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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 45: 10, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242906

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, Cryptosporidium spp. is a common parasite that affects domestic and wild animals, including humans, and causes diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. The fecal-oral pathway accounts for the majority of its transfer. Although C. parvum and C. hominis are the most common zoonotic species in humans, other zoonotic species can also infect immunocompetent and immunocompromised people. Patients undergoing renal transplants are more likely to contract cryptosporidiosis, which can cause severe and potentially fatal diarrhea. A 41-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department complained of a sudden onset, severe and continuous fatigue, and a feverish sensation of two-day duration. Two days prior to the current admission, the patient started to complain of weakness affecting his whole body, as well as a fever of 39°C and continuous yellowish diarrhea occurring 4-5 times daily without blood. Stool analysis revealed a cryptosporidium infection. The patient underwent surgery for kidney transplantation. The donated kidney was the left one from his brother and was attached to the patient´s right groin. As illustrated by our example, cryptosporidiosis should be considered a significant cause of acute, persistent, watery diarrhea in immunocompromised kidney transplant recipients. Patients undergoing renal transplants should be instructed to wash their hands frequently, stay away from young animals, sick people, and swimming pools in order to lower their risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Animals , Humans , Adult , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Feces/parasitology
2.
Ter Arkh ; 94(10): 1163-1170, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270273

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) CNCM I-745 probiotic drug in preventing and treating diarrhea in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative study was conducted in two parallel groups. The study included males and females aged 18 to 60 with the following diagnosis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction: U07.2 Coronavirus infection COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus (grade 1-3 pneumonia according to CT scan). All patients received antibiotic therapy. The patients were subdivided into two equal groups (n=60) depending on the administration of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic drug in addition to standard treatment. The probiotic was prescribed by the attending physician; the dose was 2 capsules per day (500 mg/day) 30 min before the meal for 10 days. All patients were monitored for main clinical, laboratory, and instrumental parameters during the study. In addition, the symptom of diarrhea (stool with a frequency of more than 3 times a day of type 6 and 7 according to the Bristol stool scale), including its frequency, duration, and the number of bowel movements of loose stool per day were precisely evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: In the overall patient pool, diarrhea was reported in 21.7% of in-patients during the observation period (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2-29.1) with a mean duration of 4.6154 days (95% CI 3.7910-5.4398). The incidence of diarrhea in group 1 was 13.3% (95% CI 4.5-22.2), and in group 2, it was 30.0% (95% CI 18.1-41.9). Relative risk showed that the use of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic drug leads to a significant reduction in the risk of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection receiving antibiotic therapy (odds ratio [OR] 0.3590, 95% CI 0.1421-0.9069; p=0.0303). In group 1, the duration of diarrhea was 3.1250 days (95% CI 2.5892-3.6608) versus 5.2778 days (95% CI 4.2290-6.3265) in group 2, p=0.0112. The mean daily frequency of loose stools in patients with diarrhea in group 1 was 3.2500 (95% CI 2.6588-3.8412) versus 4.3889 (95% CI 3.7252-5.0525) in group 2, p=0.0272. The secondary endpoint, duration of hospital stay, was also significantly shorter in group 1 patients - 11.6833 days (95% CI 11.2042-12.1625) versus 12.7333 days (95% CI 12.1357-13.3309) in group 2, p=0.0120. CONCLUSION: The present prospective comparative study demonstrated that adding S. boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic drug into the standard treatment regimen of patients with new coronavirus infection COVID-19 receiving antibiotic therapy helps reduce the incidence of diarrhea and its severity during hospitalization, as well as the duration of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Saccharomyces boulardii , Male , Female , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0278356, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oral probiotic supplementation may be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for patients with symptomatic COVID-19. However, its safety and efficacy are unclear. We aimed to investigate how probiotic supplementation impacts COVID-19 symptom trajectory and patient outcomes by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: RCTs randomizing patients with COVID-19 to probiotics were searched in PubMed Central, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library from inception to July 31, 2022. We performed a random-effects pairwise meta-analysis for all outcomes using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: A total of 1027 participants from eight RCT studies were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotic supplements probably reduce the incidence of diarrhea (RR 0.61 [0.43 to 0.87]; moderate certainty) and probably reduce cough or dyspnea compared to placebo/standard care (RR 0.37 [0.19 to 0.73]; moderate certainty). Probiotic supplements may improve composite endpoint measured by clinical escalation or mortality compared to placebo (RR 0.41 [0.18 to 0.93]; low certainty evidence); however, they may not significantly reduce the need for clinical escalation (RR 0.57 [0.31 to 1.07]; low certainty evidence) or mortality (RR 0.50 [0.20 to 1.29]; low certainty evidence). In addition, the probiotic supplement is associated with reduced adverse events (RR 0.62 [0.46 to 0.83]; moderate certainty). CONCLUSION: Early probiotic supplement is a safe and effective adjunctive therapy that reduces the risk of symptoms and health care burden related to COVID-19 across all severity types.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Probiotics , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Probiotics/adverse effects , Diarrhea/etiology , Dental Care
4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 23(1): 108, 2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intestinal microinflammation with immune dysfunction due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reportedly precipitates post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. This study aimed to elucidate potential risk factors for subsequent development of irritable bowel syndrome, hypothesizing that it is associated with specific symptoms or patient backgrounds. METHODS: This single-center retrospective observational study (2020-2021) included adults with confirmed coronavirus disease requiring hospital admission and was conducted using real-world data retrieved from a hospital information system. Patient characteristics and detailed gastrointestinal symptoms were obtained and compared between patients with and without coronavirus disease-induced irritable bowel syndrome. Multivariate logistic models were used to validate the risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome. Moreover, daily gastrointestinal symptoms during hospitalization were examined in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. RESULTS: Among the 571 eligible patients, 12 (2.1%) were diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome following coronavirus disease. While nausea and diarrhea during hospitalization, elevated white blood cell count on admission, and intensive care unit admission were associated with the development of irritable bowel syndrome, nausea and diarrhea were identified as risk factors for its development following coronavirus disease, as revealed by the adjusted analyses (odds ratio, 4.00 [1.01-15.84] and 5.64 [1.21-26.31], respectively). Half of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had both diarrhea and constipation until discharge, and constipation was frequently followed by diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: While irritable bowel syndrome was rarely diagnosed following coronavirus disease, nausea and diarrhea during hospitalization precede the early signs of irritable bowel syndrome following coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Constipation/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Nausea
5.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 34(4): 322-331, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to find the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and to investigate the effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on the course of the disease during hospitalization. METHODS: Patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study. The diagnostic method of COVID-19 was either a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test or a typical finding in chest computed tomography. This study was conducted by contacting patients by phone 1 month after they were discharged from hospital to investigate gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients' laboratory findings at the time of admission, medications they used, and clinical findings were obtained from hospital records retrospectively. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were divided into 2 groups according to the start of treatment: pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. RESULTS: At least 1 gastrointestinal symptom (anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) was present in 67.5% of 435 patients (55.6% male, mean age 52.8). If anorexia and weight loss are excluded, the rate of the presence of at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom is 54%. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 48.9% before the initiation of COVID-19 treatment. The most prevalent 3 symptoms were anorexia, weight loss, and diarrhea (56%, 52%, and 35.6%, respectively). Presence of pre-treatment gastrointestinal symptoms was associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels. Pre-treatment gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in those who received oxygen supply and who were intubated. Resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms takes longer time in those who were admitted to intensive care unit. Weight loss and diarrhea were more common in COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who were intubated than who were not intubated. Abdominal pain was not found to be a significant predictor of disease severity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 67%. The most prevalent symptoms were anorexia, weight loss, and diarrhea. Presence of pre-treatment gastrointestinal symptoms was associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels, use of oxygen supply, and intubation. Gastrointestinal symptoms persist longer in those admitted to intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Anorexia/etiology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Hospitalization , Disease Progression , Oxygen
6.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(8): 464-471, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095369

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is leading to high mortality and a global health crisis. The primary involvement is respiratory; however, the virus can also affect other organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and liver. The most common symptoms are anorexia and diarrhea. In about half of the cases, viral RNA could be detected in the stool, which is another line of transmission and diagnosis. covid19 has a worse prognosis in patients with comorbidities, although there is not enough evidence in case of previous digestive diseases. Digestive endoscopies may give rise to aerosols, which make them techniques with a high risk of infection. Experts and scientific organizations worldwide have developed guidelines for preventive measures. The available evidence on gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement, the impact on patients with previous digestive diseases and operating guidelines for Endoscopy Units during the pandemic are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aerosols , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anorexia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diarrhea/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Feces/virology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Intestines/chemistry , Intestines/virology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Receptors, Virus/analysis , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033055

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the clinical form, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and Clostridioides difficile co-infections. Methods: This retrospective study (2 September 2021-1 April 2022) included all patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Covid Hospital of the University Clinical Center of Vojvodina. Results: A total of 5124 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the Covid Hospital, and 326 of them (6.36%) developed hospital-onset CDI. Of those, 326 of the CDI patients (88.65%) were older than 65 years. The median time of CDI onset was 12.88 days. Previous hospitalizations showed 69.93% of CDI patients compared to 38.81% in the non-CDI group (p = 0.029). The concomitant antibiotics exposure was higher among the CDI group versus the non-CDI group (88.65% vs. 68.42%, p = 0.037). Albumin levels were ≤ 25 g/L among 39.57% of the CDI patients and 21.71% in the non-CDI patients (p = 0.021). The clinical manifestations of CDI ranged from mild diarrhea (26.9%) to severe diarrhea (63.49%) and a complicated form of colitis (9.81%). Regarding outcomes, 79.14% of the CDI patients recovered and 20.86% had fatal outcomes in-hospital. Although a minority of the patients were in the non-CDI group, the difference in mortality rate between the CDI and non-CDI group was not statistically significant (20.86% vs. 15.13%, p = 0.097). Conclusions: Elderly patients on concomitant antibiotic treatments with hypoalbuminemia and with previous healthcare exposures were the most affected by COVID-19 and CD co-infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Aged , Albumins , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Serbia/epidemiology , Universities , Yugoslavia
9.
10.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(11): 955-963, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019, the gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported increasingly in addition to the respiratory system symptoms. The studies show that the prevalence of gastrointestinal system symptoms and how the gastrointestinal system contributes to the severity and prognosis of the disease is still not clear. This study aims to find the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the correlation between the gastrointestinal symptoms and the clinical results in hospitalized patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzes patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and hospitalized in the pandemic unit between March 2020 and August 2020 and compares their demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiologic findings, coronavirus disease 2019 treatments received, the clinical course of the disease, and the gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: In our study, we included 322 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and hospitalized; 39 patients (12.1%) were admitted to the hospital with at least one gastrointestinal symptom (nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and the loss of taste). Nausea and vomiting are the most common gastrointestinal symptoms with a prevalence of 7.1%, followed by diarrhea with 2.8%, the loss of taste with 2.2%, and abdominal pain with 1.5%. The mean age and D-dimer levels of the patients showing gastrointestinal symptoms were lower than those who did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms. We did not find a significant correlation between the presence of the gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of the disease, treatment received, risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock, admission to the intensive care unit, the need for mechanical ventilation, the mortality rate or the length of hospitalization in the medical floor or the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that 12.1% of coronavirus disease 2019 patients apply to the hospital due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal symptoms do not seem to affect the severity and the course of the disease, it is important to identify coronavirus disease 2019 patients showing unusual symptoms such as the gastrointestinal symptoms at an early stage to protect healthcare professionals from infection risk.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Vomiting , Nausea
11.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(9): 925-932, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-coronavirus disease (post-COVID) symptoms arise mostly from impaired function of respiratory tract although in many patients, the dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract and liver among other organ systems may persist. METHODS: Primary data collection was based on a short gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire at the initial screening. A brief telephone survey within the patient and control group was performed 5-8 months after the initial screening. R ver. 4.0.5 and imbalanced RandomForest (RF) machine-learning algorithm were used for data explorations and analyses. RESULTS: A total of 590 patients were included in the study. The general presence of gastrointestinal symptoms 208.2 days (153-230 days) after the initial acute severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was 19% in patients with moderate-to-serious course of the disease and 7.3% in patients with mild course compared with 3.0% in SARS-CoV-2 negative controls (P < 0.001). Diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most prevalent post-COVID gastrointestinal symptoms. RF machine-learning algorithm identified acute diarrhea and antibiotics administration as the strongest predictors for gastrointestinal sequelae with area under curve of 0.68. Variable importance for acute diarrhea is 0.066 and 0.058 for antibiotics administration. CONCLUSION: The presence of gastrointestinal sequelae 7 months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection is significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe course of the acute COVID-19 compared with asymptomatic patients or those with mild course of the disease. The most prevalent post-COVID gastrointestinal symptoms are diarrhea and abdominal pain. The strongest predictors for persistence of these symptoms are antibiotics administration and acute diarrhea during the initial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 60(249): 473-477, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863659

ABSTRACT

Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome is a rare disease characterised by diffuse gastrointestinal polyposis, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation, alopecia, and onychodystrophy. Here we report a case of a 40-year-old female with Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome, who presented with the complaints of diffuse abdominal pain, blood mixed stools, and diarrhoea associated with tenesmus. She had nausea and reduced appetite and lost 10 kgs in 3 months. She had hair fall (alopecia), atrophic changes of nails (onychodystrophy), and hyperpigmentation of the skin in fingers, tongues, and lips. Histopathological biopsy of the gastric and colonic biopsy revealed polypoid edematous mucosa and the colonic biopsies showed scattered dilated glands with inflammatory exudate and mucin. She got Entamoeba histolytica and COVID-19. She received respective antibiotics and protein diets that helped relieve the symptoms. After 4 weeks of steroids, her symptoms improved drastically. Corticosteroids, treating co-infection along with nutritional counselling can be helpful to relieve the symptoms. Keywords: alopecia; case reports; cronkhite-canada syndrome; hyperpigmentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperpigmentation , Intestinal Polyposis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adult , Alopecia/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Humans , Hyperpigmentation/complications , Hyperpigmentation/etiology , Intestinal Polyposis/complications , Intestinal Polyposis/diagnosis , Intestinal Polyposis/pathology
13.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 23(2): 134-137, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814025

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a new type of acute infectious respiratory syndrome that usually presents with mild flu-like symptoms. However, the disease caused widespread illness and death worldwide, and new sequelae are still being discovered. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was isolated from the fecal samples of some infected patients. Many pathogens, including many viral infections, were linked either to the onset or the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With this, we report a series of 2 IBD cases that were diagnosed shortly after recovery from COVID-19. This is the first report that discusses the possibility of developing IBD following COVID-19 infection to the best of our knowledge. This could highlight the importance of thoroughly investigating COVID-19 patients who presented with diarrhea, particularly those with bloody diarrhea, and not consider it a simple manifestation of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(3): 465-467, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796693

ABSTRACT

Cyclospora spp. is an important cause of traveler's diarrhea or water and food-borne diarrhoeal diseases. We present an interesting but rare case report of cyclosporiasis in a 51-year-old male who had undergone renal allograft transplant six years ago. He also had a past history of tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and hepatitis C infection and was being treated with immunosuppressants. The patient had a prolonged history of gastrointestinal manifestations with recent acute onset of watery diarrhea associated with abdominal cramps. Stool examination after modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed oocysts of Cyclospora spp. The patient was successfully treated with cotrimoxazole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclospora , Cyclosporiasis , Foodborne Diseases , Kidney Transplantation , Allografts , Cyclosporiasis/complications , Cyclosporiasis/diagnosis , Cyclosporiasis/drug therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Feces , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
16.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 15(2): 393-400, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670005

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 exhibit various gastrointestinal symptoms. Although diarrhea is reported in many cases, the pathophysiology of diarrhea has not been fully clarified. Herein, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea that was successfully relieved by the administration of a bile acid sequestrant. The patient was a 59-year-old man whose pneumonia was treated by the administration of glucocorticoids and mechanical ventilation. However, beginning on the 30th hospital day, he developed severe watery diarrhea (up to 10 times a day). Colonoscopy detected ulcers in the terminal ileum and ascending colon. The oral administration of a bile acid sequestrant, colestimide, improved his diarrhea quickly. Ileal inflammation is reported to suppress expression of the gut epithelial apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. It decreases bile acid absorption at the distal ileum and increases colonic delivery of bile acids, resulting in bile acid diarrhea. In summary, the clinical course of the case presented in this report suggests that bile acid diarrhea is a possible mechanism of watery diarrhea observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/etiology , Humans , Ileum , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(11): 5034-5043, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to understand the association of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms at initial presentation with clinical outcomes during COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients from a single, large health system. The presence of GI symptoms was assessed at initial presentation and included one or more of the following: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Patients were divided into three cohorts: Only GI symptoms, GI and non-GI symptoms and only non-GI symptoms. The primary outcome was association of GI symptoms with mortality. Secondary outcomes included prevalence of GI symptoms and survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1672 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized (mean age: 63 ± 15.8 years, females: 50.4%) in our system during the study period. 40.7% patients had at least one GI symptom (diarrhea in 28.3%, nausea/vomiting in 23%, and abdominal pain in 8.8% patients), and 2.6% patients had only GI symptoms at initial presentation. Patients presenting with GI symptoms (with or without non-GI symptoms) had a lower mortality rate compared to patients presenting with only non-GI symptoms (20% vs. 26%; p < 0.05). The time from hospitalization to being discharged was less for patients presenting with only GI symptoms (7.4 days vs. > 9 days, p < 0.0014). After adjusting for other factors, the presence of GI symptoms was not associated with mortality (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among a hospitalized COVID-19 positive Southern US population, 41% patients presented with either diarrhea, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain initially. The presence of GI symptoms has no association with in-hospital all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/etiology , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009629, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581906

ABSTRACT

Identifying order of symptom onset of infectious diseases might aid in differentiating symptomatic infections earlier in a population thereby enabling non-pharmaceutical interventions and reducing disease spread. Previously, we developed a mathematical model predicting the order of symptoms based on data from the initial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China using symptom occurrence at diagnosis and found that the order of COVID-19 symptoms differed from that of other infectious diseases including influenza. Whether this order of COVID-19 symptoms holds in the USA under changing conditions is unclear. Here, we use modeling to predict the order of symptoms using data from both the initial outbreaks in China and in the USA. Whereas patients in China were more likely to have fever before cough and then nausea/vomiting before diarrhea, patients in the USA were more likely to have cough before fever and then diarrhea before nausea/vomiting. Given that the D614G SARS-CoV-2 variant that rapidly spread from Europe to predominate in the USA during the first wave of the outbreak was not present in the initial China outbreak, we hypothesized that this mutation might affect symptom order. Supporting this notion, we found that as SARS-CoV-2 in Japan shifted from the original Wuhan reference strain to the D614G variant, symptom order shifted to the USA pattern. Google Trends analyses supported these findings, while weather, age, and comorbidities did not affect our model's predictions of symptom order. These findings indicate that symptom order can change with mutation in viral disease and raise the possibility that D614G variant is more transmissible because infected people are more likely to cough in public before being incapacitated with fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mutation , Nausea/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e336, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572279

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread worldwide and remains an ongoing medical challenge. This case series reports on the clinical features and characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and confirmed COVID-19 infection. From February 2020 to March 2021, nine patients with IBD had confirmed COVID-19 across four hospitals in Korea. The median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 42 years. Six patients were male, and seven patients had ulcerative colitis (UC). No patients required oxygen therapy, intensive care unit hospitalizations, or died. The most common symptom was fever, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms developed as diarrhea in five patients with UC. Oral steroids were used to combat UC aggravation in two patients. In this case series of nine IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Korea, the clinical presentation was predominately a mild respiratory tract infection. Most patients with UC developed new GI symptoms including diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Administration, Oral , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Young Adult
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