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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637922

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of partial replacement of dietary fat with krill oil (KO) or coconut oil (CO) on dyslipidemia and lipid metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: HFD, HFD + KO, and HFD + CO. The rats were fed each diet for 10 weeks and then intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 mg/kg). The KO- and CO-fed rats exhibited lower levels of serum lipids and aspartate aminotransferases than those of the HFD-fed rats. Rats fed with HFD + KO displayed significantly lower hepatic histological scores and hepatic triglyceride (TG) content than rats fed with HFD. The KO supplementation also downregulated the adipogenic gene expression in the liver. When treated with LPS, the HFD + KO and HFD + CO groups reduced the adipocyte size in the epididymal white adipose tissues (EAT) relative to the HFD group. These results suggest that KO and CO could improve lipid metabolism dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias , Euphausiacea , Animals , Coconut Oil/metabolism , Coconut Oil/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Fats , Euphausiacea/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593561

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a health problem with increasing impacts on public health, economy and even social life. In order to reestablish the energy balance, obesity management focuses mainly on two pillars; exercise and diet. Beyond the contribution to the caloric intake, the diet nutrients and composition govern a variety of properties. This includes the energy balance-independent properties and the indirect metabolic effects. Whereas the energy balance-independent properties are close to "pharmacological" effects and include effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, the indirect metabolic effects represent the contribution a diet can have on energy metabolism beyond the caloric contribution itself, which include the food intake control and metabolic changes. As an illustration, we also described the metabolic implication and hypothetical pathways of the high-fat diet-induced gene Trefoil Factor Family 2. The properties the diet has can have a variety of applications mainly in pharmacology and nutrition and further explore the "pharmacologically" active food towards potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Caloric Restriction/methods , Obesity/diet therapy , Trefoil Factor-2/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480689

ABSTRACT

Trefoil Factor Family Member 2 (TFF2) belongs to TFF family peptides that includes TFF1, TFF2, TFF3. TFF2 is mainly known for its roles in the mucosal protection. In the context of obesity and high fat diet (HFD), Tff2 has been characterized as a HFD-induced gene. The knock-out of Tff2 in mice lead to the protection from HFD-induced obesity with a metabolic profile towards a negative energy balance. Such HFD-specific expression gives Tff2 a pattern worth exploring in biomedical research. Indeed, measuring TFF2/TFF2/Tff2 expression in biological samples following the ingestion of high-fat diet reflects the biological "responsiveness" to the lipids ingestion and would reflect the severity of obesity establishment afterwards. Such property could be explored for instance to screen animal models, evaluate the predisposition to HFD-induced obesity as well as in biomedical and clinical applications. Results might advance obesity research especially in terms of understanding lipid-induced signals, appetite control and adiposity storage.


Subject(s)
Obesity/metabolism , Trefoil Factor-2/genetics , Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/pathology , Trefoil Factor-2/metabolism
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the severity of SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. Thus, this study tested whether obesogenic and ketogenic diets distinctly affect SARS-CoV-2 entry proteins and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in rat pulmonary and cardiac tissues. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (SC), a high-fat sucrose-enriched diet (HFS), or a ketogenic diet (KD) for 16 weeks. Afterwards, levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), RAS components, and inflammatory genes were measured in the lungs and hearts of these animals. RESULTS: In the lungs, HFS elevated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 levels relative to SC diet, whereas the KD lowered the levels of these proteins and the gene expressions of toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin-6 receptor relative to HFS. The diets did not alter ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the heart, although ACE2 was more abundant in heart than lung tissues. CONCLUSION: Diet-induced obesity increased the levels of viral entry proteins in the lungs, providing a mechanism whereby SARS-CoV-2 infectivity can be enhanced in obese individuals. Conversely, by maintaining low levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and by exerting an anti-inflammatory effect, the KD can potentially attenuate the severity of infection and migration of SARS-CoV-2 to other ACE2-expressing tissues.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Diet, Ketogenic/methods , Lung/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Virus Internalization
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266735

ABSTRACT

Soybean koji refers to steamed soybeans inoculated with microbial species. Soybean fermentation improves the health benefits of soybeans. Obesity is a serious health concern owing to its increasing incidence rate and high association with other metabolic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the effects of soybean and soybean koji on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/group) as follows: (1) regular diet (RD), (2) high-fat diet (HFD), (3) HFD + steamed soybean (HFD+SS), and (4) HFD + soybean koji (HFD+SK). SK contained more free amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids than SS. In a rat model of obesity, SK consumption significantly alleviated the increase in weight of white adipose tissue and mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, whereas SS consumption did not. Both SS and SK reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. SS and SK also inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver and white adipose tissue and reduced adipocyte size. Although both SS and SK could alleviate HFD-induced dyslipidemia, SK has better anti-obesity effects than SS by regulating lipogenesis. Overall, SK is an excellent functional food that may prevent obesity.


Subject(s)
Diet, High-Fat , Dyslipidemias , Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Liver , Male , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Soybeans
7.
Nutrition ; 90: 111226, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is threatening global health and is especially pronounced in patients with chronic metabolic syndromes. Meanwhile, a significant proportion of patients present with digestive symptoms since angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is highly expressed in the intestine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a maternal HFD on the intestinal ACE2 levels in adults and neonates. METHODS: We examined intestinal ACE2 protein levels in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and neonatal mice exposed to a maternal HFD. We also investigated Ace2 mRNA expression in intestinal macrophages. RESULTS: Intestinal ACE2 protein levels were increased in DIO mice but decreased in offspring exposed to a maternal HFD compared with chow-fed controls. Ace2 mRNA expression in intestinal macrophages was detected and downregulated in DIO mice. Additionally, higher intestinal ACE2 protein levels were observed in neonates than in adult mice. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of an HFD on intestinal ACE2 protein levels is opposite in adults and neonates. Macrophages might also be involved in SARS-CoV-2 intestinal infection. These findings provide some clues for the outcomes of patients with COVID-19 with metabolic syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Humans , Intestines , Mice , Obesity/etiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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