vomiting/etiology , Young Adult
20.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(5): 502-511, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the frequency and association of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with outcomes in patients with corona virus disease 2019  (COVID-19) admitted to the hospital. METHODS: Records were retrospectively collected from patients admitted to a tertiary care center in Washington, D.C., with confirmed COVID-19 from March 15, 2020  to July 15, 2020. After adjusting for clinical demographics and comorbidities, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The most common  presenting symptoms of COVID-19 in patients that were admitted to the hospital were cough (38.4%), shortness of breath (37.5%), and fever (34.3%), followed by GI symptoms in 25.9% of patients. The most common GI symptom was diarrhea (12.8%) followed by nausea or vomiting (10.5%), decreased appetite (9.3%), and abdominal pain (3.8%). Patients with diarrhea were more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] 2.750; p = 0.006; confidence interval [CI] 1.329-5.688), be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR 2.242; p = 0.019; CI 1.139-4.413), and be intubated (OR 3.155; p = 0.002; CI 1.535-6.487). Additional outcomes analyzed were need for vasopressors, presence of shock, and acute kidney injury. Patients with  diarrhea  were 2.738 (p = 0.007; CI 1.325-5.658), 2.467 (p = 0.013; CI 1.209-5.035), and 2.694 (p = 0.007; CI 1.305-5.561) times more likely to experience these outcomes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Screening questions should be expanded to include common GI symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Health care providers should note whether their patient is presenting with diarrhea due to the potential implications on disease severity and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL