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1.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(9): e12922, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigations into the main drivers of childhood obesity are vital to implement effective interventions to halt the global rise in levels. The use of a composite score may help to identify children most at risk of overweight/obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cumulative impact of factors associated with overweight/obesity risk in children. METHODS: Data were analysed from the Irish National Children's Food Survey II which included 600 children, aged 5-12-years. The risk factors examined included social class, parental, early life, lifestyle, and dietary components. A composite score was calculated which ranged from 0 (no risk factors for overweight/obesity) to 4 (4 risk factors for overweight/obesity). RESULTS: In model 1 (%BF) the four factors associated with overweight/obesity risk were having a parent with overweight/obesity (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.9-4.8), having a high birth weight of ≥4 kg (2.5; 1.6-3.9), being from a low social class (2.3; 1.4-3.8) and low physical activity (1.9; 1.2-2.8). Children who scored 3-4 points on the composite score had a 10-fold (10.0; 4.2-23.9) increased risk of overweight/obesity compared to those with 0 points, a sevenfold (7.2; 3.9-13.5) increased risk compared to those with 1 point and a threefold (2.6; 1.4-4.8) increased risk compared to those with 2 points, with similar results observed in model 2 (BMI). CONCLUSION: The use of a composite score is a beneficial means of identifying children at risk of overweight/obesity and may prove useful in the development of effective interventions to tackle childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Child , Diet , Exercise , Humans , Life Style , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(5): 351-365, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184803

ABSTRACT

This Review describes current knowledge on the epidemiology and causes of child and adolescent obesity, considerations for assessment, and current management approaches. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, obesity prevalence in children and adolescents had plateaued in many high-income countries despite levels of severe obesity having increased. However, in low-income and middle-income countries, obesity prevalence had risen. During the pandemic, weight gain among children and adolescents has increased in several jurisdictions. Obesity is associated with cardiometabolic and psychosocial comorbidity as well as premature adult mortality. The development and perpetuation of obesity is largely explained by a bio-socioecological framework, whereby biological predisposition, socioeconomic, and environmental factors interact together to promote deposition and proliferation of adipose tissue. First-line treatment approaches include family-based behavioural obesity interventions addressing diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep quality, underpinned by behaviour change strategies. Evidence for intensive dietary approaches, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic and bariatric surgery as supplemental therapies are emerging; however, access to these therapies is scarce in most jurisdictions. Research is still needed to inform the personalisation of treatment approaches of obesity in children and adolescents and their translation to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diet , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
3.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123771

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity (PA) and dietary habits, and their impact on body weight changes during the Level 3 alert period that resulted in the lockdown in Taiwan. The study was conducted between 1 July 2021 and 15 July 2021, using a Google Forms online survey platform. Personal data, anthropometric information, PA information, and dietary habit information were collected before and during the alert period. Exactly 374 respondents, aged between 20 and 66, were included in the study. The results indicate that the lockdown during the alert period negatively impacted all levels of PA, including vigorous and moderate activities and walking. Additionally, respondents showed a sedentary lifestyle, with an increased daily sitting time of 22%. However, body weight and dietary behavior were not significantly affected, and some dietary questions achieved significant differences, including eating three meals less regularly, among others. During the pandemic, exercise was still one of the most important ways to maintain health; therefore, we hope to bring more attention to the prevention of sedentary lifestyles and dietary abnormalities in Taiwan during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Taiwan/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires , Body Weight , Diet
4.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123770

ABSTRACT

Poor diet quality is commonly reported in young adults. This study aimed to measure the diet quality of students attending a large Australian university (including domestic and international students), and to examine the effect of food security status and other key factors likely to impact their diet quality. Using the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall Australian version, a cross-sectional survey collected dietary recalls from domestic and international students in one university in Sydney. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013) which gives a score out of 100. Food security status was measured by the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Differences in the mean HEIFA-2013 scores by student characteristics were determined by analysis of covariance. A total of 141 students completed one dietary recall. The mean HEIFA-2013 score for students was low (mean 52.4, 95% CI 50.0-54.8). Food-insecure students had a poorer diet quality (mean 43.7, 95% CI 35.7-51.8) than their food-secure peers (mean 53.2, 95% CI 50.8-55.7, p = 0.027). The mean HEIFA-2013 score was similar in domestic (mean 52.5, 95% CI 49.9-55.2) and international students (mean 51.9, 95% CI 46.3-57.5, p = 0.845). Those reporting self-perceived excellent cooking skills and higher cooking frequency had better diet quality. Interventions to improve food and nutrition knowledge and skills and address food insecurity may help tertiary education students cook more frequently and achieve better diet quality.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Food Supply , Young Adult , Humans , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Australia , Diet , Meals , Students , Cooking , Food Insecurity
5.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114956

ABSTRACT

The 2021 Australian Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (OzFITS 2021) is the first nationwide survey of the feeding practices of children under 2 years. Key Findings: Nearly half of the infants were exclusively breastfed to 4 months, and breastfeeding duration was long, with 68% of infants breastfed to 6 months and 44% breastfed into their second year. Infants were introduced to complementary foods at the appropriate time, between 4 and 6 months. We found a mismatch between the number of recommended servings from each food group in the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the dietary intake of toddlers in our study. Toddlers consumed twice as many fruit servings as recommended, and nearly all consumed discretionary foods despite no allowance for these foods. While most toddlers consumed the recommended dairy serves, they consumed half the recommended servings for other food groups-meats and alternatives, grains, and vegetables. The modeling that informed the Australian Dietary Guidelines did not include an allowance for breastmilk; this needs to be addressed, as a quarter of toddlers in OzFITS 2021 received 30% or more energy from breastmilk. Infants and toddlers met their requirements for most nutrients. One exception was iron, where 90% of older infants and 25% of toddlers had inadequate intakes. Excessive sodium intake was also of concern, with 1 in 3 toddlers exceeding the upper limit of 1000 mg/day. Here, we discuss additional findings, study limitations, gaps in the evidence base, and future directions.


Subject(s)
Diet , Sodium, Dietary , Infant , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Diet Surveys , Australia , Vegetables , Breast Feeding , Iron , Energy Intake
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862461, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099254

ABSTRACT

Wasting among children under-5 years remains a public health problem in Malawi, despite the quest to improve food availability through Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP). As such, the study examined the link between FISP and child wasting. Using Malawi Integrated Household Panel Surveys for 2013, 2016, and 2019, two-stage least squares approach was employed to run a Cobb Douglas production function and a correlated Random Effects (CRE) Model to account for endogeneity challenges and an unbalanced panel dataset. The study hypothesized the role of FISP to dietary diversity at the household level on child wasting [weight-for-height (WHZ)]. Based on the analysis, the study found that household access to FISP coupons was not a stand-alone predictor for low wasting among children under-5 years. However, increased maize production due to FISP coupon access significantly correlated with lower wasting likelihood incidences at the household level. Worth to note, that in 2015/16, households that had accessed FISP coupons and were in the central region had higher wasting probabilities among the children under-5 years in Malawi compared to other counterparts panels. This implies challenges to addressing wasting among children under-5 years- which can be attributed to higher redemption costs of the FISP coupon. Therefore, the current study suggests that input subsidies can improve the reduction of wasting among children under-5 years through specific pathways, among them, increased maize production and considering appropriate targeted approaches to ensure households access the inputs for sustained food availability, which in turn enhances improved the children under-5 years health dividends in Malawi.


Subject(s)
Diet , Food Supply , Child , Family Characteristics , Farms , Humans , Malawi
7.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 78 Suppl 3: 1-63, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098084

ABSTRACT

It is a plaesaure to announce the celebration of the XXXI Congress of the Spanish Nutrition Society that will be held in Cartagena (Murcia, Spain), from September 15th to 17th, 2022. As is already a tradition in our society, the day before, on September 14th, the IX Meeting of young researchers will take place, aimed at promoting interaction and knowledge exchange among young people working in the field of nutrition and food in Spain. In addition, young reserachers will receive a workshop about how to produce videos of research with high impact in the social media. The congress will offer a scientific and multidisciplinary journey through all aspects related to a personalized diet from children to adults, healthy, safe and sustainable. The connections between lifestyles and chronic non-communicable diseases and especially obesity, will be updated, as well as precision nutrition, incorporating the outstanding advances in nutrigenomics, epigenetics and metabolomic markers. New evidence of healthy effects of bioactive, prebiotic and probiotic components is also contemplated, without forgetting the issue of food allergies and intolerances, which are increasingly prevalent in our society. The circular economy and the new preferences for sustainable and local food pose challenges that will also be addressed at the congress and in the sessions for young researchers. In addition, the problem generated by the dissemination of nutritional information poorly contrasted in the media and social networks will be considered. We encourage you to schedule these dates in your 2022 agenda to attend and participate in our congress, whose program we have designed with great enthusiasm. We would also like to extend the invitation to participate to companies and institutions related to food, which will help us reflect that optimal food is only achieved with the involvement of EVERYONE. We hope that the proposal of this congress will be attractive to you and that we can share enriching experiences in Cartagena, Spain. The program of the congress is available in the URL https://www.xxxicongresosen2022.com/index.asp Yours sincerely, Elvira Larqué Daza, Organizer of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEÑ) Congress 2022, Cartagena, Spain. Salvador Zamora Navarro, Honour member from the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEÑ). María Puy Portillo Baquedano, President of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEÑ).


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutritional Status , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Life Style , Spain
8.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071660

ABSTRACT

A rise in the incidence of infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has sparked the search for protective strategies against the new pathogen. It is known that individual food components can interact with different immune cells, modulating the immune response of the body. The aim of this study was to develop an index assessing the immunomodulatory potential of diet (POLA index) and to test its utility for the prediction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a group of healthy young people following a traditional or vegetarian diet. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake, and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). There was a strong correlation between the dietary inflammatory index and the POLA index (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). Based on Cohen's kappa statistic, there was a good agreement in qualitative interpretation between the two indices (kappa = 0.61; p < 0.0001). People on a diet with beneficial immunomodulatory effects had a lower risk of COVID-19 of approximately 80%, as compared with those on a diet with highly unbeneficial immunomodulatory effects. In daily practice, the POLA index might serve as a useful tool for dietitians to identify individuals whose diet is deficient in ingredients for optimal immune system function and change their dietary behavior to ensure optimal immune function that reduces the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Diet , Immunity
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071382

ABSTRACT

In recent years, national and local efforts to improve diet and health in the United States have stressed the importance of nutrition security, which emphasizes consistent access to foods and beverages that promote health and prevent disease among all individuals. At the core of this endeavor is fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, a dietary practice that is integral to attaining and sustaining a healthy diet. Unfortunately, significant inequities in FV accessibility, purchasing, and consumption exist, particularly among populations that are socially and economically disadvantaged. To achieve nutrition and health equity in the United States, the field must center the goal of nutrition security and initiatives that aim to increase FV consumption, specifically, in future work. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) Special Issue titled "Nutrition and Health Equity: Revisiting the Importance of Fruit and Vegetable Availability, Purchasing, and Consumption" features several scholarly publications from experts conducting timely research on these topics. In this commentary, we (1) summarize the U.S.-based literature on inequities in FV accessibility, purchasing, and consumption, (2) describe how the contributions to this IJERPH special issue can advance nutrition security and health equity, and (3) outline future research questions from our perspective.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Vegetables , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Health Promotion , Humans , United States
10.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 16(5): 413-420, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069534

ABSTRACT

Meal timing is an important consideration when assessing health. The primary outcome of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of early time-restricted eating (eTRE) on diet quality in a sample of college students attending a large southwestern university. Cardiometabolic indices and anthropometric measures were also obtained. The study was planned as an eight-week intervention; however, COVID-19 necessitated laboratory closures that disrupted data collection at week eight. Hence, only data obtained at week zero (baseline) and week four were viable for analysis and are presented herein. Twenty-five healthy participants were randomized to the intervention group (eTRE) which consisted of a daily 6-hour eating window or the control group (CON) which consisted of a daily 16-hour eating window. Each week, participants were permitted one day off from their respective study protocol. Seventeen participants completed all aspects of the study, and diet quality data were obtained from one additional participant (n = 18). Preliminary findings indicate that the 6-hour eTRE protocol may be beneficial for weight reduction and for reducing energy-dense foods typically consumed during the evening hours or later at night. Future research should accommodate individual preferences with regard to the initiation time of the eating window while also providing evidence-based nutrition recommendations to improve diet quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Pilot Projects , Feasibility Studies , Diet , Students , Eating
11.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066294

ABSTRACT

Many companies switched to working from home (WFH) after the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to examine the changes in dietary behavior, body weight, sedentary lifestyle, and stress in individuals who practice WFH. A cross-sectional, web-based questionnaire was administered between March and May 2021 and included socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, WFH arrangement, changes in diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress status. A total of 328 individuals (260 women, 68 men), aged 31.3 ± 8.3 years with a BMI of 24.9 ± 4.6 kg/m2, participated in the study. The questionnaire revealed that the daily working time increased with WFH. The majority of the individuals (59.1%) gained weight. The average daily sedentary time and the Perceived Stress Scale score increased significantly. The daily sedentary time and Non-Healthy Diet Index scores were higher in individuals who gained weight (p < 0.05). A multinominal regression model revealed that increased body weight was less likely in individuals with underweight and normal BMI classifications. Normal BMI, stable work shifts, and no physical activity were positive predictors for gaining weight. These results suggest that WFH may have significant negative effects on physical and mental status of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Weight Gain
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066056

ABSTRACT

Food delivery applications (FDAs) shined during COVID-19 global lockdown restrictions. Consequently, lifestyle changes imposed a greater use of these applications over this period. These changes may strongly influence the nutritional health of individuals, particularly adult Saudi females. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the influence of using FDAs during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on attitude behaviours, including dietary habits and preferences among Saudi adult females. Participants voluntarily submitted their answers to a questionnaire administered via the Google Survey platform. Results illustrated that most Saudi female users of FDAs were aged between 18-24 years with 64.9%, 91.5% being single and 37% ordering food online within one to two days a month. There was a significant association between the influence of using FDAs during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions and age, education, and average days of ordering food online (p ˂ 0.05). Another important factor is that higher education was associated with more frequent use of the FDAs, there were direct relationships between education level and using FDAs, 58% of the participants were educated as undergraduate or postgraduate. Although lifestyle changes increased the use of FDAs during COVID-19 global lockdown restrictions, these changes may negatively affect individuals' dietary habits and preferences, particularly adult Saudi females. These findings can aid in promoting healthy diet management globally and in Saudi Arabia unless the governments lead to significant beneficial changes toward improving food delivery applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicinal and aromatical plants (MAPs) have been historically used as traditional remedies in many cultures in Europe and globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of MAPs in various health disorders in association to dietary habits and other lifestyle factors among residents in Thrace, NE Greece. METHODS: Data were collected through anonymous and voluntary responses to a structured online questionnaire, via convenience (snowball) sampling. RESULTS: The 561 responders (age: 39.7 ± 11.6 y) were mostly female (59.7%), with higher education (69.8%), working as state or private employees (55.4%), and having low/medium income (77.1%). Overall, more than 70% were using MAPs in various symptoms and common health disorders, such as chamomile against common cold and the flu. More than 20 different MAPs were being used in smaller frequencies against various conditions. Key contributing factors to the consumption of MAPs were sex (female over male), employment (employed vs. unemployed), education (higher education vs. lower) and higher Body Mass Index (overweight and obese vs. normal), while consumption of fruit, fish, and vegetables was mainly associated with the use of MAPs as common items of diet and in health disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The use of MAPs as part of the diet and as traditional remedy is present in the examined population, while particular choices seem to be affected by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.


Subject(s)
Diet , Vegetables , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Greece
14.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2772, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that obesity is associated with decreased executive function. Impaired executive functions lead to poor self-regulation, which in turn may result in persistence of unhealthy behaviors, including eating behaviors, throughout life. Increasing self-regulation in childhood and adolescence has positive effects on creating healthy behaviors such as reducing unnecessary eating and changing unhealthy eating habits. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention package based on cognitive self-regulation training in changing eating behaviors and reducing obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Fifty-six students with obesity aged 12-16 years participated in the study in three groups (cognitive self-regulation training [CSRT], diet, and control). The CSRT group received twenty 30-min online training sessions with a diet over 10 weeks. The diet group received only a diet with no other intervention, and the control group did not receive any intervention. RESULTS: The results of our 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA showed that the CSRT group had a mean BMI decrease of 2.21 (kg/m2 ) after ten weeks, and 3.24 (kg/m2 ) at the follow-up time. The diet group had a BMI decrease of 0.49 (kg/m2 ) at the ten weeks. In addition, the results showed that the CSRT had a significant reduction in eating behaviors such as external eating and emotional eating. However, the other two groups showed no changes in eating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that online cognitive self-regulation training has been effective in weight loss and eating behaviors. This study shows promising evidence for the efficacy of the online CSRT-training as a weight stabilization intervention in children with obesity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Weight Loss/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet , Body Mass Index
15.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 31(3): 433-440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined how food choice motives and dietary habits changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Four hundred elderly Japanese completed an online questionnaire in early May in 2021. Participants were retrospectively asked about their intake of food groups and food choice motives before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dietary diversity was determined using the dietary variety score calculated from the food frequency questionnaire with 10 food groups. The importance of each of the nine food choice motives for elderly people was assessed. Each scores ranged from 1 to 5. Changes in food choice motives and dietary behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using the paired t-test and a general linear model. RESULTS: Among the food choice motives, scores for the importance of weight control, physical well-being and economical efficiency significantly increased in both sexes (all p<0.05). Dietary diversity score was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic than that before the pandemic in women (p=0.019), but there was no difference in men. In the multivariate adjustment model, physical well-being and economical efficiency were shown to have significant positive associations with the COVID-19 pandemic in women (p=0.034 and 0.009, respectively). In contrast, eating out was shown to have a significant inverse association with the COVID-19 pandemic in women (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in some food choice motives and a decrease in the frequency of eating out among elderly female Japanese.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Internet , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055248

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to food habit changes, including some negative ones that may increase the risk of overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between adolescents' food habits, body mass change, as well as physical activity level in a population-based sample within the Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in a cohort of 1333 students (aged 10-16 years) recruited in schools after stratified random quota sampling of primary schools (sampling counties within voivodeships and schools within counties) in June 2020. The food habits were assessed for the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic while using Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC). The body mass changes were assessed based on body weight and height for the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic while using Polish growth reference values. The physical activity changes were assessed based on the subjective assessment of adolescents. It was stated that for female adolescents declaring body mass gain during the COVID-19 pandemic the highest AFHC purchase scores (healthy purchase habits) (p < 0.0001) were accompanied by the lowest AFHC consumption score (unhealthy consumption habits) (p < 0.0001), as well as for female adolescents declaring physical activity decrease during the COVID-19 pandemic the highest AFHC purchase scores (healthy purchase habits) were observed (p = 0.0333). It was stated that for male adolescents declaring physical activity increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the highest AFHC consumption scores (healthy consumption habits) were observed (p = 0.0003). In the case of a majority of participants, the general food habits were unchanged, which was observed mainly for food habits associated with food preparation. More food habits changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in body mass changes were observed in females than in male adolescents. Body mass gain during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents may have resulted from unhealthy consumption habits, accompanied by decreased physical activity, in spite of the fact that this sub-group presented healthy purchase habits, which was observed especially for female adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the ability of people with Parkinson disease (PwPs) and their care-partners to perform food-related activities (FRA) and PwPs' overall diet quality. METHODS: Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design, PwPs and their care-partners completed virtual dyadic semi-structured interviews about their FRA during the COVID-19 pandemic. PwPs completed Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) to quantify their dietary intake in the previous 12 months. Qualitative data were analyzed by two coders using thematic analysis, and quantitative data from FFQs were descriptively analyzed to calculate diet quality scores. RESULTS: Eleven dyadic interviews revealed the following key themes: cooking more at home; changes with grocery shopping; less meals with non-household members. These changes were described to increase the care-partners' responsibilities and overall burden. Diet scores among PwPs were 73.0 ± 6.3 for the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (scale of 0-100), 29.2 ± 6.6 for the Mediterranean diet (scale of 0-55), and 10.4 ± 1.8 for the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet (scale 0-15). CONCLUSIONS: Diet scores revealed that PwPs consumed a high-quality diet during the pandemic. Findings from this study highlight the need for tailored nutrition education to support PwPs' care-partners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Parkinson Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology
18.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 81(2): 168-175, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050207

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a major burden on the health system in England and the rest of the UK. Obesity prevalence is high in adults and children and most of the UK population are consuming more energy than required, and not meeting other dietary recommendations, including those for saturated fat, free sugars, fibre, oily fish and fruit and vegetables. Over the past 5 years, a number of cross-government policies, both promoting voluntary action and legislative, have been put in place to tackle diet-related health and obesity. The food environment is complex with many influencing factors, some of which act through individual automatic choices. Other factors such as accessibility, advertising, promotion and nudging drive increased food and drink purchases. With continual changes in the food environment favouring fast-food outlets and meal delivery companies alongside the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diets and physical activity levels, further governmental action is likely needed to deliver sustained improvements to diet and health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutrition Policy , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet , England/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Pandemics , Vegetables
19.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed) ; 41(4): 453-460, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049703

ABSTRACT

The presence of malnutrition in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is high, it can be made worse by SARS-CoV2 infection. The nutritional assessment should be adapted to minimize the infection, recommending monitoring: weight loss percentage, body mass index (BMI), loss of appetite, analytical parameters and functional capacity using the dynamometer. As well as the sarcopenia assessment using the SCARF scale, and the possibility of using the GLIM criteria in those patients who have been tested positive by MUST. It is important to adapt the nutritional recommendations in the caloric and protein intake, to the CKD stage and to the SARS-CoV2 infection stage. In patients with hypercatabolism, to prioritize preserving the nutritional status (35 kcal/kg weight/day, proteins up to 1.5 g/kg/day). The rest of the nutrients will be adapted to CKD stage and the analytical values. In the post-infection stage, a complete nutritional assessment is recommended, including sarcopenia. The energy and protein requirements in this phase will be adapted to the nutritional status, with special attention to the loss of muscle mass. Dietary recommendations need to be tailored to side effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection: anorexia, dysphagia, dysgeusia, and diarrhea. Anorexia and hypercatabolism makes it difficult to meet the requirements through diet, therefore the use of oral nutritional supplements is recommended as well as the enteral or parenteral nutrition in severe phases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sarcopenia , Anorexia , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Diet , Humans , RNA, Viral , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/etiology
20.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043978

ABSTRACT

Obese patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are prone to severe forms of COVID-19. There is an urgent need for new treatments that lower the severity of COVID-19 in this vulnerable population. To better replicate the human context, we set up a diet-induced model of obesity associated with dyslipidemia and NASH in the golden hamster (known to be a relevant preclinical model of COVID-19). A 20-week, free-choice diet induces obesity, dyslipidemia, and NASH (liver inflammation and fibrosis) in golden hamsters. Obese NASH hamsters have higher blood and pulmonary levels of inflammatory cytokines. In the early stages of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, the lung viral load and inflammation levels were similar in lean hamsters and obese NASH hamsters. However, obese NASH hamsters showed worse recovery (i.e., less resolution of lung inflammation 10 days post-infection (dpi) and lower body weight recovery on dpi 25). Obese NASH hamsters also exhibited higher levels of pulmonary fibrosis on dpi 25. Unlike lean animals, obese NASH hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 presented long-lasting dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Relative to lean controls, obese NASH hamsters had lower serum levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity and higher serum levels of angiotensin II-a component known to favor inflammation and fibrosis. Even though the SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in early weight loss and incomplete body weight recovery, obese NASH hamsters showed sustained liver steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning, and marked liver fibrosis on dpi 25. We conclude that diet-induced obesity and NASH impair disease recovery in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. This model might be of value for characterizing the pathophysiologic mechanisms of COVID-19 and evaluating the efficacy of treatments for the severe forms of COVID-19 observed in obese patients with NASH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cricetinae , Cytokines , Diet , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation , Mesocricetus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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