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1.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742566

ABSTRACT

Background: Based on our recently reported associations between specific dietary behaviors and the risk of COVID-19 infection in the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort, we further investigate whether these associations are specific to COVID-19 or extend to other respiratory infections. Methods: Pneumonia and influenza diagnoses were retrieved from hospital and death record data linked to the UKB. Baseline, self-reported (2006-2010) dietary behaviors included being breastfed as a baby and intakes of coffee, tea, oily fish, processed meat, red meat (unprocessed), fruit, and vegetables. Logistic regression estimated the odds of pneumonia/influenza from baseline to 31 December 2019 with each dietary component, adjusting for baseline socio-demographic factors, medical history, and other lifestyle behaviors. We considered effect modification by sex and genetic factors related to pneumonia, COVID-19, and caffeine metabolism. Results: Of 470,853 UKB participants, 4.0% had pneumonia and 0.2% had influenza during follow up. Increased consumption of coffee, tea, oily fish, and fruit at baseline were significantly and independently associated with a lower risk of future pneumonia events. Increased consumption of red meat was associated with a significantly higher risk. After multivariable adjustment, the odds of pneumonia (p ≤ 0.001 for all) were lower by 6-9% when consuming 1-3 cups of coffee/day (vs. <1 cup/day), 8-11% when consuming 1+ cups of tea/day (vs. <1 cup/day), 10-12% when consuming oily fish in higher quartiles (vs. the lowest quartile-Q1), and 9-14% when consuming fruit in higher quartiles (vs. Q1); it was 9% higher when consuming red meat in the fourth quartile (vs. Q1). Similar patterns of associations were observed for influenza but only associations with tea and oily fish met statistical significance. The association between fruit and pneumonia risk was stronger in women than in men (p = 0.001 for interaction). Conclusions: In the UKB, consumption of coffee, tea, oily fish, and fruit were favorably associated with incident pneumonia/influenza and red meat was adversely associated. Findings for coffee parallel those we reported previously for COVID-19 infection, while other findings are specific to these more common respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coffee , Diet/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Meat , Seafood
2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625311

ABSTRACT

The numerous consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in healthy young people and the lack of clarity as to the long-term disease outcomes have spurred the search for risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the associations of nutritional behaviors, gut microbiota, and physical activity with the risk of COVID-19 in healthy young nonobese people. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake, and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). A balanced diet rich in vegetables and fruit, including nuts, wholegrain cereal products, and legumes, covers the need for vitamins and minerals. Such a diet can be an effective measure to reduce the risk of COVID-19 in nonobese healthy physically active young people with normal immune function. People with balanced diet and an average daily consumption of >500 g of vegetables and fruit and >10 g of nuts had an 86% lower risk of COVID-19 compared with those whose diet was not balanced and who consumed lower amounts of these products. It is well documented that proper nutrition, physical activity, and maintenance of normal weight facilitate good health by ensuring optimal immune function. The beneficial effects of these interventions should be strongly emphasized during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Poland , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 808-826, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597870

ABSTRACT

In recent decades low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been witnessing a significant shift toward raised blood pressure; yet in LMICs, only 1 in 3 are aware of their hypertension status, and ≈8% have their blood pressure controlled. This rising burden widens the inequality gap, contributes to massive economic hardships of patients and carers, and increases costs to the health system, facing challenges such as low physician-to-patient ratios and lack of access to medicines. Established risk factors include unhealthy diet (high salt and low fruit and vegetable intake), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and obesity. Emerging risk factors include pollution (air, water, noise, and light), urbanization, and a loss of green space. Risk factors that require further in-depth research are low birth weight and social and commercial determinants of health. Global actions include the HEARTS technical package and the push for universal health care. Promising research efforts highlight that successful interventions are feasible in LMICs. These include creation of health-promoting environments by introducing salt-reduction policies and sugar and alcohol tax; implementing cost-effective screening and simplified treatment protocols to mitigate treatment inertia; pooled procurement of low-cost single-pill combination therapy to improve adherence; increasing access to telehealth and mHealth (mobile health); and training health care staff, including community health workers, to strengthen team-based care. As the blood pressure trajectory continues creeping upward in LMICs, contextual research on effective, safe, and cost-effective interventions is urgent. New emergent risk factors require novel solutions. Lowering blood pressure in LMICs requires urgent global political and scientific priority and action.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Hypertension , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Blood Pressure Monitors/standards , Blood Pressure Monitors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diet/adverse effects , Environment , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Health Behavior , Heart Diseases/mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Nurses/supply & distribution , Obesity/complications , Physicians/supply & distribution , Prevalence , Research , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Social Determinants of Health , Stroke/mortality , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Urbanization
5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488686

ABSTRACT

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with changes in food-preparation practices during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan and its associations to food-group intake. To examine this, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in July 2020. Participants were 2285 adults aged 20-69 years who resided in any of 13 prefectures in Japan where specific COVID-19 regulations had been implemented. Self-reported changes in food-preparation practices when compared to the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period were measured as "increased" (24.6%), "decreased" (7.3%), and "no change" (68.1%), respectively. Stepwise logistic regression analyses indicated that participants who increased the time and effort for food preparation were younger in age, partially working remotely, experiencing reduced household income due to COVID-19, but highly concerned the importance of diet. On the other hand, participants whose household income decreased, and household economic status worsened, as well as those whose importance of diet deteriorated due to COVID-19 were more likely to decrease time and effort for cooking. Although the increased group were more likely to prepare meals with raw ingredients, the decreased group showed higher frequency of using takeout. These results indicated major determinants of changes in time spending on food preparation in consequence of COVID-19, and highlighted essential targets for future nutrition education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cooking , Diet , Eating , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cooking/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/economics , Employment , Female , Humans , Income , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488685

ABSTRACT

Physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic have been decreasing and this may be a risk factor for development of emotional eating and its associated factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors associated with emotional eating among individuals with different physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data relating to the pandemic on physical activity, emotional eating, sociodemographic data, perceptions about lifestyle habits, body satisfaction, and perceptions about eating habits and food consumption were collected. Factors associated with emotional eating in the group of active and inactive individuals were observed using multiple linear regression controlled for age, sex, BMI, and monthly income. Emotional eating for the active group was associated with perceived stress, body dissatisfaction, and increased consumption of sweets and desserts. In addition to these factors found among the active group, working or studying >8 h/day, sleep worsening, increased amount of food consumed, increased purchase of food through delivery, and increased vegetable consumption were also associated with emotional eating for the inactive group. These findings suggest a potential protective role of physical activity in the appearance of factors associated with emotional eating during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Emotions , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Healthy Lifestyle , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Body Dissatisfaction/psychology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Eating , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488683

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced changes in our lifestyles, such as refraining from unnecessary outings. This study aimed to clarify the association of lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic with nutrient intake and physical activity levels during pregnancy in Japan. A cross-sectional study involving 168 healthy pregnant Japanese women was conducted in 2020. Nutrient intake and physical activity levels were assessed using validated self-administered questionnaires. Participants who reported experiencing changes in both dietary habits and physical activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic were classified as the lifestyle-affected group. Analysis of covariance was used. Among primiparas, intake of the following nutrients was significantly higher in the lifestyle-affected group (n = 14) than in the unaffected group (n = 77): protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6. Among multiparas, the intake of dietary fiber and ß-carotene were significantly lower in the lifestyle-affected group (n = 13) than in the unaffected group (n = 64). No significant differences in physical activity levels were observed in accordance with the lifestyle changes. These findings suggest that lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have positive effects on nutrient intake during pregnancy in primiparas, whereas in multiparas, these changes have negative effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Exercise , Health Behavior , Life Style , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Japan , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Parity , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On Wednesday 18/03/2020 Belgium was placed in lockdown in order to curb the spread of COVID-19. Lockdown can lead to loneliness, boredom, anger, anxiety and depression, which in turn have an influence on food choices and physical activity (PA). This study aims to map the adjustments in food choices and PA by Flemish adults during lockdown. METHODS: Chi square tests were performed to investigate the relationship between adjustments in food choices, PA and demographic variables. RESULTS: A total of 1.129 respondents filled in the online questionnaire, aged between 18 and 81 years. The healthiest food choices were made by respondents living alone during lockdown, whilst people cohabiting with others increased their PA significantly. Moreover, the dietary adjustments of adults living with children evolved more favourably to healthier choices then those cohousing with other adults. However, respondents living with other adults showed a more favourable pattern regarding adjustments in PA. The strongest increase in sedentary behaviour was observed in students. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the impact of lockdown on both PA and food choices, where healthier adjustments were observed in PA and respondents were prone to consume unhealthier food.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choice Behavior , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium , Diet/adverse effects , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Female , Food Preferences , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Young Adult
9.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480895

ABSTRACT

The improper dietary behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with lockdowns and reduced physical activity, are a complex problem, potentially resulting in increased risk of diet-related diseases, including overweight and obesity and their consequences. The aim of the study was to assess the food habits during the COVID-19 pandemic and to define their association with physical activity and body mass changes in a Polish population of primary school adolescents within the Diet and Activity of Youth During COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in June 2020 in a national cohort of 1334 primary school students aged 10-16 years, recruited based on a stratified random sampling of schools (sampling counties from voivodeships and schools from counties). The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) was used to assess food habits, associated with food purchase, preparation, and consumption, which in the studied group were analyzed separately for the period before (retrospective data) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (prospective data). The recognizable physical activity changes and recognizable body mass changes were also assessed (retrospective data) and respondents were classified as those declaring that their physical activity and body mass decreased, remained stable, or increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was observed that during the COVID-19 pandemic the majority of food habits changed in a statistically significant way (p < 0.05). Within food purchase habits, the number of respondents who declared choosing a low-fat lunch away from home decreased, often buying pastries or cakes decreased, and buying a low-fat crisps brand increased (p < 0.05). Within food preparation habits, the number of respondents who declared trying to keep overall fat intake down increased, trying to keep overall sugar intake down increased, eating at least one serving of vegetables or salad with evening meal increased, and usually including some chocolate and/or biscuits in a packed lunch decreased (p < 0.05). Within food consumption habits, the number of respondents who declared making sure that they eat at least one serving of fruit a day increased, eating at least three servings of fruit most days increased, making sure that they eat at least one serving of vegetables or salad a day increased, trying to ensure that they eat plenty of fruit and vegetables increased, often choosing a fruit when they have a snack between meals increased, eating at least three servings of fruit most days increased, and generally trying to have a healthy diet increased (p < 0.05). It was concluded that in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and resultant remote education, adolescents in Poland presented different food habits than before, while the majority of changes were positive. The positive food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits were observed mainly in sub-groups of adolescents declaring decreased body mass or increased physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. It may be suggested that physical activity may support positive changes of dietary behaviors and while combined positive changes of diet and increased physical activity, they may effectively promote body mass reduction in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Child Behavior , Diet , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Checklist , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritive Value , Poland , Prospective Studies , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
10.
Gut ; 70(11): 2096-2104, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Poor metabolic health and unhealthy lifestyle factors have been associated with risk and severity of COVID-19, but data for diet are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of diet quality with risk and severity of COVID-19 and its interaction with socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: We used data from 592 571 participants of the smartphone-based COVID-19 Symptom Study. Diet information was collected for the prepandemic period using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a healthful Plant-Based Diet Score, which emphasises healthy plant foods such as fruits or vegetables. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for COVID-19 risk and severity defined using a validated symptom-based algorithm or hospitalisation with oxygen support, respectively. RESULTS: Over 3 886 274 person-months of follow-up, 31 815 COVID-19 cases were documented. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of the diet score, high diet quality was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and severe COVID-19 (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). The joint association of low diet quality and increased deprivation on COVID-19 risk was higher than the sum of the risk associated with each factor alone (Pinteraction=0.005). The corresponding absolute excess rate per 10 000 person/months for lowest vs highest quartile of diet score was 22.5 (95% CI 18.8 to 26.3) among persons living in areas with low deprivation and 40.8 (95% CI 31.7 to 49.8) among persons living in areas with high deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: A diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19. This association may be particularly evident among individuals living in areas with higher socioeconomic deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet Surveys , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 332, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344072

ABSTRACT

Recently, we face a surge in the fast-forward Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with nearly 170 million confirmed cases and almost 3.5 million confirmed deaths at the end of May 2021. Obesity, also known as the pandemic of the 21st century, has been evolving as an adverse prognostic marker. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of being SARS-CoV-2-positive (46%), as well as hospitalization (113%) and death (48%) due to COVID-19. It is especially true for subjects with morbid obesity. Also, observational studies suggest that in the case of COVID-19, no favorable "obesity paradox" is observed. Therefore, it is postulated to introduce a new entity, i.e., coronavirus disease-related cardiometabolic syndrome (CIRCS). In theory, it applies to all stages of COVID-19, i.e., prevention, acute proceedings (from COVID-19 diagnosis to resolution or three months), and long-term outcomes. Consequently, lifestyle changes, glycemic control, and regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway have crucial implications for preventing and managing subjects with COVID-19. Finally, it is crucial to use cardioprotective drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins. Nevertheless, there is the need to conduct prospective studies and registries better to evaluate the issue of obesity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Hospitalization , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/therapy , Physical Distancing , Preventive Health Services , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Sedentary Behavior
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2181-2185, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced a decrease in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behavior (SB) and a possibly worsening of fat accumulation in already obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how social restriction may have contributed to weight changes in adolescents with obesity. Secondary aim was to evaluate possible parameters influencing weight changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters of 51 obese adolescents were compared between two visits: within 2 months before 8 March, start of lockdown, and within 40 days after the end of it. RESULTS: Mean weight gain during lockdown was 2.8 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.001). Weight increase was higher in males than in females (3.8 ± 3.4 kg vs 1.2 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.02). The hours dedicated to SB increased (+2.9 ± 2.8 h/day; p < 0.001) while the hours of PA decreased (-1.0 ± 1.6 h/week; p < 0.001). Males spent more hours in SB than females (+3.8 ± 2.7 h/day vs +1.5 ± 2.5 h/day; p = 0.003). There were minor changes in diet during lockdown. The most significant variables influencing both delta BMI and waist/height ratio increase were hours devoted to SB during lockdown and differences in mild and moderate PA before and after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed a worsening of obesity during lockdown, with males mainly affected, mainly due to a reduced mild PA and increased hours spent in SB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Time Factors
13.
Bioessays ; 43(9): e2000211, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293142

ABSTRACT

We propose that hyper-inflammation (HYPi) is a ''runaway'' consequence of acute inflammation (ACUi) that arises more easily (and also abates less easily) in those who host a pre-existing chronic inflammation (CHRi), because (i) most factors involved in generating an ACUi to limit viral proliferation are already present when there is an underlying CHRi, and also because (ii) anti-inflammatory (AI) mechanisms for the abatement of ACUi (following containment of viral proliferation) are suppressed and desensitized where there is an underlying CHRi, with this causing the ACUi to spiral into a HYPi. Stress, pollution, diet, and gut microbiomes (alterable in weeks through dietary changes) have an intimate and bidirectional cause-effect relationship with CHRi. We propose that avoidance of CHRi-promoting foods and adoption of CHRi-suppressing foods could reduce susceptibility to HYPi, in Covid-19 and in other viral diseases, such as influenza, which are characterized by episodic and unpredictable HYPi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diet/adverse effects , Humans
14.
Nutr Res ; 90: 1-12, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202105

ABSTRACT

Since the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is linked to chronic inflammation, people with initial lower inflammatory status could have better outcomes from exposure to this disease. Because dietary habits are one of the most important modifiable risk factors for inflammation, identification of dietary components associated with inflammation could play a significant role in controlling or reducing the risk of COVID-19. We investigated the inflammatory potential of diets consumed by African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) women of childbearing age (n = 509) who are at high risk for exposure to COVID-19 by being residents of Birmingham, Alabama, a city severely affected by this pandemic. The overall pro- and anti- inflammatory scores were calculated using dietary intake data gathered using Block food frequency questionnaire. The proinflammatory potential of diets consumed by AAs was significantly higher compared to CAs. Several anti- and proinflammatory nutrients and food groups consumed differed by race. With consumption of a greater number of antioxidants and B-vitamins, CAs switched toward an anti-inflammatory score more effectively than AAs while AAs performed better than CAs in improving the anti-inflammatory score with the consumption of a greater number of minerals and vitamin D. Effective race-specific dietary modifications or supplementation with nutrients identified will be useful to improve proinflammatory diets toward anti-inflammatory. This approach could aid in controlling the current COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics of a similar nature in women at risk for exposure.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Inflammation/physiopathology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Alabama , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Br J Nutr ; 125(6): 678-684, 2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139690

ABSTRACT

Recent scientific evidence has indicated that the elderly have increased risk of COVID-19 infections, with over 70s and 80s being hardest hit - especially residents of care homes and in clinical settings, ethnic minorities, people who work indoors and those who are overweight and obese. Other potential risk factors include lack of exposure to sunlight, darker skin pigmentation, co-morbidities, poor diet, certain medications, disadvantaged social and economic status, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol. A key question is to understand how and why certain groups of people are more susceptible to COVID-19, whether they have weakened immune systems and what the roles of good nutrition and specific micronutrients are in supporting immune functions. A varied and balanced diet with an abundance of fruits and vegetables and the essential nutrients like vitamin D, vitamin A, B vitamins (folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12), vitamin C and the minerals, Fe, Cu, Se and Zn are all known to contribute to the normal functions of the immune system. Avoidance of deficiencies and identification of suboptimal intakes of these micronutrients in targeted groups of patients and in distinct and highly sensitive populations could help to strengthen the resilience of people to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to highlight evidence-based public health messages, to prevent false and misleading claims about the benefits of foods and food supplements and to communicate clearly that the extent of knowledge between micronutrients and COVID-19 infection is still being explored and that no diet will prevent or cure COVID-19 infection. Frequent handwashing and social distancing will be critical to reduce transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Micronutrients/immunology , Nutritional Status/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Micronutrients/deficiency , Risk Factors , United Kingdom
16.
Br J Nutr ; 125(8): 851-862, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123111

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recognised by the WHO as a pandemic in 2020. Host preparation to combat the virus is an important strategy to avoid COVID-19 severity. Thus, the relationship between eating habits, nutritional status and their effects on the immune response and further implications in viral respiratory infections is an important topic discussed in this review. Malnutrition causes the most diverse alterations in the immune system, suppressing of the immune response and increasing the susceptibility to infections such as SARS-CoV-2. On the other hand, obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation caused by excess adiposity, which increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. It decreases the immune response favouring SARS-CoV-2 virulence and promoting respiratory distress syndrome. The present review highlights the importance of food choices considering their inflammatory effects, consequently increasing the viral susceptibility observed in malnutrition and obesity. Healthy eating habits, micronutrients, bioactive compounds and probiotics are strategies for COVID-19 prevention. Therefore, a diversified and balanced diet can contribute to the improvement of the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Diet, Healthy/methods , Disease Susceptibility/physiopathology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Humans , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/virology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/virology
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e22717, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is not a treatment for COVID-19, but it is a modifiable contributor to the development of chronic disease, which is highly associated with COVID-19 severe illness and deaths. A well-balanced diet and healthy patterns of eating strengthen the immune system, improve immunometabolism, and reduce the risk of chronic disease and infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effect of diet, nutrition, obesity, and their implications for COVID-19 mortality among 188 countries by using new statistical marginalized two-part models. METHODS: We globally evaluated the distribution of diet and nutrition at the national level while considering the variations between different World Health Organization regions. The effects of food supply categories and obesity on (as well as associations with) the number of deaths and the number of recoveries were reported globally by estimating coefficients and conducting color maps. RESULTS: The findings show that a 1% increase in supplementation of pulses reduced the odds of having a zero death by 4-fold (OR 4.12, 95% CI 11.97-1.42). In addition, a 1% increase in supplementation of animal products and meat increased the odds of having a zero death by 1.076-fold (OR 1.076, 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and 1.13-fold (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.0-1.28), respectively. Tree nuts reduced the odds of having a zero death, and vegetables increased the number of deaths. Globally, the results also showed that populations (countries) who consume more eggs, cereals excluding beer, spices, and stimulants had the greatest impact on the recovery of patients with COVID-19. In addition, populations that consume more meat, vegetal products, sugar and sweeteners, sugar crops, animal fats, and animal products were associated with more death and less recoveries in patients. The effect of consuming sugar products on mortality was considerable, and obesity has affected increased death rates and reduced recovery rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are differences in dietary patterns, overall, unbalanced diets are a health threat across the world and not only affect death rates but also the quality of life. To achieve the best results in preventing nutrition-related pandemic diseases, strategies and policies should fully recognize the essential role of both diet and obesity in determining good nutrition and optimal health. Policies and programs must address the need for change at the individual level and make modifications in society and the environment to make healthier choices accessible and preferable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e22717, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is not a treatment for COVID-19, but it is a modifiable contributor to the development of chronic disease, which is highly associated with COVID-19 severe illness and deaths. A well-balanced diet and healthy patterns of eating strengthen the immune system, improve immunometabolism, and reduce the risk of chronic disease and infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effect of diet, nutrition, obesity, and their implications for COVID-19 mortality among 188 countries by using new statistical marginalized two-part models. METHODS: We globally evaluated the distribution of diet and nutrition at the national level while considering the variations between different World Health Organization regions. The effects of food supply categories and obesity on (as well as associations with) the number of deaths and the number of recoveries were reported globally by estimating coefficients and conducting color maps. RESULTS: The findings show that a 1% increase in supplementation of pulses reduced the odds of having a zero death by 4-fold (OR 4.12, 95% CI 11.97-1.42). In addition, a 1% increase in supplementation of animal products and meat increased the odds of having a zero death by 1.076-fold (OR 1.076, 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and 1.13-fold (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.0-1.28), respectively. Tree nuts reduced the odds of having a zero death, and vegetables increased the number of deaths. Globally, the results also showed that populations (countries) who consume more eggs, cereals excluding beer, spices, and stimulants had the greatest impact on the recovery of patients with COVID-19. In addition, populations that consume more meat, vegetal products, sugar and sweeteners, sugar crops, animal fats, and animal products were associated with more death and less recoveries in patients. The effect of consuming sugar products on mortality was considerable, and obesity has affected increased death rates and reduced recovery rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are differences in dietary patterns, overall, unbalanced diets are a health threat across the world and not only affect death rates but also the quality of life. To achieve the best results in preventing nutrition-related pandemic diseases, strategies and policies should fully recognize the essential role of both diet and obesity in determining good nutrition and optimal health. Policies and programs must address the need for change at the individual level and make modifications in society and the environment to make healthier choices accessible and preferable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 331-336, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The entire globe is undergoing an unprecedented challenge of COVID-19 which has affected the lifestyle behaviour of individuals. The present review is an attempt to summarize the effect of pandemic COVID-19 on lifestyle behaviour among the Indian population. METHODS: A review was carried out to summarize the effect of pandemic COVID-19 on lifestyle behaviour focusing on changes in dietary or eating behaviour, stress, sleep pattern, and level of physical activity among the Indian population. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar from inception till October 2020 to identify all relevant studies. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies (n = 5957, age group 18-70 years, comprising both genders) consisting of 1 hospital and 10 community based, were included in the present review. A change in lifestyle behaviour was observed due to COVID-19. Psychosocial or any kind of mental stress among the participants was found to be prevalent. Weight gain and decline in physical activity were also observed. Not only sleep quantity but sleep quality was also found to be affected due to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The present review indicates the need for lifestyle behaviour programmes via using the platform of E-media and also for the dissemination of health education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Risk Reduction Behavior , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/trends , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior/physiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Life Style
20.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720946951, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680376

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent public health interventions have disrupted food systems all over the world. In the Philippines, where stringent lockdown rules have been implemented, households living in poverty have had to rely largely on food aid in the form of food packs distributed by local governments and private donors. An evaluation of the commonly distributed food items reveals a diet that addresses acute hunger but does not contain sufficient nutrients to promote and maintain health. Such a diet puts low-income households at a greater risk of acute and chronic disease. The negative health impact of commonly distributed food packs on food aid-dependent households shine a light on how the COVID-19 pandemic and public health policies exacerbate health inequities. A primary care perspective is essential in creating food security policies that can effectively address acute hunger and malnutrition without contributing to the long-term deleterious effects of inadequate nutrition on the health of indigent communities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Food Supply , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Family Characteristics , Food Assistance , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Philippines/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Public Policy
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