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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1058759, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231772

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening blistering disorder characterized by autoantibodies directed against cell-cell adhesion molecules that serves as an excellent model to study human autoimmune development. Numerous studies have identified specific Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, in particular DRB1*0402 and DQB1*0503, that confer disease risk. Although HLA is required, it is not sufficient for the initiation of disease. As with all autoimmune diseases, the etio-pathogenesis of PV is complex, meaning it is multifactorial. Susceptibility is polygenic, and the search for non-HLA disease-linked genes continues. Moreover, twin studies across autoimmune conditions indicate that non-genetic environmental and lifestyle factors, which can be collectively grouped under the term "exposome", are also major contributors to disease development. The literature presents evidence for the potential role of multiple triggers such as medications, infections, stress, diet, immunizations, and sleep to influence the etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis of PV. However, a clear understanding of the degree to which specific factors impact PV is lacking. In this investigation, we comprehensively review the environmental elements listed above and consider the strength of evidence for these factors. The overall goals of this work are to provide greater insights into the factors that influence disease susceptibility, disease development and disease course and ultimately help to better guide clinicians and inform patients in the management of PV.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Exposome , Pemphigus , Humans , Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Diet , Disease Susceptibility
2.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher weight gain and psychological distress compared to those without PCOS. While COVID-19 restrictions led to population level adverse changes in lifestyle, weight gain and psychological distress, their impact on people with PCOS is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact the 2020 COVID-19 restrictions had on weight, physical activity, diet and psychological distress for Australians with PCOS. METHODS: Australian reproductive-aged women participated in an online survey with assessment of weight, physical activity, diet and psychological distress. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were used to examine associations between PCOS and residential location with health outcomes. RESULTS: On adjusted analysis, those with PCOS gained more weight (2.9%; 95% CI; 0.027-3.020; p = 0.046), were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations (OR 0.50; 95% CI; 0.32-0.79; p = 0.003) and had higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.75; p = 0.019) but no differences in psychological distress compared to women without PCOS. CONCLUSIONS: People with PCOS were more adversely affected by COVID-19 restrictions, which may worsen their clinical features and disease burden. Additional health care support may be necessary to assist people with PCOS to meet dietary and physical activity recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Psychological Distress , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Weight Gain , Exercise , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/psychology , Diet , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics
3.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238075

ABSTRACT

For the choices of food products, food preferences are crucial, as they influence the intake of nutrients and the resultant quality of diet, but in Poland, no studies of food preferences were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic on a population of young adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of food preferences in a Polish population-based sample of primary school adolescents as part of the Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study focused on a national sample of a population of primary school adolescents who were recruited based on cluster sampling of participants from counties and schools, yielding a sample of 5039 individuals. Their food preferences were assessed using the Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), and they were compared in subgroups stratified by (1) gender: male and female; (2) age: younger (10-13 years) and older (14-16 years); (3) place of residence: urban and rural; (4) Body Mass Index (BMI): underweight, normal body weight, and overweight/obese (assessed based on Polish growth reference values); and (5) physical activity level: low and moderate (assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for children aged 10-13 (IPAQ-C) and adolescents aged 14-16 (IPAQ-A)). In the population of adolescents, no statistically significant differences in food preferences between subgroups stratified by gender were observed (p > 0.05). For boys, none of the studied factors (age, place of residence, BMI, physical activity level) was statistically significant determinant of food preferences (p < 0.05), while for girls, all of them were statistically significant determinants (p > 0.05). All the assessed factors (age, place of residence, BMI, physical activity level) in girls were associated with preferences for snacks, and older girls, those from a rural environment, those who were underweight and overweight/obese, as well as those having a low physical activity level declared a higher preference for snacks than younger ones (p = 0.0429), those from an urban environment (p = 0.0484), those of a normal body weight (p = 0.0091), and those having a moderate physical activity level (p = 0.0083). Similarly, girls from rural environments declared a higher preference for starches than those from urban environments (p = 0.0103), and girls having a low physical activity level declared a higher preference for fruit than those having a moderate physical activity level (p = 0.0376). Taking this into account, the population of girls, in particular, needs dedicated educational actions to support proper nutritional habits. Additionally, older age, living in a rural environment, being underweight and overweight/obese, and having a low physical activity level may be indicated as factors predisposing one to food preferences potentially promoting unhealthy dietary habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Preferences , Child , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Overweight/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Body Mass Index , Obesity/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Schools
4.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243208

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a global public health problem. Worldwide, 41 million children under 5 years and 340 million children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years are overweight. In addition, the recent COVID-19 epidemic has further amplified this social phenomenon. Obesity is a condition associated with various comorbidities, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The pathophysiology of NAFLD in obesity is intricate and involves the interaction and dysregulation of several mechanisms, such as insulin resistance, cytokine signaling, and alteration of the gut microbiota. NAFLD is defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis in more than 5% of hepatocytes, evaluated by histological analysis. It can evolve from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver failure. Body weight reduction through lifestyle modification remains the first-line intervention for the management of pediatric NAFLD. Indeed, studies suggest that diets low in fat and sugar and conversely rich in dietary fibers promote the improvement of metabolic parameters. This review aims to evaluate the existing relationship between obesity and NAFLD in the pediatric population and to assess the dietary patterns and nutritional supplementations that can be recommended to prevent and manage obesity and its comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , End Stage Liver Disease , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet , Fibrosis , End Stage Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/metabolism
5.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted children's lifestyles, including dietary behaviors. Of particular concern among these behaviors is the heightened prevalence of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption, which has been linked to the development of obesity and related non-communicable diseases. The present study examines the changes in (1) UPF and (2) vegetable and/or fruit consumption among school-aged children in Greece and Sweden before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The analyzed dataset consisted of main meal pictures (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) captured by 226 Greek students (94 before the pandemic and 132 during the pandemic) and 421 Swedish students (293 before and 128 during the pandemic), aged 9-18, who voluntarily reported their meals using a mobile application. The meal pictures were collected over four-month periods over two consecutive years; namely, between the 20th of August and the 20th of December in 2019 (before the COVID-19 outbreak) and the same period in 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak). The collected pictures were annotated manually by a trained nutritionist. A chi-square test was performed to evaluate the differences in proportions before versus during the pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 10,770 pictures were collected, including 6474 pictures from before the pandemic and 4296 pictures collected during the pandemic. Out of those, 86 pictures were excluded due to poor image quality, and 10,684 pictures were included in the final analyses (4267 pictures from Greece and 6417 pictures from Sweden). The proportion of UPF significantly decreased during vs. before the pandemic in both populations (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.010 in Greece, and 71% vs. 66%, p < 0.001 in Sweden), while the proportion of vegetables and/or fruits significantly increased in both cases (28% vs. 35%, p < 0.001 in Greece, and 38% vs. 42%, p = 0.019 in Sweden). There was a proportional increase in meal pictures containing UPF among boys in both countries. In Greece, both genders showed an increase in vegetables and/or fruits, whereas, in Sweden, the increase in fruit and/or vegetable consumption was solely observed among boys. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of UPF in the Greek and Swedish students' main meals decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic vs. before the pandemic, while the proportion of main meals with vegetables and/or fruits increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Services , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Vegetables , Fruit , Greece/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sweden/epidemiology , Food, Processed , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students , Diet , Feeding Behavior
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1112575, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240527

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the health and wellbeing of older adult populations through increased morbidity, mortality, and social exclusion. However, the impact of COVID-19 on the health of older adults through food security has received relatively little attention, despite the strong impact of diet quality on the health and longevity of older adults. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify sociodemographic and socioeconomic predictors of self-reported food insecurity before and early in the COVID-19 pandemic among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Methods: Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults in the United States, we examined the associations between sociodemographic and socioeconomic predictors of self-reported food insecurity between 2018 (N = 2,413) and June 2020 (N = 2,216) using population-weighted multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity doubled among participants from 2018 (4.83%) to June 2020 (9.54%). In 2018, non-Hispanic Black and rural residents were more likely to report food insecurity, while individuals with higher education and greater wealth were less likely to report food insecurity in adjusted models. In June 2020, those who were relatively younger, not working due to a disability, and renting were more likely to report food insecurity. Those with an increased number of functional limitations, a recent onset of a work-limiting disability, and those who were no longer homeowners experienced an elevated longitudinal risk for food insecurity. Conclusion: Future research should examine effective policies and interventions to address the disproportionate impacts of COVID-19 on populations at a heightened risk of experiencing food insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Food Supply , Diet , Food Insecurity
7.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580231175780, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325244

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic changed various lifestyle habits worldwide due to the prevention measures implemented in each country, these changes may affect or benefit people's health. We aimed to systematically review changes in diet, physical activity (PA), alcohol consumption, and tobacco use habits during the COVID-19 pandemic in adults. Two databases: PubMed and ScienceDirect, were used for this systematic review. The research was limited to open-access, peer-reviewed original articles published in English, French, or Spanish from January 2020 to December 2022 and investigated diet, PA, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use habits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in adults. Excluded studies were review studies, intervention studies with a sample size of fewer than 30 participants, and poor-quality articles. This review followed PRISMA 2020 guidelines (PROSPERO: CRD42023406524), whereas to assess the quality of the studies, we used the quality assessment tools developed by the BSA Medical Sociology Group for cross-sectional studies and the QATSO for the longitudinal studies. Thirty-two studies were included. Some studies reported changes to promote healthy lifestyles; 13 out of 15 articles reported an increase in healthy diet consumption habits, 5 out of 7 studies reported a decrease in alcohol consumption, and 2 out of 3 studies reported a decrease in tobacco use. On the other hand, the other studies reported changes to promote unhealthy lifestyles: 9 out of 15, and 2 out of 7 studies reported an increase in unhealthy diet and alcohol consumption habits respectively, 25 out of 25 reported a decrease in physical activity, and 13 out of 13 reported an increase in sedentary behavior. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been changes to promote a healthy and unhealthy lifestyle; the latter can affect people's health. Therefore, effective responses are needed to mitigate the consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Exercise , Tobacco Use
8.
Diabet Med ; 40(8): e15132, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318421

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Lifestyle and dietary modification are effective in the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). However, South Asian (SA) populations living in Western countries have low adherence rates to healthcare advice and experience poor diabetes control and clinical outcomes compared with the general population. This systematic review aimed to summarise the barriers and facilitators of dietary modification within people from South Asian (SA) ethnicity with T2DM or pre-diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus generated 3739 articles, of which seven were included. Qualitative and quantitative data were inputted utilising COVIDENCE. Qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified three facilitators: (1) cultural sensitivity, (2) health education and (3) support networks. Barriers include (1) healthcare inequity, (2) cultural insensitivity, (3) social pressures, (4) misconceptions and (5) time constraints. Good access to health care and motivation were the most common facilitators discussed. Misconceptions on T2DM management and cultural insensitivity contributed to the majority of barriers discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally tailored interventions could improve adherence to diet modification in people with T2DM from SA ethnicity. Interventions involving the application of social media to challenge intergenerational stigmas and misinformation, distributing culturally appropriate resources and providing diets tailored to the SA palate could help.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Prediabetic State/therapy , Asian People , Diet
9.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023015, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was to examine the changes in dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes between before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: A total of 54,995 participants aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2011-2020 KNHANES were included. The 10-year trend (2011-2020) and differences between 2019 and 2020 for dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes were estimated using SAS. RESULTS: In the past 10 years (2011-2020), the dietary habits (increase in skipping meals and eating out), food intake (increase in meats and decrease in fruits and vegetables), and nutrient intake (increase in fat and decrease in sodium) in adults have changed. When comparing between 2019 and 2020, there were 4.6%p decrease in the eating out more than once a day. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the intakes of food, energy and most of nutrients between 2019 and 2020, except for the proportion of energy intake from fat (1.0%p increase) and carbohydrate (1.0%p decrease). CONCLUSIONS: Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor the effects of changes in dietary habits on health as well as food and nutrient intakes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Diet , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Food
10.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(2): 127-128, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312813

ABSTRACT

Null.


Subject(s)
Depression , Diet , Humans , Depression/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic
11.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e54, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312414

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to examine associations between variables of COVID-19-related concerns and changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a sample of participants from the Brighter Bites program at risk for food insecurity. Cross-sectional data were collected during April-June 2020 using a rapid-response survey to understand social needs, COVID-19-related concerns and diet-related behaviours among families with children participating in Brighter Bites (n 1777) in the 2019-2020 school year at risk for food insecurity, within the surrounding Houston, Dallas, Austin, Texas area; Southwest Florida; Washington, D.C., United States. Of the 1777 respondents, 92 % of households reported being at risk for food insecurity. Among those from food insecure households, the majority were of Hispanic/Mexican-American/Latino (84⋅1 %) ethnic background, predominantly from Houston, Texas (71⋅4 %). During the pandemic, among individuals from food insecure households, 41 % (n 672) reported a decrease in FV intake, 32 % (n 527) reported an increase in FV intake, and 27 % (n 439) reported no change in FV intake. Those who reported concerns about financial stability had a 40 % greater risk of decreased FV intake compared to those not concerned about financial stability (RR 1⋅4; 95 % CI 1⋅0, 2⋅0; P = 0⋅03). The present study adds to this current body of sparse literature on how the initial phase of the pandemic impacted FV consumption behaviours among food insecure households with children. Effective interventions are needed to diminish the negative impact of COVID-19 on the population's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Diet , Vegetables , Food Insecurity
12.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(2): 248-265, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the COVID-19-related closure of government schools in Qatar on children and adolescents' dietary habits and physical activities and associated sociodemographic factors. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2022 utilizing the national electronic health records system in Qatar to extract a sampling frame of students enrolled in governmental schools, specifically targeting students in 3rd to 9th grades, stratified by sex and developmental stage. A stratified sampling technique was employed to randomly select a proportionate number of students from each stratum, and data were collected through telephone interviews with the parents of selected students. RESULTS: A total of 1546 interviews were completed by the end of the study. Of the included sample, 845 (54.7%) were between 8 and 11 years of age (middle childhood), while the rest were 12-15 years old (young teens and teenagers). Male to female ratio was almost 1:1. We found a significant decrease in the intake of vegetables, increases in the intake of soft drinks, fried food, fast food, and sweets, and a reduction in physical activity during schools' closure compared to before. Higher parental educational levels, maternal employment, and having a positive family history of obesity and/or overweight in first-degree relatives were significantly associated with adverse lifestyle changes during schools' closure. CONCLUSION: The trends of lifestyle changes reported in this study during the periods of COVID-19-related schools' closure were found to be going in a health-compromising direction. These results underscore the importance of implementing targeted interventions to promote healthy lifestyles during such disruptions and emphasize the need to address lifestyle changes beyond emergencies and outbreaks to mitigate potential long-term health consequences, including the increased risk of non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Child , Female , Qatar/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet , Exercise , Schools
13.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 48(7): 484-497, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306771

ABSTRACT

In January 2022, a group of experts came together to discuss current perspectives and future directions in nutritional immunology as part of a symposium organized by the Canadian Nutrition Society. Objectives included (1) creating an understanding of the complex interplay between diet and the immune system from infants through to older adults, (2) illustrating the role of micronutrients that are vital to the immune system, (3) learning about current research comparing the impact of various dietary patterns and novel approaches to reduce inflammation, autoimmune conditions, allergies, and infections, and (4) discussing select dietary recommendations aimed at improving disease-specific immune function. The aims of this review are to summarize the symposium and to identify key areas of research that require additional exploration to better understand the dynamic relationship between nutrition and immune function.


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutritional Status , Infant , Humans , Aged , Canada , Micronutrients , Vitamin D
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e069436, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300984

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies, exploring the effect of food insecurity on physical and mental health, have shown that food insecurity is associated with lower self-reports of physical and mental health. With the COVID-19 pandemic, food insecurity has increased leading to higher risks of poor mental health. Despite evidence of the negative implications of food insecurity on mental health, there is a paucity of research on these variables for adolescents specifically. The current evidence shows there is a gap in adolescent centred research linking mental health and food insecurity globally. Adolescence is a crucial period of development where habits, nutritional inadequacies linked to food insecurity and mental health problems formed due to these inadequacies can be conveyed into adulthood. The aim of this study is to systematically scope the literature exploring the relationship between mental health, food (in)security and/or diet intake of adolescents. METHODS: This review will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's extended framework. The search strategy was developed by two of the authors and will be used to search literature from January 2012 to December 2022 in PubMed, Academic search complete, PsychARTICLES, Google, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of science core collection. Searching published and unpublished literature will be done in the chosen databases. References used in included literature will be reviewed for additional studies/sources. Articles will be assessed for eligibility by two reviewers, and any discrepancies reviewed by a third reviewer. The inclusion and exclusion criteria will be used for screening. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram will be used to document the selection process. A narrative summary and descriptive analysis will be used to summarise and report the extracted data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval for this study has been granted by the University of the Western Cape Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BM21/8/3). Strict measures will be followed to ensure methodological rigour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food , Diet , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Review Literature as Topic
15.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283078, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300666

ABSTRACT

We assessed food insecurity, dietary diversity and the right to adequate food among households in communities in Eastern Uganda that were affected by major landslides in 2010 and 2018. A prospective cohort study was applied to select 422 households during May-August (the food-plenty season) of 2019. In January-March (the food-poor season) of 2020, 388 households were re-assessed. Socio-demographic, food security, dietary diversity and right to adequate food data were collected using structured questionnaires. Four focus groups discussions and key informant interviews with 10 purposively sampled duty-bearers explored issues of food insecurity, dietary and the right to adequate food. The affected households had significantly higher mean (SE) food insecurity scores than controls, both during the food plenty season: 15.3 (0.5) vs. 10.8 (0.5), and during food-poor season: 15.9 (0.4) vs. 12.5 (0.0). The affected households had significantly lower mean (SE) dietary diversity scores than controls during the food plenty season: 5.4 (0.2) vs. 7.5 (0.2) and during the food poor season: 5.2 (0.2) vs. 7.3 (0.1). Multivariate analyses showed that the disaster event, education and main source of livelihood, were significantly associated with household food security and dietary diversity during the food-plenty season whereas during the food-poor season, the disaster event and education were associated with household food security and dietary diversity. During both food seasons, the majority of affected and control households reported to have consumed unsafe food. Cash-handout was the most preferred for ensuring the right to adequate food. Comprehension and awareness of human rights principles and state obligations were low. The severity of food-insecurity and dietary diversity differed significantly between the affected and control households during both food seasons. Moreover, the right to adequate food of landslide victims faced challenges to its realization. There is need for policy and planning frameworks that cater for seasonal variations, disaster effects and right to adequate food in order to reduce landslide victims' vulnerability to food insecurity and poor dietary diversity. In the long-term, education and income diversification program interventions need to be integrated into disaster recovery programs since they are central in enhancing the resilience of rural livelihoods to shocks and stressors on the food system.


Subject(s)
Landslides , Humans , Uganda , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Family Characteristics , Food Supply , Diet , Food Insecurity
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e41900, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Positive health behavior changes before pregnancy can optimize perinatal outcomes for mothers, babies, and future generations. Women are often motivated to positively change their behavior in preparation for pregnancy to enhance their health and well-being. Mobile phone apps may provide an opportunity to deliver public health interventions during the preconception period. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to synthesize the evidence of the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in promoting positive behavior changes in women of reproductive age before they are pregnant (preconception and interconception periods), which may improve future outcomes for mothers and babies. METHODS: Five databases were searched in February 2022 for studies exploring mobile phone apps as a prepregnancy intervention to promote positive behavior change. The identified studies were retrieved and exported to EndNote (Thomson Reuters). Using Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation), a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) study flow diagram was generated to map the number of records identified, included, and excluded. Three independent reviewers assessed the risk of bias and conducted data extraction using the Review Manager software (version 5.4, The Cochrane Collaboration), and the data were then pooled using a random-effects model. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: Of the 2973 publications identified, 7 (0.24%) were included. The total number of participants across the 7 trials was 3161. Of the 7 studies, 4 (57%) included participants in the interconception period, and 3 (43%) included women in the preconception period. Of the 7 studies, 5 (71%) studies focused on weight reduction, assessing the outcomes of reductions in adiposity and weight. Of the 7 studies, nutrition and dietary outcomes were evaluated in 2 (29%) studies, blood pressure outcomes were compared in 4 (57%) studies, and biochemical and marker outcomes associated with managing disease symptoms were included in 4 (57%) studies. Analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences in energy intake; weight loss; body fat; and biomarkers such as glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, fasting lipid profiles, or blood pressure when compared with standard care. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the limited number of studies and low certainty of the evidence, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the effects of mobile phone app interventions on promoting positive behavior changes in women of reproductive age before they are pregnant (preconception and interconception periods). TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017065903; https://tinyurl.com/2p9dwk4a. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13643-019-0996-6.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Mobile Applications , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Diet , Health Behavior , Obesity
17.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300308

ABSTRACT

The quality and quantity of food consumption have changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we examined how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the consumption of different food groups in order to close the research gap by providing current evidence that reflects a later stage of the pandemic compared to other circulating research conducted at earlier stages. Data collection for this cross-sectional study was performed via an online Qualtrics survey from 10,050 adults aged 40-100 years. Nutritional status was measured using the 24-item short-form Dietary Screening Tool (DST) twice: before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. The DST questions were categorized based on MyPlate items, along with fat, sugar, and sweet items, as well as nutritional supplement intake. In addition, the total DST score was calculated for each participant, which categorized them into one of three groups: "at risk", "possible risk", and "not at risk". The results revealed that the consumption of grains, fruit, lean protein, and dairy decreased significantly, while the consumption of fat, sugar, and sweet items increased significantly due to COVID-19. The biggest decreases in consumption of food subcategories were related to whole grain bread and cereal, followed by fruit as a snack, in comparison with other types of grain and fruit. No changes in the consumption of vegetables, processed meat, or supplement intake were seen. The total DST score showed that, before and since COVID-19, the overall nutrition status of adult Americans has been at risk. In addition, of those participants who were not at risk before COVID-19, 28.5% were either at risk or at possible risk since COVID-19; moreover, of those participants who were at possible risk before COVID-19, 21% were at risk since COVID-19. As a good nutritional status can reduce the risk of severe illness or even mortality rate in times of crisis, the findings of this study can help policymakers and health educators to develop heath-protecting behavior sessions against future pandemics to manage crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Fruit , Vegetables , Edible Grain , Sugars
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297818

ABSTRACT

Confusing health messages and environmental changes intended to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus have affected the dietary behavior of older African Americans. We investigated the impact of COVID-19-related factors on diet quality and the relationship between food access and diet quality. We surveyed 150 African Americans aged 55 years and above during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data obtained included socio-demographic and health information, and COVID-19-related knowledge and perceptions. Dietary intake data was obtained using the Diet History Questionnaire III. Analyses included bivariate and multivariable statistics. Overall, based on United States Department of Agriculture guidelines, the diet quality of older African Americans was poor. Lower knowledge and a lower perceived threat of COVID-19 were significantly associated with poor diet quality. Additionally, older African Americans with chronic diseases and food insecurity had poor diet quality. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the fragility of diet quality. The combined impact of poor knowledge and perceived threat of COVID-19, chronic disease, and food insecurity contribute to poor diet quality in this population. This study adds to the well-known need for strategies to support the right to a healthy diet, particularly during COVID-19 and future pandemics. Proactive interventions to counteract the potential consequences of poor diets are needed.


Subject(s)
Black or African American , COVID-19 , Diet , Food Insecurity , Nutrition Assessment , Humans , Black or African American/psychology , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/standards , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Eating , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Aged , Middle Aged , Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Access to Healthy Foods/standards , Access to Healthy Foods/statistics & numerical data
20.
Indian J Med Res ; 157(4): 293-303, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291929

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the death rate was reportedly 5-8 fold lower in India which is densely populated as compared to less populated western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary habits were associated with the variations in COVID-19 severity and deaths between western and Indian population at the nutrigenomics level. Methods: In this study nutrigenomics approach was applied. Blood transcriptome of severe COVID-19 patients from three western countries (showing high fatality) and two datasets from Indian patients were used. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed for pathways, metabolites, nutrients, etc., and compared for western and Indian samples to identify the food- and nutrient-related factors, which may be associated with COVID-19 severity. Data on the daily consumption of twelve key food components across four countries were collected and a correlation between nutrigenomics analyses and per capita daily dietary intake was investigated. Results: Distinct dietary habits of Indians were observed, which may be associated with low death rate from COVID-19. Increased consumption of red meat, dairy products and processed foods by western populations may increase the severity and death rate by activating cytokine storm-related pathways, intussusceptive angiogenesis, hypercapnia and enhancing blood glucose levels due to high contents of sphingolipids, palmitic acid and byproducts such as CO2 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Palmitic acid also induces ACE2 expression and increases the infection rate. Coffee and alcohol that are highly consumed in western countries may increase the severity and death rates from COVID-19 by deregulating blood iron, zinc and triglyceride levels. The components of Indian diets maintain high iron and zinc concentrations in blood and rich fibre in their foods may prevent CO2 and LPS-mediated COVID-19 severity. Regular consumption of tea by Indians maintains high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low triglyceride in blood as catechins in tea act as natural atorvastatin. Importantly, regular consumption of turmeric in daily food by Indians maintains strong immunity and curcumin in turmeric may prevent pathways and mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity and lowered the death rate. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that Indian food components suppress cytokine storm and various other severity related pathways of COVID-19 and may have a role in lowering severity and death rates from COVID-19 in India as compared to western populations. However, large multi-centered case-control studies are required to support our current findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Ingredients , Humans , Nutrigenomics , Carbon Dioxide , Lipopolysaccharides , Pandemics , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Palmitic Acid , SARS-CoV-2 , Diet/methods , Feeding Behavior , Zinc , Tea , Iron , Triglycerides
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