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1.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(2): 385-387, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624918

ABSTRACT

Both global and US data show associations between COVID-19 death rates and overweight or obesity, which are also risk factors for several other outcomes. Evidence suggests that among the strategies to reduce overweight and obesity are the simple actions of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Potential benefits include saving thousands of lives and billions of dollars in a future pandemic and reduced risk of other chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fruit , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
2.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home isolation during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown strongly impacted everyday life, affecting, in particular, eating habits and everyday activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on behaviors and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) in children from Southern Poland. METHODS: The study included 206 participants (104 females and 102 males) with a complete analysis of 177 participants (96 females and 81 males) with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.6 years admitted to three pediatric endocrinology clinics (Rzeszów, Kraków, and Katowice) due to simple obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus, somatotropin pituitary deficiency on growth hormone replacement therapy, and other endocrine and metabolic disorders between June and September 2020. The study used a self-prepared questionnaire regarding eating habits, physical activity, screen time, and sleep before and during the lockdown. Anthropometric measurements were performed under clinical settings twice (before the pandemic in January-March 2020, and in June-September 2020). RESULTS: During the lockdown, BMI z-scores increased over the whole group, especially in obese children (0.073 ± 0.18, p = 0.002). The number of children who declared low and high physical activity of more than 60 min per day declined from 41.2% and 18.6% to 31.1% and 6.2% (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001), respectively; sleep times over 8 h increased (46.9% vs. 60.4% p = 0.007); screen times over 5 h daily increased (14.7% to 46.9%, p < 0.001). Eating habits did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily physical activity and sleep levels were affected by the pandemic leading to the increase of BMI, especially in obese patients with endocrine disorders. During the COVID-19 pandemic, forward-thinking strategies must be developed to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613909

ABSTRACT

Conducted studies indicate the relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Moreover, the latest research indicated that cariogenic bacteria may severely influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase risk of COVID-19 complications. This article aims to review various applications of propolis and pay attention to a healthy diet rich in polyphenols, which may allow the reduction of dental plaque accumulation. A literature review has been conducted from June until November 2021. It showed that propolis could be a useful agent in decreasing the accumulation of dental plaque. Moreover, a diet rich in polyphenols prevents cariogenic bacteria and reduces the accumulation of dental plaque. A reduction of a dental plaque may influence the risk of a severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, propolis and a diet rich in polyphenols may play an important role in prophylaxis of systemic diseases. Recently, it has been proven that oral infection may affect cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, nervous system, as well as may be a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. These aspects should stimulate clinicians to further research about polyphenols.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Diet , Propolis/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Oral Health
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599154

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lifestyles and training of elite athletes around the world. The detrimental effects of lockdown periods may vary among individuals, as well as among sports and sexes. This study investigated the changes in dietary habits, and the predictors of perceived stress during lockdown and a "bubble" training camp. This cross-sectional, online survey involved 76 elite and world-class athletes from six able-bodied sports and nine parasports, all of whom were involved in a 30-day "bubble" training camp. Questions were asked on socio-demographics, training routines and wellbeing, perceived stress, and dietary habits, pertaining to "normal" training (prelockdown), lockdown training, and "bubble" camp training periods. Changes in perceived stress were trivial to small during lockdown compared to "normal" training, and trivial to moderate during a "bubble" camp, compared to lockdown. Para-athletes, males, older athletes, less experienced athletes, married individuals, and specific ethnicities appeared to be more detrimentally affected (increased perceived stress) by lockdown. These negative experiences, however, were largely reversed during "bubble" camps. During lockdown, more athletes reported increased evening snack consumption (+8%), later meal-times (+6%), decreased fluid intake (-6%), and no breakfast (+7%). These changes were reversed during "bubble" camps (12-18% improvements). Sport classification accounted for 16% of the increased perceived stress (p = 0.001) during lockdown. Overall, socio-demographic factors, improvements in training routines, well-being, and dietary habits explained 28% of the decreased perceived stress during a "bubble" camp. In conclusion, better dietary habits, training routines and well-being have implications for reduced perceived stress. During lockdown, "bubble" camps may be beneficial, but this observation may be a case-by-case consideration, and short split "bubble" periods are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Athletes , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597256

ABSTRACT

Dietary adequacy and diversity during the lactation period are necessary to ensure good health and nutrition among women and children. Behavioral interventions pertaining to health and nutrition counselling during pregnancy and lactation are critical for awareness about dietary diversity. The issue assumes salience for marginalized communities because of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated economic and societal disruptions. This paper assesses the dietary patterns among 400 lactating mothers in the tribal-dominated district of Palghar in Maharashtra, India in 2020. The study is based on primary data regarding consumption of 10 food groups among women across 10 food groups based on 24-hour recall period. The primary outcome variable was binary information regarding Minimum Dietary Diversity defined as consumption from at least 5 food groups. Econometric analysis based on multilevel models and item-response theory is applied to identify food groups that were most difficult to be received by mothers during the early and late lactation period. We find that the daily diet of lactating mothers in Palghar primarily consists of grains, white roots, tubers, and pulses. In contrast, the intake of dairy, eggs, and non-vegetarian food items is much lower. Only Half of the lactating women (56.5 percent; 95% CI: 37.4; 73.8) have a minimum diversified diet (MDD). The prevalence of lactating women with MDD was higher among households with higher income (73.1 percent; 95% CI: 45.2; 89.9) than those in lower income group (50.7 percent; 95% CI: 42.3; 58.9). Lactating Women (in early phase) who received health and nutrition counseling services are more likely (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 0.90; 6.26) to consume a diversified diet. Food groups such as fruits, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and seeds were among the rare food items in daily diet. The dietary pattern lacking in fruits, nuts, and heme (iron) sources indicates more significant risks of micronutrient deficiencies. The findings call for improving dietary diversity among lactating mothers, particularly from the marginalized communities, and are driven by low consumption of dairy products or various fruits and vegetables. Among the different food items, the consumption of micronutrient-rich seeds and nuts is most difficult to be accessed by lactating mothers. Also, diet-centric counseling and informing lactating mothers of its benefits are necessary to increase dietary diversity for improving maternal and child nutrition.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Lactation/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Female , Fruit , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Vegetables , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595299

ABSTRACT

Few Australians consume diets consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. A major problem is high intake of discretionary food and drinks (those not needed for health and high in saturated fat, added sugar, salt and/or alcohol). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health. Surprisingly, detailed quantitative dietary data across SEGs was lacking. Analysis of the most recent national nutrition survey data produced habitual intakes of a reference household (two adults and two children) in SEG quintiles of household income. Cost and affordability of habitual and recommended diets for the reference household were determined using methods based on the Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing protocol. Low SEGs reported significantly lower intakes of healthy food and drinks yet similarly high intakes of discretionary choices to high SEGs (435 serves/fortnight). Total habitual diets of low SEGs cost significantly less than those of high SEGs (AU$751/fortnight to AU$853/fortnight). Results confirmed low SEGs cannot afford a healthy diet. Lower intakes of healthy choices in low SEGs may help explain their higher rates of diet-related disease compared to higher SEGs. The findings can inform potential policy actions to improve affordability of healthy foods and help drive healthier diets for all Australians.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Nutrition Policy , Adult , Australia , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Diet , Eating , Energy Intake , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 763994, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581116

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has imposed challenges for older adults to access food, particularly in minority, lower income, and rural communities. However, the impact of COVID-19 on food access, diet quality, and nutrition of diverse older adult populations has not been systematically assessed. Objective: To examine changes in food access, diet quality, and nutritional status among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential differential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on these nutrition-related outcomes using the framework of the socio-ecological model. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on 3 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science) on March 7, 2021. Original, peer-reviewed English-language studies published 10/1/2019-3/1/2021 were considered for which the mean age of participants was 50 years and older. In order to be considered, studies must have examined food access, food security, or nutrition constructs as an outcome. Results: The initial search yielded 13,628 results, of which 9,145 were duplicates. Of the remaining 4,483 articles, 13 articles were in scope and therefore selected in the final analysis, which can be characterized as descriptive (n = 5), analytical (n = 6), and correlational (n = 2). Studies were conducted among community-dwelling older adult populations (n = 7) as well as those temporarily residing in hospital settings (n = 6) in 10 countries. None of the in-scope studies examined the impact of food programs or specific public policies or disaggregated data by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: More research is needed to examine the impact of COVID-19 on food access/security and the differential barriers experienced by older adult populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Diet , Humans , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580717

ABSTRACT

The International Olympic Committee has identified mental health as a priority that significantly affects the physical health and safety of collegiate athletes. Interventions that improve diet quality have been shown to improve mental health in several populations. However, studies are needed to examine this relationship in female collegiate athletes, who have elevated risk of experiencing anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as dietary insufficiencies. In a quantitative, cross-sectional study, female student athletes at a U.S. university completed three mental health questionnaires: Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ), and COVID Stress Scales (CSS). Each female athlete also completed a validated, web-based Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ-III) resulting in a Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Seventy-seven participants completed all survey information. HEI scores were consistently higher for athletes with poorer mental health. HEI scores were significantly positively associated with stress (p = 0.015), performance concerns (p = 0.048), CSS components of danger (p = 0.007), contamination (p = 0.006), and traumatic stress (p = 0.003). Although findings support statistically significant associations among dietary quality and mental health indicators, including broad symptom severity or stressors specific to athletics or COVID-19, these associations were in the opposite direction hypothesized. Possible reasons for results and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Athletes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Diet , Female , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580552

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures-collectively referred to as the 'exposome'-for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhythms, pollution, smoking, and gut microbiome) on immune function and inflammation, particularly in the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We highlight the potential role of 'exposome improvements' in the prevention-or amelioration, once established-of this disease as well as their effect on the response to vaccination. In light of the existing evidence, the promotion of a healthy exposome should be a cornerstone in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic and other eventual pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exposome , Pandemics , Body Weight Maintenance/immunology , Circadian Rhythm/immunology , Diet/methods , Environmental Pollutants/immunology , Exercise/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/immunology , Smoking/immunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Sunlight
10.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Health Promotion/methods , Life Style , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526853

ABSTRACT

Many people's life situations are changing as a result of restrictions being imposed by national governments to limit the spread of the virus. These may be associated with additional factors (emotional or financial, for example) that influence eating behavior and physical activity levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show whether there is a relationship between a changing life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. An online survey was conducted between 28 April and 16 July 2020 with 921 participants from European countries and countries outside Europe (South and North America, Australia). An analysis of the obtained results showed an unfavorable relationship between a change in life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. This was observed mainly among students who returned to their family homes and respondents whose working hours increased. Students were more likely to snack between meals (51.13%, p < 0.001) and to consume more sweets (45.11%, p < 0.001) and savory snacks (30.83%, p < 0.001). Those whose working hours had increased, consumed morefast foods (13.57%, p < 0.05) during that time. On the other hand, the study results indicated that a change in life situation during the pandemic can also have a positive impact on eating behavior and physical activity. This was exhibited by individuals who transitioned to remote working. An improvement in the regularity of eating (38.86%, p < 0.001) was recorded for this group. The relationship between a change in life situation and eating behavior was further emphasized by the fact that people whose life situation had not changed were more likely to declare no change in the regularity of eating (62.86%, p < 0.001) and snacking (61.71%, p < 0.001). At the same time, they were less likely to exhibit a higher intake of sweets (22.29%, p < 0.01) and salty snacks (13.14%, p < 0.01). The study results indicated that a change in the nutritional situation during the pandemic may have had both negative and positive effects on eating behavior and physical activity. Finding these relationships may help identify groups that are particularly vulnerable to reduced diet quality and reduced levels of physical activity. Considering the immunomodulating effects of diets and the fact that physical activity is essential for maintaining good health, further research in this area is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , North America , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Young Adult
12.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(14): 1269-1270, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510863

ABSTRACT

Cumpstey et al. (Antioxid Redox Signal 2021;10.1089/ars.2021.0017) have thoroughly reviewed the changes to the redox biology that determine individual resilience against COVID-19, and that hint at future treatment regimes. Verd and Verd question whether paracetamol, in the words of Cumpstey et al., "has the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to cope and maintain homeostasis" in COVID-19 patients. In response to this letter, the authors of Cumpstey et al. (Feelisch, Cumpstey, Clarka, Santolinic, and Jacksondargue) argue that what matters for human resilience against SARS-CoV-2 and other stressors is not simply determined by what is ingested/inhaled but also by how these substances can be handled by the body. The ability to cope with competing demands is determined by the extent to which the building blocks essential for cell/organ protection, function, adjustment, and healing can continue to be made available in sufficient quantities. To this end, dietary quality and nutrient status are fundamental determinants of the metabolic background against which all of these factors (including over-the-counter medications such as paracetamol) operate and either support or compromise the balanced functioning of the reactive species interactome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Diet , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1333, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This mixed methods study explored how social media use informed physical activity and diet-related behaviours, and self-perceived Quality of Life (QoL) during COVID-19, and assessed the contextual factors that drive social media use for health-related behaviour change in diverse groups. During the COVID-19 lockdown periods there were reported changes to social media use and health behaviours, and this gave an opportunity to investigate potential relationships. METHODS: An explanatory sequential research design of two parts was used: (1) An online survey that assessed social media use in relation to physical activity levels, diet quality and QoL (n = 786; Mage 45.1 ± 19.1 (range 16-88) years; Female =69%); (2) 20 purposive focus groups (n = 69; Mage = 52.88 ± 18.45 years, Female n = 68%) to understand the contextual factors that drive social media use for health-related behaviour change. Descriptive and thematic analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Participants in this study reported that social media facilitated the self-management of behaviours related to physical activity, diet and QoL, through access to information to inform workouts and dietary quality, and the opportunities for interaction with peers, family members and within social groups. Contextual factors including work, home and lifestyle arrangements, pre-existing health-related knowledge and behaviours, and the perceived value of social media for health influenced the relationship between social media use and self-reported outcomes. Social media influencers, peers/family members, and official organisations influenced the application of health-related information accessed via social media. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence shows that participants were critical users of social media and were able to use social media to derive benefit for their health and wellbeing. Detailed guidance for those who use social media, as well as those who recommend and endorse social media content is required to maximise the potential of social media to support health behaviours. Future public health strategies and social media interventions should acknowledge diversity in contextual factors driving social media use for health behaviour change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470938

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Diet/methods , Internationality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
15.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463779

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption to food security in many countries, including Kenya. However, the impact of this on food provision to children at an individual level is unknown. This small study aimed to provide a qualitative snapshot of the diets of children during the COVID-19 pandemic. During completion of 24-h food recalls, with 15 families with children aged 5-8 years, caregivers were asked about changes they had made to foods given to their children due to the pandemic. Food recalls were analysed to assess nutrient intakes. Qualitative comments were thematically analysed. Most of the families reported making some changes to foods they provided to their children due to COVID-19. Reasons for these changes fell into three themes, inability to access foods (both due to formal restriction of movements and fear of leaving the house), poorer availability of foods, and financial constraints (both decreases in income and increases in food prices). The COVID-19 pandemic has affected some foods parents in rural Kenya can provide to their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Eating , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Income , Kenya , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047314, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the single greatest contributor to global mortality. The successful introduction and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivered a reduction in HIV mortality. Consequently, an association was found between the scale-up of ART and an increased prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV (PLWH) such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. A higher quality diet can delay the onset of comorbidities related to HIV infection. Diet quality and its methods of assessment are not fully established among PLWH. This review will identify the diet quality and food insecurity indices that have been used among PLWH and how these constructs are associated with risk of developing CVD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The frameworks recommended by Arksey and O'Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute's manual for conducting scoping reviews will be adopted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines will be used for reporting. A search strategy was developed using keywords related to the topic. A preliminary MEDLINE (via PubMed) search was conducted on 11 November 2020 to develop a comprehensive search strategy. The final search will be conducted on PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. Titles and abstracts of retrieved records will be screened independently by two reviewers. Data will be extracted from records that meet the inclusion criteria using a predesigned charting tool. Discrepancies in decisions made by reviewers will be resolved by consensus or the decision of a third reviewer. Extracted data will be presented in tables or charts. A descriptive summary of the charts or tables will follow. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review. Findings will inform other studies currently underway and will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/7k3ja.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diet , Food Insecurity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462949

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diet and nutrition are leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to identify and synthesise evidence on the association between food environment characteristics and diet, nutrition and health outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), relevant to urban settings, to support development and implementation of appropriate interventions. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of 9 databases from 1 January 2000 to 16 September 2020 with no language restrictions. We included original peer-reviewed observational studies, intervention studies or natural experiments conducted in at least one urban LMIC setting and reporting a quantitative association between a characteristic of the food environment and a diet, nutrition or health outcome. Study selection was done independently in duplicate. Data extraction and quality appraisal using the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute checklists were completed based on published reports using a prepiloted form on Covidence. Data were synthesised narratively. RESULTS: 74 studies met eligibility criteria. Consistent evidence reported an association between availability characteristics in the neighbourhood food environment and dietary behaviour (14 studies, 10 rated as good quality), while the balance of evidence suggested an association with health or nutrition outcomes (17 of 24 relevant studies). We also found a balance of evidence that accessibility to food in the neighbourhood environment was associated with diet (10 of 11 studies) although evidence of an association with health outcomes was contradictory. Evidence on other neighbourhood food environment characteristics was sparse and mixed. Availability in the school food environment was also found to be associated with relevant outcomes. Studies investigating our other primary outcomes in observational studies of the school food environment were sparse, but most interventional studies were situated in schools. We found very little evidence on how workplace and home food environments are associated with relevant outcomes. This is a substantial evidence gap. CONCLUSION: 'Zoning' or 'healthy food cart' interventions to alter food availability may be appropriate in urban LMIC. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020207475.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Diet , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Poverty
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19984, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462035

ABSTRACT

The influence of the confinement on the changes of eating behaviors in men and women in Poland and between groups were assessed. Results were obtained for 112 men and 200 women. An anonymous questionnaire available on-line from 29 April to 19 May 2020 was the research tool. It contained questions about the frequency of consumption "before" and "during" confinement. Additionally, anthropometric measurements were declared by the respondents. An increase in the number of meals and an improvement in their regularity were observed in both groups. However, the frequency of snacking also increased. During lockdown women consumed potatoes, sweets, canned meat and eggs and men consumed canned meat more frequently. Products consumed less frequently were: fast food, instant soups and energy drinks (women), and white bread and fast food (men). The frequency of alcohol consumption also increased during lockdown. Average body weight and BMI increased significantly during social isolation. Body weight increase was declared by almost half of women and 40% of men. During the blockade period caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in the dietary behavior of the study group of women and men were found. The nature of these changes varied according to gender and the dietary parameters analyzed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Physical Distancing , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Weight Gain
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7880448, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455779

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated neuropsychiatric complications are soaring. There is an urgent need to understand the link between COVID-19 and neuropsychiatric disorders. To that end, this article addresses the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in gut dysbiosis and an altered microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis that in turn contributes to the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19. Altered MGB axis activity has been implicated independently as a risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. A review of the changes in gut microbiota composition in individual psychiatric and neurological disorders and gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients revealed a shared "microbial signature" characterized by a lower microbial diversity and richness and a decrease in health-promoting anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria accompanied by an increase in opportunistic proinflammatory pathogens. Notably, there was a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria. SCFAs are key bioactive microbial metabolites with anti-inflammatory functions and have been recognized as a critical signaling pathway in the MGB axis. SCFA deficiency is associated with brain inflammation, considered a cardinal feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. The link between SARS-CoV-2 infection, gut dysbiosis, and altered MGB axis is further supported by COVID-19-associated gastrointestinal symptoms, a high number of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, angiotensin-cleaving enzyme-2 (ACE-2) in the gut, and viral presence in the fecal matter. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the receptor results in ACE-2 deficiency that leads to decreased transport of vital dietary components, gut dysbiosis, proinflammatory gut status, increased permeability of the gut-blood barrier (GBB), and systemic inflammation. More clinical research is needed to substantiate further the linkages described above and evaluate the potential significance of gut microbiota as a diagnostic tool. Meanwhile, it is prudent to propose changes in dietary recommendations in favor of a high fiber diet or supplementation with SCFAs or probiotics to prevent or alleviate the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Bacteria/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Diet , Dysbiosis , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Inflammation , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 16(12): 1910-1918, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is well established as a treatment for obesity and associated complications. This procedure improves metabolic homeostasis through changes in energy expenditure. We hypothesized that sleeve gastrectomy (SG) improves metabolic homeostasis by modulating energy expenditure and enhancing thermogenesis through increasing the expression level of meteorin-like protein (METRNL) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5/Irisin) through uncoupling proteins 1/2/3 (UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3). OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of SG on the levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis process. SETTING: Laboratory rats at Kuwait University. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 4 to 5 weeks, were divided into 2 groups, control (n = 11) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) (n = 22). The control group was fed regular rat chow ad libitum, whereas the DIO group was fed cafeteria diet "high-fat/carbohydrate diet" ad libitum. At 21 weeks, rats in the DIO group that weighed 20% more than the control group animals underwent surgery. These rats were randomly subdivided into Sham and SG operation groups. Gene expression was evaluated, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were employed to assess the changes in gene and protein levels in tissue and circulation. RESULTS: The protein expression data revealed an increase in METRNL levels in the muscles and white adipose tissue of SG animals. METRNL level in circulation in SG animals was reduced compared with control and Sham rats. The level of Irisin increased in the muscle of SG animals compared with the control and Sham group animals; however, a decrease in Irisin level was observed in the white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue of SG animals compared with controls. Gene expression analysis revealed decreased METRNL levels in muscle tissues in the SG group compared with the control group animals. Increased expression of FNDC5 (Irisin), UCP2, and UCP3 in the muscle tissue of SG animals was also observed. Furthermore, the levels of UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, and METRNL in the brown adipose tissue of SG animals were upregulated. No significant alteration in the gene expression of Irisin was observed in brown adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Sleeve gastrectomy induces weight loss through complex mechanisms that may include browning of fat.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown , Obesity , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Diet , Fibronectins/genetics , Fibronectins/metabolism , Gastrectomy , Kuwait , Male , Mitochondrial Uncoupling Proteins , Muscles/metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/surgery , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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