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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957335

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess whether the infection by SARS-CoV-2 has significantly influenced physical activity, diet, alcohol, and drug consumption habits, as well as the quality of life of students of the bachelor's degree in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted, which included socio-demographic questions related to the COVID-19 disease. Physical activity was analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), adherence to the Mediterranean diet using the PREDIMED questionnaire, alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire, and drug consumption using the DAST-10 questionnaire. Health-related quality of life was analyzed with the SF-12 questionnaire. Our results reveal that those who engaged in either vigorous physical activity or, on the contrary, very low-intensity physical activity, were affected by the SARS-CoV-2 disease, which reduced the average weekly time they spent on their type of activity. However, those who previously performed moderate activities have managed to stay on the same fitness level despite having suffered from SARS-CoV-2 disease (p = 0.433). In conclusion, general health is affected by suffering from the COVID-19 disease, inadequate eating habits, substance use, and the performance of vigorous or very low-intensity of physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Life Style , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938926

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, lifestyle deterioration had a negative impact on weight, and yet no study has focused on patients already undergoing dietary therapy. We performed a cohort study among adults to evaluate the effect of lockdown on weight loss programs, and we investigated changes in eating habits and chronotype. We matched confined cases with non-confined cases among individuals who followed the same diet in 2017-2019. At baseline, all patients underwent a clinical examination and completed questionnaires on lifestyle. At follow-up, patients of the confined group were interviewed by a web call, and questionnaires were re-evaluated. We recruited 61 patients. The confined sample was mainly composed of middle-aged (52 (43,58) years) females (46 (75%)) with overweight (27 (44%)) or obesity (24 (39%)) and a moderate physical activity level (48 (81%)). Body weight at follow-up was significantly higher (1.1 (95% CI: 0.14, 2.1) kg) in the confined group adjusting for all matching variables. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and eating behavior generally improved. Concerning chronotype, patients differentiated from Neither-types to Evening- and Morning-types. A well-monitored dietary therapy maintains weight loss during lockdown. Improvement in eating habits was observed; however, a shift of the circadian typology occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Middle Aged , Weight Loss
3.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938924

ABSTRACT

Dietary composition is associated with the differential prevalence of psychiatric disorders; the Western diet confers increased risk, while the Mediterranean diet appears to reduce risk. In nonhuman primates, anxiety-like behaviors and social isolation have been linked to both Western diet consumption and increased inflammatory disease risk, and recent evidence suggests that diet composition may affect immune system function in part through its effects on behavior. This is particularly important in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic in which social isolation has been associated with disease. Here, we examined the effects of Western- and Mediterranean-like diets on social behavior in a randomized, 34-month preclinical trial in middle-aged female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Diet induced rapid and persistent changes in a suite of behaviors. After just three months of experimental diet consumption, a composite measure of diet-altered behavior (DAB) significantly differed between the two diets (p = 0.014) and remained different throughout the 24-month experimental observation period (p = 2.2 × 10-8). Monkeys fed the Western diet spent more time alone (FDR = 4.4 × 10-5) and displayed more anxiety behavior (FDR = 0.048), whereas monkeys fed the Mediterranean diet spent more time resting (FDR = 0.0013), attentive (FDR = 0.017), and in body contact with groupmates (FDR = 4.1 × 10-8). These differences were largely due to changes in behavior of animals fed the Mediterranean diet, while Western-diet-fed-animals exhibited similar behaviors compared to the eight-month baseline period, during which all monkeys consumed a common laboratory diet. These observations provide experimental support in a nonhuman primate model, demonstrating a potential therapeutic benefit of the Mediterranean diet consumption to reduce social isolation and anxiety and thus mitigate social isolation-associated disorders that often accompany illness and disability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Pandemics , Social Isolation
4.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855726

ABSTRACT

Promoting a healthy diet is a relevant strategy for preventing non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the impact of an innovative tool, the SAlBi educa nutrition app, in primary healthcare dietary counseling to improve dietary profiles as well as adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A multi-center randomized control trial comprising 104 participants was performed. Both control (n = 49) and intervention (n = 55) groups attended four once-weekly sessions focusing on healthy eating habits and physical activity, over one month. As well as attending the meetings, the intervention group used the app, which provides self-monitoring and tailored dietary advice based on the Mediterranean diet model. In a second intervention (one arm trial), the potential of SAlBi educa was evaluated for three months during the COVID-19 pandemic. At 4 weeks, the intervention group had significantly increased their carbohydrate intake (7.7% (95% CI: 0.16 to 15.2)) and decreased their total fat intake (-5.7% (95% CI: -10.4 to -1.15)) compared to the control group. Significant differences were also found for carbohydrates (3.5% (95% CI: -1.0 to 5.8)), total fats (-5.9% (95% CI: -8.9 to -3.0)), fruits and vegetables (266.3 g/day (95% CI: 130.0 to 402.6)), legumes (7.7g/day (95% CI: 0.2 to 15.1)), starchy foods (36.4 g/day (95% CI: 1.1 to 71.7)), red meat (-17.5 g/day (95% CI: -34.0 to -1.1)), and processed meat (-6.6 g/day (95% CI: -13.1 to -0.1)) intakes during the COVID-19 pandemic. SAlBi educa is a useful tool to support nutrition counseling in primary healthcare, including in special situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial registration: ISRCTN57186362.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nutrients , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Vegetables
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 649760, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760280

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Occupational physicians, as an aspect of the periodic health surveillance of workers prescribed by law, must develop preventive programs against adverse health-related occurrences (Legislative Decree 81/2008, art.25) to reduce major risk factors for non-communicable/chronic diseases. Eating habits play an important role in defining risk trajectories in the workplace. Methods: We randomly and cross-sectionally evaluated 147 females, of which 59 were healthcare workers (HCWs) and 88 were non-HCWs. The assessment included a dietary screening for adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and a clinical baseline collection of major fluid biomarkers and anthropometric indicators for cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Results: The HCW group exhibited greater adherence to the MD than the non-HCW group. Nevertheless, they showed higher serum levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol. Menopause and type of work significantly and unfavorably affected triglyceride serum levels among HCWs. Conclusion: Greater preventive efforts are needed in the context of periodic health surveillance by occupational physicians. Disseminating additional information on a healthier lifestyle, particularly among female workers of perimenopausal age, is a key issue.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Triglycerides , Female , Health Personnel , Humans
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760486

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are multifactorial diseases influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) seems to modulate the genetic predisposition to obesity or MetS in European adults. The FTO gene has also been shown to have an impact on the MD benefits to avoid obesity or MetS. Since these interaction effects have been scarcely analyzed in European youth, the aim was to describe the gene-MD interplay, analyzing the impact of the genetic factors to reduce the obesity and MetS risk through MD adherence, and the MD impact in the obesity and MetS genetic profile. From the limited evidence on gene-MD interaction studies in European youth, a study showed that the influence of high MD adherence on adiposity and MetS was only observed with a limited number of risk alleles; the gene-MD interplay showed sex-specific differences, being higher in females. Most results analyzed in European adults elucidate that, the relationship between MD adherence and both obesity and MetS risk, could be modulated by obesity genetic variants and vice versa. Further research is needed, to better understand the inter-individual differences in the association between MD and body composition, and the integration of omics and personalized nutrition considering MD.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Metabolic Syndrome , Pediatric Obesity , Adiposity/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Child , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics
7.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(5): 683-692, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740607

ABSTRACT

Little is known on potential socioeconomic and gender disparities in dietary changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a telephone-based survey during fall 2020 on 4400 participants representative of the population aged 65-99 years living in Lombardy, Italy. Changes in a Mediterranean lifestyle were assessed retrospectively by scoring modifications in the consumption of nine food groups and five diet-related behaviours compared to 2019. A Mediterranean COVID-19 Pandemic Score (MedCovid-19 Score) was computed, reflecting changes during pandemic, with increasing values indicating improvements in line with a Mediterranean lifestyle. Predictors of favourable dietary changes (MedCovid-19 Score ≥ 1) were education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.19-1.95 for postgraduate vs. lower), wealth (OR = 1.52; 1.14-2.02 for high vs. low) and skilled manual occupations (OR = 1.57; 1.28-1.92 vs. white collars). Women were more likely than men to move away from a Mediterranean lifestyle (OR = 1.86; 1.58-2.21). In conclusions, changes towards a Mediterranean lifestyle were disproportionately distributed across gender and socioeconomic strata.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 50(2): 93-95, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732523

ABSTRACT

In the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, disease severity was found to be more related to the immune system hyper-response than the invasive or destructive capacity of the virus. Similarly, most common childhood diseases, which are generally recurrent and inflammatory, may be caused by a hyper-response or inability of the immune system. Individuals will react differently to causal noxa and outcomes will depend on the balance and maturity of their immune system. Conventionally, childhood diseases are symptomatically treated with little attention being devoted to balancing and stimulating the maturation of the immune system. Recently, there has been an increase in publications that consider lifestyle as an important factor in the maintenance of health. One controversial angle is an abandonment of the traditional diet and the inclusion of foods that are potentially less well-assimilated by the human species. An increasing number of studies are demonstrating the anti-inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean Diet while illustrating the pro-inflammatory effects of many other food types. We believe that the Traditional Mediterranean Diet consists of foods that support the establishment and maintenance of a healthy microbiota and a mature immune system that, in turn, can aid in the prevention of common inflammatory and recurrent diseases of childhood.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Immune System , Inflammation/prevention & control , Humans , Recurrence
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686801

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, on eating and physical activity behavior, in a university population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables, can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. We conducted a cross-sectional study and data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary behavior and physical activity; the Mediterranean Diet questionnaire (MEDAS-14) and the Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ). A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire: 66.7% were women, 79.2% were from Spain, 76.8% were students, 76.2% lived in their family home and 66.1% were of normal weight. During lockdown our population shopped for groceries 1 time or less per week (76.8%); maintained the same consumption of fruits (45.2%), vegetables (50.6%), dairy products (61.9%), pulses (64.9%), fish/seafood (57.7%), white meat (77.4%), red and processed meat (71.4%), pastries and snacks (48.2%), rice/pasta/potatoes (70.2%) and nuts (62.5%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%). Cooking time increased (73.2%) and the consumption decreased of low alcohol drinks (60.1%), spirits (75%) and sugary drinks (57.1%), and physical activity also diminished (49.4%). University Employees (UE) gained more weight (1.01 ± 0.02) than students (0.99 ± 0.03) (p < 0.05) during the confinement period. A total of 79.8% of the participants obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD during lockdown. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in the female group (p < 0.01). In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the female and UE groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
10.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674746

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, whose causative agent is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, has caused a global crisis that has had a major impact on the health of the global population [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(5): 2417-2434, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669787

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-2019 pandemic forced many governments to declare the "to stay at home" which encouraged social distancing and isolation among citizens. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary and lifestyle habit changes that occurred during home confinement in Spain. METHODS: An European online survey was launched in April 2020. This included 70 questions on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, dietary habits, including key Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) foods. A total of 945 Spanish adults from 1268 European that completed the online survey were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Most of the Spanish participants adopted healthier dietary habits during home lockdown, which was translated to a higher MedDiet adherence. However, a negative impact on physical activity levels, sleep quality or smoking rates was observed. Low MedDiet adherence was associated with a higher risk of weight gain (OR = 1.53, CI 1.1-2.1; p = 0.016), while no snacking between meals reduced the risk by 80% (OR = 0.20, CI 0.09-0.45, p < 0.001) and eating more quantity, considering portion size, increased body weight gain risk almost sixfold more. CONCLUSION: To conclude, although dietary habits were improved during home lockdown, certain unhealthy behaviours (e.g. increased snacking between meals, increased food intake, and an increase in sedentary behaviour) were increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Life Style , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Gain
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580587

ABSTRACT

Mediterranean Diet represents the traditional eating habits of populations living around the Mediterranean Sea, and it is associated with a lower risk of overall mortality and cancer incidence and cardiovascular diseases. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a new pandemic, and represents a significant and critical threat to global human health. In this study, we aimed to review the possible effects of Mediterranean Diet against the risk of the coronavirus disease 2019. Several vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and phytochemicals with their potential anti-COVID-19 activity are presented. Different risk factors may increase or reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mediterranean Diet has also a positive action on inflammation and immune system and could have a protective effect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Further studies are needed to corroborate the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet protective role on infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(3): 1491-1505, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540216

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between psychological distress resulting from the COVID-19 lockdown and dietary changes. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from 2 retrospective Italian cohorts recruited from May to September 2020: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1401 participants from the Moli-sani Study (n = 24,325) who were administered a telephone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement; (2) the ALT RISCOVID-19 is a web-based survey of 1340 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire using Google® forms. Psychological distress was measured by assessments of depression (PHQ-9 and depressive items from the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health- SQD-D), anxiety (GAD-7), stress (PSS-4), and post-traumatic stress disorder (SQD-P). Diet quality was assessed either as changes in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) or adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD). RESULTS: In ALT RISCOVID-19, increased UPF intake was directly associated with depression (both PHQ-9 and SQD-D; p < 0.0001), anxiety (p < 0.0001), stress (p = 0.001) and SQD-P (p = 0.001); similar results were obtained in the Moli-LOCK cohort except for perceived stress. When psychometric scales were analysed simultaneously, only depression (SQD-D) remained associated with UPF (both cohorts). In both cohorts, psychological distress poorly influenced changes toward an MD, except for depression (SQD-D) that resulted inversely associated in the ALT RISCOVID-19 participants (ß = - 0.16; 95% CI - 0.26, - 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress from the COVID-19 confinement is directly associated with unhealthy dietary modifications in two Italian cohorts. In view of possible future restrictive measures to contain pandemic, public health actions are warranted to mitigate the impact of psychological distress on diet quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
14.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021440, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries adopted restrictive measures to mitigate infection spread, which might have influenced people's lifestyle and dietary habits. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the impact of national lockdowns on adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD). METHODS: Studies were identified searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies published until 4th May 2021 were included. We only considered studies reporting original data from quantitative analysis and assessing changes in adherence to the MD, using validated dietary scores, or in consumption of MD food items. Data extraction, pooling, and quality appraisal of included studies were conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were retrieved. After screening, 12 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review, of which 4 (33%) were longitudinal studies. Six (85.7%) of the seven studies that measured changes in MD adherence before-during lockdown reported an increase (rate of change of high-adherence to MD ranged between +3.3% and +21.9%). Evidence indicates that consumption of MD food items increased during lockdown but is heterogeneous in study design, quality, and findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest adherence to the MD during lockdown might have increased in some settings, while the determinants of such a trend are to be further explored. We raise awareness of the need to research further the impacts and long-term consequences of COVID-19 containment measures on dietary and lifestyle habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488681

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic altered adults' and children's lifestyles and habits, causing an increase in body weight. Adolescents are sensitive to habit changes and, because of their insufficient capacity to deal with the unexpected COVID-19 changes, were at greater risk of noncommunicable disease development due to the consequences of adopting unhealthy habits. The survey aimed to reveal the changes in nutritional status and lifestyle habits of school children in Croatia and to assess their nutrition knowledge and emotional state and feelings about COVID-19 lockdown. Self-reported data from 1370 school children aged 10 to 15 years were obtained to examine the influence of the lockdown on their nutritional status, lifestyle and emotional status, and to assess their nutrition knowledge. The study revealed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among Croatian school children who changed their lifestyle habits towards being less physically active, spending more time using screen-based media and revealing potential psychological distress. However, the schoolchildren had a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents KIDMED index and had good nutrition knowledge. Public health programs promoting a healthy lifestyle and involving the whole family, in a school environment, could provide children with a healthy adulthood.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy , Diet, Mediterranean , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Child , Child Behavior , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
17.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(9): 1076-1083, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432653

ABSTRACT

The World elderly population is expected to double before 2050. Unhealthy habits and unhealthy lifestyles are commonly associated with age-related diseases or their worsening. Modification in daily lifestyle and diet may help preventing age-related diseases onset and efficiently affecting their evolution, thus promoting the Healthy Aging process, concept recently coined to describe the disease-free aging process. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging. Since the Mediterranean Model demonstrated to be a useful style in supporting healthy aging, promotion of this correct lifestyle by health policies seems to be the best approach to achieve this target.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Healthy Aging , Aged , Diet , Health Status , Humans , Life Style
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379982

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been considered among the healthiest dietary patterns since a little over 50 years ago, Ancel Keys-as the key figure-provided evidence for the beneficial effects of the MD [...].


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy/methods , Diet, Mediterranean , Metabolic Diseases/diet therapy , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy/trends , Humans
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378298

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a disease that straddles medico-nutritional, psychological, and socio-cultural boundaries. There is a clear relationship between lifestyle and obesity, and today the Mediterranean diet in the Mediterranean area may represent an interesting corrective asset. However, we should not be under any misapprehension about the model's capacity for action in non-nutritional terms. Our societies are experiencing a process of rapid change, and the Mediterranean area is no exception. The aim of this article is to present a view of obesity in the Mediterranean context from an open, mainly socio-cultural perspective, but from different points of view (medical, nutritional), seeking points of convergence and elements that contribute to the understanding of and approach to the disease in the context of the Mediterranean diet. As a public health and a multidimensional social problem, obesity must be dealt with in a holistic, open, and cross-disciplinary manner to ensure that it can be understood coherently. The only way to keep the usefulness of the Mediterranean diet within desirable limits will be our societies' vitality and interest in rapidly adapting the Mediterranean diet to social change, thus providing valid answers to today's needs.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Humans , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology , Public Health
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344321

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has implied worldwide the imposition of confinement measures and mobility restrictions, to a greater or lesser extent. It has also meant the closure of some public medical services such as reproductive care. This situation may have impacted the health-related behaviour and quality of life of women with fertility problems. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of confinement and the suspension of reproductive medical care on the lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, and smoking habits), anxiety and depression, and quality of life of infertile women by comparing their pre- and post-confinement situations. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional, internet-based study. Information was collected on these women's adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MEDAS questionnaire), physical exercise (IPAQ-SF), anxiety and depression (HADS), and quality of life related to fertility (FertiQol) before, during, and after confinement. The survey was conducted between 1 September and 28 October 2020. Results: A total of 85 women participated. There had been a significant increase in anxiety and depression levels (P < 0.001) and an increase in tobacco consumption among female smokers during confinement vs. pre-confinement (62.5% had increased their consumption). The participants had also increased the mean number of hours they spent sitting (P < 0.001). There had also been an increase in vigorous and moderate exercise levels by 40 and 30%, respectively (P = 0.004). However, no differences were observed in these patients' eating habits as a result of confinement (P = 0.416). When the reproduction service was resumed, the participants showed higher anxiety level scores (P = 0.001) with respect to the pre-confinement situation as well as lower mean FertiQol scale score (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Confinement had increased anxiety and depression levels among these infertile women as well as tobacco use among the participants who were smokers. The prolonged closure of reproductive care units decreased the quality of life of the participants of this study. These results suggest the need to implement online programs to improve healthy habits and quality of life of this population group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Infertility, Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fertility , Humans , Infertility, Female/epidemiology , Life Style , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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