Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e92, 2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169347

ABSTRACT

Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness using generalised multivariate logistic regression. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5 and 37.9 °C and temperature above 38 °C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. External validation datasets reported similar result. Our study provides a tool to discern COVID-19 patients from controls using symptoms and day from illness onset with good predictive performance. It could be considered as a framework to complement laboratory testing in order to differentiate COVID-19 from other patients presenting with acute symptoms in outpatient care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Decision Rules , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Myalgia/physiopathology , Odds Ratio , Patient Selection , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 391-398, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and outcomes of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reported 62 pediatric patients (age <14 years) with confirmed COVID-19 between March 2 and July 1, 2020, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Comorbid conditions, including cardiac, neurological, respiratory, and malignant disorders, were reported in 9 patients (14.5%). The most prominent presenting complaints were fever (80.6%) and cough (48.4%). Most of our patients (80.6%) had mild disease, 11.3% had moderate disease, and 8.1% exhibited severe and critical illness. Twenty-one patients (33.9%) were hospitalized, with 4 patients (6.5%) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 3 (4.8%) patients died. CONCLUSION: All pediatric age groups are susceptible to COVID-19, with no gender difference. COVID-19 infection may result in critical illness and even mortality in subsets of pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Atrophy , Brain/pathology , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/physiopathology
5.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(5): 691-694, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is typically associated with a respiratory syndrome, but gastrointestinal symptoms have been described in early reports from China. However, data from European centres are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterise the gastrointestinal manifestations of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their disease course. METHODS: Patients admitted at our centre between March and April 2020 with diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Asymptomatic patients or those without symptom information were excluded. Clinical features, laboratory data and disease severity (mechanical ventilation, intensive care admission or death) were analysed. RESULTS: Two-hundred one patients were included (median age 71 years; 56.2% male). Digestive symptoms were reported by 60 (29.9%) patients during the disease course, being part of the disease presentation in 34 (16.9%). The most frequent were diarrhoea in 36 patients (17.9%). Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were younger (P = 0.032), had higher haemoglobin levels (P = 0.002) and lower C-reactive protein (P = 0.045) and potassium levels (P = 0.004). Patients with digestive symptoms had less severe disease (28.3 vs. 44.0%; P = 0.038). Regarding liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was elevated in 65.2% of patients and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 62.7%, but these patients did not present a more severe disease (elevated AST P = 0.062; elevated ALT P = 0.276). CONCLUSION: A significant portion of COVID-19 patients have digestive symptoms, mostly at presentation. This should be taken into account in order to keep a high level of suspicion to reach an early diagnosis and setup infection control measures to control the transmission rate. This subgroup of patients appears to have a less severe disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/metabolism , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/metabolism , Nausea/physiopathology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/metabolism , Young Adult
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dengue/complications , Leukopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection , Cough/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Fluid Therapy , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology
7.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 29, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence on the existence of a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-temporally associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), sharing similarities with Kawasaki Disease (KD). The main outcome of the study were to better characterize the clinical features and the treatment response of PIMS-TS and to explore its relationship with KD determining whether KD and PIMS are two distinct entities. METHODS: The Rheumatology Study Group of the Italian Pediatric Society launched a survey to enroll patients diagnosed with KD (Kawasaki Disease Group - KDG) or KD-like (Kawacovid Group - KCG) disease between February 1st 2020, and May 31st 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, treatment information, and patients' outcome were collected in an online anonymized database (RedCAP®). Relationship between clinical presentation and SARS-CoV-2 infection was also taken into account. Moreover, clinical characteristics of KDG during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (KDG-CoV2) were compared to Kawasaki Disease patients (KDG-Historical) seen in three different Italian tertiary pediatric hospitals (Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste; AOU Meyer, Florence; IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa) from January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2019. Chi square test or exact Fisher test and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test were used to study differences between two groups. RESULTS: One-hundred-forty-nine cases were enrolled, (96 KDG and 53 KCG). KCG children were significantly older and presented more frequently from gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement. Cardiac involvement was more common in KCG, with 60,4% of patients with myocarditis. 37,8% of patients among KCG presented hypotension/non-cardiogenic shock. Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were more common in the KDG. The risk of ICU admission were higher in KCG. Lymphopenia, higher CRP levels, elevated ferritin and troponin-T characterized KCG. KDG received more frequently immunoglobulins (IVIG) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (81,3% vs 66%; p = 0.04 and 71,9% vs 43,4%; p = 0.001 respectively) as KCG more often received glucocorticoids (56,6% vs 14,6%; p < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 assay more often resulted positive in KCG than in KDG (75,5% vs 20%; p < 0.0001). Short-term follow data showed minor complications. Comparing KDG with a KD-Historical Italian cohort (598 patients), no statistical difference was found in terms of clinical manifestations and laboratory data. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection might determine two distinct inflammatory diseases in children: KD and PIMS-TS. Older age at onset and clinical peculiarities like the occurrence of myocarditis characterize this multi-inflammatory syndrome. Our patients had an optimal response to treatments and a good outcome, with few complications and no deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Hypotension/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Age Distribution , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/metabolism , Hyperferritinemia/physiopathology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/metabolism , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Troponin T/metabolism , Vomiting/physiopathology
8.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 485-487, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131993

ABSTRACT

A four- and a half-month-old girl with severe dilated cardiomyopathy due to neonatal enterovirus myocarditis, treated with diuretics and milrinone for the past 4 months, was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The disease course was characterised by high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Cardiac function, as measured by echocardiography, remained stable. The treatment focused on maintaining a normal heart rate and a stable fluid balance. In children with severe underlying cardiac disease, even a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection can require close monitoring and compound treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Female , Heart Rate , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/complications , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin T/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Waiting Lists , Water-Electrolyte Balance
9.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 21, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102340

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Active pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C are two disease processes requiring rapid diagnosis and different treatment protocols. OBJECTIVE: To distinguish active pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C using presenting signs and symptoms, patient characteristics, and laboratory values. DESIGN: Patients diagnosed and hospitalized with active COVID-19 pneumonia or MIS-C at Children's of Alabama Hospital in Birmingham, AL from April 1 through September 1, 2020 were identified retrospectively. Active COVID-19 and MIS-C cases were defined using diagnostic codes and verified for accuracy using current US Centers for Disease Control case definitions. All clinical notes were reviewed for documentation of COVID-19 pneumonia or MIS-C, and clinical notes and electronic medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, presenting signs and symptoms, prior exposure to or testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, laboratory data, imaging, treatment modalities and response to treatment. FINDINGS: 111 patients were identified, with 74 classified as mild COVID-19, 8 patients as moderate COVID-19, 8 patients as severe COVID-19, 10 as mild MIS-C and 11 as severe MIS-C. All groups had a male predominance, with Black and Hispanic patients overrepresented as compared to the demographics of Alabama. Most MIS-C patients were healthy at baseline, with most COVID-19 patients having at least one underlying illness. Fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant in the MIS-C population whereas COVID-19 patients presented with predominantly respiratory symptoms. The two groups were similar in duration of symptomatic prodrome and exposure history to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but MIS-C patients had a longer duration between presentation and exposure history. COVID-19 patients were more likely to have a positive SAR-CoV-2 PCR and to require respiratory support on admission. MIS-C patients had lower sodium levels, higher levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, d-dimer and procalcitonin. COVID-19 patients had higher lactate dehydrogenase levels on admission. MIS-C patients had coronary artery changes on echocardiography more often than COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study is one of the first to directly compare COVID-19 and MIS-C in the pediatric population. The significant differences found between symptoms at presentation, demographics, and laboratory findings will aide health-care providers in distinguishing the two disease entities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , African Americans , Asthma/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Conjunctivitis/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dilatation, Pathologic , Echocardiography , Exanthema/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Humans , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Male , Nausea/physiopathology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Time Factors , Vomiting/physiopathology
10.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 33(3): e14104, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestation in up to one fifth of patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors triggering a cascade of events leading to mucosal and systemic inflammation. Symptomatic patients display changes in gut microbiota composition and function which may contribute to intestinal barrier dysfunction and immune activation. Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mucosal inflammation impact on the function of the enteric nervous system and the activation of sensory fibers conveying information to the central nervous system, which, may at least in part, contribute symptom generation such as vomiting and diarrhea described in COVID-19. Liver and pancreas dysfunctions have also been described as non-respiratory complications of COVID-19 and add further emphasis to the common view of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement. PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to highlight the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the crosstalk with the gut microbiota, the fecal-oral route of virus transmission, and the potential interaction of the virus with the enteric nervous system. We also review the current available data on gastrointestinal and liver manifestations, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Animals , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/virology , Enteric Nervous System/physiopathology , Enteric Nervous System/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pancreatic Diseases/etiology , Pancreatic Diseases/physiopathology , Pancreatic Diseases/virology
11.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(4): 269-283, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085424

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to more than 200 countries and regions globally. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. However, reports have shown that a notable proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop gastrointestinal symptoms and nearly half of patients confirmed to have COVID-19 have shown detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in their faecal samples. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection reportedly alters intestinal microbiota, which correlated with the expression of inflammatory factors. Furthermore, multiple in vitro and in vivo animal studies have provided direct evidence of intestinal infection by SARS-CoV-2. These lines of evidence highlight the nature of SARS-CoV-2 gastrointestinal infection and its potential faecal-oral transmission. Here, we summarize the current findings on the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 and its possible mechanisms. We also discuss how SARS-CoV-2 gastrointestinal infection might occur and the current evidence and future studies needed to establish the occurrence of faecal-oral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Gastroenteritis/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Nausea/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anorexia/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Line , Colon/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Feces/chemistry , Gastroenteritis/virology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Organoids , RNA, Viral , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
12.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 19(6): 570-588, 2020 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068115

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has increased since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started. This study was aimed to describe clinical manifestation and outcomes of MIS-C associated with COVID-19. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on all available literature until July 3rd, 2020. The screening was done by using the following keywords: ("novel coronavirus" Or COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus) and ("MIS-C" or "multisystem inflammatory" or Kawasaki). Data on gender, ethnicity, clinical presentations, need for mechanical ventilation or admission to intensive care unit (ICU), imaging, cardiac complications, and COVID-19 laboratory results were extracted to measure the pooled estimates. Out of 314 found articles, 16 articles with a total of 600 patients were included in the study, the most common presentation was fever (97%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (80%), and skin rashes (60%) as well as shock (55%), conjunctivitis (54%), and respiratory symptoms (39%). Less common presentations were neurologic problems (33%), and skin desquamation (30%), MIS-C was slightly more prevalent in males (53.7%) compared to females (46.3%). The findings of this meta-analysis on current evidence found that the common clinical presentations of COVID-19 associated MIS-C include a combination of fever and mucocutaneous involvements, similar to atypical Kawasaki disease, and multiple organ dysfunction. Due to the relatively higher morbidity and mortality rate, it is very important to diagnose this condition promptly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Conjunctivitis/physiopathology , Exanthema/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cheilitis/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Meningism/physiopathology , Myalgia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Sex Distribution , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vomiting/physiopathology
13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(12): 3252-3267, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic has been emerged as a cardinal public health problem. Children have their own specific clinical features; notably, they seem to be escaping the severe respiratory adverse effects. The international scientific community is rapidly carrying out studies, driving to the need to reassess knowledge of the disease and therapeutic strategies. AIM: To assess the characteristics of COVID-19 infected children worldwide of all ages, from neonates to children and adolescents, and how they differ from their adult counterparts. SEARCH STRATEGY: An electronic search in PubMed was conducted, using combinations of the following keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children. The search included all types of articles written in English between January 1, 2019 until August 15, 2020. RESULTS: The search identified 266 relevant articles. Children were mainly within family clusters of cases and have relatively milder clinical presentation compared with adults; children were reported to have better outcomes with a significantly lower mortality rate. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms while pneumonia was the cardinal respiratory manifestation of infected children. Laboratory results and thoracic imaging give varying results. CONCLUSIONS: Children were mainly family cluster cases and usually presented with a mild infection, although cases presented with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome are becoming more apparent. Studies determining why the manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are so variable may help to gain a better understanding of the disease and accelerate the development of vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Vomiting/physiopathology
14.
Chest ; 159(2): e107-e113, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053266

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man presented to the ED at a time of low severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), prevalence and reported 2 weeks of progressive shortness of breath, dry cough, headache, myalgias, diarrhea, and recurrent low-grade fevers to 39°C for 1 week with several days of recorded peripheral capillary oxygen saturation of 80% to 90% (room air) on home pulse oximeter. Five days earlier, he had visited an urgent care center where a routine respiratory viral panel was reportedly negative. A COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test result was pending at the time of ED visit. He reported a past medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease that was treated with famotidine. Travel history included an out-of-state trip 3 weeks earlier, but no recent international travel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cerebellar Diseases/complications , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/physiopathology , Oximetry , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/complications , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Chest ; 159(2): 657-662, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928873
16.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(5): 610-612, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900651

ABSTRACT

The main symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are respiratory manifestations, while some confirmed patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms or even initially presented digestive symptoms. The link between pneumonia and gastrointestinal symptoms caused by severe acute respiratory symptoms coronavirus 2 focused our attention on the concept of 'gut-lung axis'. In this review, we discuss the inevitability and possible mechanisms of the occurrence of intestinal symptoms or intestinal dysfunction in COVID-19 from the perspective of the gut-lung axis, as well as the influence of the imbalance of intestinal homeostasis on the respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. The interaction between lung and intestine might lead to a vicious cycle of pulmonary and intestinal inflammation which may be a potential factor leading to the death of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Intestines/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestines/immunology , Lung/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e20509, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-862621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the COVID-19 outbreak started in China and rapidly spread around the world. Lack of a vaccine or optimized intervention raised the importance of characterizing risk factors and symptoms for the early identification and successful treatment of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate and analyze biomedical literature and public social media data to understand the association of risk factors and symptoms with the various outcomes observed in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Through semantic analysis, we collected 45 retrospective cohort studies, which evaluated 303 clinical and demographic variables across 13 different outcomes of patients with COVID-19, and 84,140 Twitter posts from 1036 COVID-19-positive users. Machine learning tools to extract biomedical information were introduced to identify mentions of uncommon or novel symptoms in tweets. We then examined and compared two data sets to expand our landscape of risk factors and symptoms related to COVID-19. RESULTS: From the biomedical literature, approximately 90% of clinical and demographic variables showed inconsistent associations with COVID-19 outcomes. Consensus analysis identified 72 risk factors that were specifically associated with individual outcomes. From the social media data, 51 symptoms were characterized and analyzed. By comparing social media data with biomedical literature, we identified 25 novel symptoms that were specifically mentioned in tweets but have been not previously well characterized. Furthermore, there were certain combinations of symptoms that were frequently mentioned together in social media. CONCLUSIONS: Identified outcome-specific risk factors, symptoms, and combinations of symptoms may serve as surrogate indicators to identify patients with COVID-19 and predict their clinical outcomes in order to provide appropriate treatments.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Social Media , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/physiopathology , Data Collection , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Myalgia/physiopathology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Publications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 121, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Headache is the most common COVID-19-related neurological symptom. We aimed to reveal diagnostic clues of headache for COVID-19 infection and to investigate the course of primary headaches during the pandemic. METHODS: We developed a detailed web-based questionnaire screening the characteristics and course of headaches besides clinical COVID-19 features. The participants were grouped according to being diagnosed with COVID-19 infection or not, and having previous or new-onset headaches. The COVID-19 related headache features and their associations with other clinical features were investigated. A binary logistic regression model was performed to differentiate the characteristics of headache related to COVID-19. FINDINGS: A total of 3458 participants (2341 females;67.7%, 1495 healthcare workers;43.2%) with a mean age of 43.21 ± 11.2 years contributed to the survey. Among them, 262 participants had COVID-19 diagnosis and 126 (48.1%) were male. The rate of males in the group without COVID-19 was 31% (991 out of 3196 participants) showing significant gender difference between groups (p < 0.000). COVID-19 related headaches were more closely associated with anosmia/ageusia and gastrointestinal complaints (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and showed different characteristics like pulsating, pressing, and even stabbing quality. Logistic regression analyses showed that bilateral headache, duration over 72 h, analgesic resistance and having male gender were significant variables to differentiate COVID-19 positive patients from those without COVID-19 (p = 0.04 for long duration and p < 0.000 for others). A worsening of previous primary headaches due to the pandemic-related problems was not reported in the majority of patients. INTERPRETATION: Bilateral, long-lasting headaches, resistance to analgesics and having male gender were more frequent in people with COVID-19 in conjunction with anosmia/ageusia and gastrointestinal complaints. These features may be helpful for diagnosing the headache related to COVID-19 during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Headache/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 306-310, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809644

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most typical presentation of COVID-19 is an acute respiratory syndrome whose most common symptoms include fever, cough, and dyspnea. However, gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea and nausea/vomiting, are increasingly reported in patients affected by COVID-19. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and time of onset of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients affected by COVID-19 and to find potential associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center cohort study, enrolling patients who received diagnosis of COVID-19 at our institution between March 23, 2020, and April 5, 2020. We collected patient demographics and medical history, laboratory data, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we used a specifically designed questionnaire, administered to patients at time of diagnosis, to obtain data on the presence and time of onset of fever, typical respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and other symptoms (fatigue, headache, myalgia/arthralgia, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, sore throat, and ocular symptoms). RESULTS: In our cohort, 138 (69%) of 190 patients showed at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom at diagnosis; if excluding hyporexia/anorexia, 93 patients (48.9%) showed at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhea, were associated with a lower mortality. At multivariate analysis, diarrhea was confirmed as independent predictive factor of lower mortality. DISCUSSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in patients with COVID-19 and may be associated with a better prognosis. These data suggest that, in some patients, the gastrointestinal tract may be more involved than the respiratory system in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and this could account for the less severe course of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL