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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 749774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789370

ABSTRACT

The immune system is an efficiently toned machinery that discriminates between friends and foes for achieving both host defense and homeostasis. Deviation of immune recognition from foreign to self and/or long-lasting inflammatory responses results in the breakdown of tolerance. Meanwhile, educating the immune system and developing immunological memory are crucial for mounting defensive immune responses while protecting against autoimmunity. Still to elucidate is how diverse environmental factors could shape autoimmunity. The emergence of a world pandemic such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) not only threatens the more vulnerable individuals including those with autoimmune conditions but also promotes an unprecedented shift in people's dietary approaches while urging for extraordinary hygiene measures that likely contribute to the development or exacerbation of autoimmunity. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand how environmental factors modulate systemic autoimmunity to better mitigate the incidence and or severity of COVID-19 among the more vulnerable populations. Here, we discuss the effects of diet (macronutrients and micronutrients) and hygiene (the use of disinfectants) on autoimmunity with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diet/methods , Hygiene , Immune Tolerance , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725886

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection. In this context, alternatives related to nutritional therapy might help to control the infection. This narrative review proposes the importance and role of probiotics and diet as adjunct alternatives among the therapies available for the treatment of this new coronavirus. This review discusses the relationship between intestinal purine metabolism and the use of Lactobacillus gasseri and low-purine diets, particularly in individuals with hyperuricemia, as adjuvant nutritional therapies to improve the immune system and weaken viral replication, assisting in the treatment of COVID-19. These might be promising alternatives, in addition to many others that involve adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds from food.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet/methods , Immunomodulation/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Humans , Lactobacillus gasseri/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Purines/immunology , Purines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/immunology
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725901

ABSTRACT

The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical period for the development of healthy behaviors. Yet, it is often characterized by unhealthy food choices. Considering the current pandemic scenario, it is also essential to assess the effects of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) on lifestyles and diet, especially among young people. However, the assessment of dietary habits and their determinants is a complex issue that requires innovative approaches and tools, such as those based on the ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Here, we describe the first phases of the "HEALTHY-UNICT" project, which aimed to develop and validate a web-app for the EMA of dietary data among students from the University of Catania, Italy. The pilot study included 138 students (mean age 24 years, SD = 4.2; 75.4% women), who used the web-app for a week before filling out a food frequency questionnaire with validation purposes. Dietary data obtained through the two tools showed moderate correlations, with the lowest value for butter and margarine and the highest for pizza (Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.202 and 0.699, respectively). According to the cross-classification analysis, the percentage of students classified into the same quartile ranged from 36.9% for vegetable oil to 58.1% for pizza. In line with these findings, the weighted-kappa values ranged from 0.15 for vegetable oil to 0.67 for pizza, and most food categories showed values above 0.4. This web-app showed good usability among students, assessed through a 19-item usability scale. Moreover, the web-app also had the potential to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on students' behaviors and emotions, showing a moderate impact on sedentary activities, level of stress, and depression. These findings, although interesting, might be confirmed by the next phases of the HEALTHY-UNICT project, which aims to characterize lifestyles, dietary habits, and their relationship with anthropometric measures and emotions in a larger sample of students.


Subject(s)
Diet/methods , Ecological Momentary Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Mobile Applications , Program Development/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Pilot Projects , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
5.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625632

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the healthcare system, including dentistry. However, it is not entirely clear whether affected patients' willingness for regular dental visits and preventive behaviors with regards oral hygiene and diet. This is essential to understanding the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the acceleration of dental issues in the future. It was aimed at checking the level of dental visit avoidance, self-reported oral health needs, and dietary changes. This cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted in Poland (n = 2574; mean age 44.4 ± 15.6; female 56.3%) assessed nutritional habits and dental care changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. As demonstrated, nearly half of the responders (47.1%) avoided regular dental visits, while only 0.5% used online consultations. Fears related to potential cross-contamination in dental offices dropped from 25% to 11.4% and were associated with increased BMI and age (p < 0.05). Sweet snacking/drinking confirmed 19.1%/33.2% subjects. Self-reported oral health care needs (tooth stain, calculus, gingivitis, loss of fillings) were related to frequent snacking and poor oral hygiene (p < 0.05). The study highlights that pandemic periods are covered by eating and drinking changes combined with inadequate hygiene and dental care impose health complaints in the oral cavity. This can magnify both nutritional and interrelated oral health issues, highlighting the need to implement preventive and mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Needs Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Oral Hygiene/methods , Quarantine , Self Report , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home isolation during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown strongly impacted everyday life, affecting, in particular, eating habits and everyday activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on behaviors and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) in children from Southern Poland. METHODS: The study included 206 participants (104 females and 102 males) with a complete analysis of 177 participants (96 females and 81 males) with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.6 years admitted to three pediatric endocrinology clinics (Rzeszów, Kraków, and Katowice) due to simple obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus, somatotropin pituitary deficiency on growth hormone replacement therapy, and other endocrine and metabolic disorders between June and September 2020. The study used a self-prepared questionnaire regarding eating habits, physical activity, screen time, and sleep before and during the lockdown. Anthropometric measurements were performed under clinical settings twice (before the pandemic in January-March 2020, and in June-September 2020). RESULTS: During the lockdown, BMI z-scores increased over the whole group, especially in obese children (0.073 ± 0.18, p = 0.002). The number of children who declared low and high physical activity of more than 60 min per day declined from 41.2% and 18.6% to 31.1% and 6.2% (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001), respectively; sleep times over 8 h increased (46.9% vs. 60.4% p = 0.007); screen times over 5 h daily increased (14.7% to 46.9%, p < 0.001). Eating habits did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily physical activity and sleep levels were affected by the pandemic leading to the increase of BMI, especially in obese patients with endocrine disorders. During the COVID-19 pandemic, forward-thinking strategies must be developed to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Life Style , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597256

ABSTRACT

Dietary adequacy and diversity during the lactation period are necessary to ensure good health and nutrition among women and children. Behavioral interventions pertaining to health and nutrition counselling during pregnancy and lactation are critical for awareness about dietary diversity. The issue assumes salience for marginalized communities because of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated economic and societal disruptions. This paper assesses the dietary patterns among 400 lactating mothers in the tribal-dominated district of Palghar in Maharashtra, India in 2020. The study is based on primary data regarding consumption of 10 food groups among women across 10 food groups based on 24-hour recall period. The primary outcome variable was binary information regarding Minimum Dietary Diversity defined as consumption from at least 5 food groups. Econometric analysis based on multilevel models and item-response theory is applied to identify food groups that were most difficult to be received by mothers during the early and late lactation period. We find that the daily diet of lactating mothers in Palghar primarily consists of grains, white roots, tubers, and pulses. In contrast, the intake of dairy, eggs, and non-vegetarian food items is much lower. Only Half of the lactating women (56.5 percent; 95% CI: 37.4; 73.8) have a minimum diversified diet (MDD). The prevalence of lactating women with MDD was higher among households with higher income (73.1 percent; 95% CI: 45.2; 89.9) than those in lower income group (50.7 percent; 95% CI: 42.3; 58.9). Lactating Women (in early phase) who received health and nutrition counseling services are more likely (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 0.90; 6.26) to consume a diversified diet. Food groups such as fruits, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and seeds were among the rare food items in daily diet. The dietary pattern lacking in fruits, nuts, and heme (iron) sources indicates more significant risks of micronutrient deficiencies. The findings call for improving dietary diversity among lactating mothers, particularly from the marginalized communities, and are driven by low consumption of dairy products or various fruits and vegetables. Among the different food items, the consumption of micronutrient-rich seeds and nuts is most difficult to be accessed by lactating mothers. Also, diet-centric counseling and informing lactating mothers of its benefits are necessary to increase dietary diversity for improving maternal and child nutrition.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Lactation/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Female , Fruit , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Vegetables , Young Adult
8.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580552

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures-collectively referred to as the 'exposome'-for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhythms, pollution, smoking, and gut microbiome) on immune function and inflammation, particularly in the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We highlight the potential role of 'exposome improvements' in the prevention-or amelioration, once established-of this disease as well as their effect on the response to vaccination. In light of the existing evidence, the promotion of a healthy exposome should be a cornerstone in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic and other eventual pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exposome , Pandemics , Body Weight Maintenance/immunology , Circadian Rhythm/immunology , Diet/methods , Environmental Pollutants/immunology , Exercise/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/immunology , Smoking/immunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Sunlight
9.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Health Promotion/methods , Life Style , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526853

ABSTRACT

Many people's life situations are changing as a result of restrictions being imposed by national governments to limit the spread of the virus. These may be associated with additional factors (emotional or financial, for example) that influence eating behavior and physical activity levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show whether there is a relationship between a changing life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. An online survey was conducted between 28 April and 16 July 2020 with 921 participants from European countries and countries outside Europe (South and North America, Australia). An analysis of the obtained results showed an unfavorable relationship between a change in life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. This was observed mainly among students who returned to their family homes and respondents whose working hours increased. Students were more likely to snack between meals (51.13%, p < 0.001) and to consume more sweets (45.11%, p < 0.001) and savory snacks (30.83%, p < 0.001). Those whose working hours had increased, consumed morefast foods (13.57%, p < 0.05) during that time. On the other hand, the study results indicated that a change in life situation during the pandemic can also have a positive impact on eating behavior and physical activity. This was exhibited by individuals who transitioned to remote working. An improvement in the regularity of eating (38.86%, p < 0.001) was recorded for this group. The relationship between a change in life situation and eating behavior was further emphasized by the fact that people whose life situation had not changed were more likely to declare no change in the regularity of eating (62.86%, p < 0.001) and snacking (61.71%, p < 0.001). At the same time, they were less likely to exhibit a higher intake of sweets (22.29%, p < 0.01) and salty snacks (13.14%, p < 0.01). The study results indicated that a change in the nutritional situation during the pandemic may have had both negative and positive effects on eating behavior and physical activity. Finding these relationships may help identify groups that are particularly vulnerable to reduced diet quality and reduced levels of physical activity. Considering the immunomodulating effects of diets and the fact that physical activity is essential for maintaining good health, further research in this area is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , North America , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Young Adult
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470938

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Diet/methods , Internationality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463779

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption to food security in many countries, including Kenya. However, the impact of this on food provision to children at an individual level is unknown. This small study aimed to provide a qualitative snapshot of the diets of children during the COVID-19 pandemic. During completion of 24-h food recalls, with 15 families with children aged 5-8 years, caregivers were asked about changes they had made to foods given to their children due to the pandemic. Food recalls were analysed to assess nutrient intakes. Qualitative comments were thematically analysed. Most of the families reported making some changes to foods they provided to their children due to COVID-19. Reasons for these changes fell into three themes, inability to access foods (both due to formal restriction of movements and fear of leaving the house), poorer availability of foods, and financial constraints (both decreases in income and increases in food prices). The COVID-19 pandemic has affected some foods parents in rural Kenya can provide to their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Eating , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Income , Kenya , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main nutritional consequences of COVID-19 include reduced food intake, hypercatabolism, and rapid muscle wasting. Some studies showed that malnutrition is a significant problem among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection, and the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with their nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to collect useful information about the possible elements of nutritional and probiotic therapy in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature, including studies published up to 13 September 2021. RESULTS: Probiotics may support patients by inhibiting the ACE2 receptor, i.e., the passage of the virus into the cell, and may also be effective in suppressing the immune response caused by the proinflammatory cytokine cascade. In patients' diet, it is crucial to ensure an adequate intake of micronutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids (at 2-4 g/d), selenium (300-450 µg/d) and zinc (30-50 mg/d), and vitamins A (900-700 µg/d), E (135 mg/d), D (20,000-50,000 IU), C (1-2 g/d), B6, and B12. Moreover, the daily calorie intake should amount to ≥1500-2000 with 75-100 g of protein. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the treatment of gut dysbiosis involving an adequate intake of prebiotic dietary fiber and probiotics could turn out to be an immensely helpful instrument for immunomodulation, both in COVID-19 patients and prophylactically in individuals with no history of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diet/methods , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335158

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the designs and methods of a cross-sectional study of two groups of randomly selected Polish inhabitants aged 19-64, and 65 and over, carried out as part of the National Health Program. The aim of the study was to illustrate the current health situation of the respondents in terms of nutrition and physical activity level. The quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The Computer Assisted Personal Interview technique was used. The dietary research was carried out through repeated interviews about the frequency of food consumption, and about what food had been consumed in the previous 24 h. In addition to the questionnaire studies, anthropometric data, blood pressure and the level of physical activity were measured. During the COVID-19 pandemic, some methods were modified according to hygiene rules. The Computer Assisted Telephone Interview technique was used to collect the data, and the anthropometric data were obtained via measurements made by the respondents themselves based on detailed instructions. The results will be used to present representative data for the Polish population, describing a wide range of eating behaviours and other lifestyle elements, food and nutrition knowledge, dietary supplement use, the occurrence of diet-related diseases, nutritional status and, in the seniors group, the risk of sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Nutritional Status , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/methods , Feeding Behavior , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288967

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about drastic measures that have significantly altered the norms of daily living. These measures have affected human behaviors in disparate ways. This study seeks to understand the impact of the pandemic on physical activity and dietary behavior among adults living in Kuwait. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 18 June and 15 July 2020, using a questionnaire disseminated through social media, including WhatsApp and Facebook. The target population was individuals aged 21 years or older living in the State of Kuwait. The study included 679 respondents; 57.9% were females, and 67.7% were Kuwaiti nationals. Both genders reported an increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and carbohydrates, and a decreased consumption of fish and sugary drinks. Compared to males, females reported eating more during the outbreak than their pre-pandemic eating behaviors (32.3% vs. 35.9%, p < 0.05). Approximately one-third of respondents (33.1%) reported performing less than 30 min of physical activity or exercise in a week, and 36.4% of respondents rated their quality of sleep as 'poor' or 'very poor'. The rate of smoking cigarettes among males was significantly higher than in females (40.6% vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). Physical activity was positively correlated with vegetable consumption and quality of sleep. Quality of sleep was negatively correlated with the consumption of sweets and snacks, just as the consumption of vegetables was negatively correlated with the consumption of sugary drinks. The overall negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kuwait necessitates the development of health promotion interventions to support positive physical activity and dietary behaviors using alternative coping strategies among the residents of Kuwait.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Young Adult
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 463-465, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Completing malnutrition assessments when physically distant has been an immediate challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even during periods of physical distancing, continuing nutrition assessments amongst those without COVID-19 is vital given that high malnutrition prevalence exists in clinical settings. The investigation aim was to assess the reliability of utilising the validated Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool, without compared to with physical examination. METHODOLOGY: Original paper-based SGA documentation from a hospital-wide audit was reassessed by a blinded experienced clinician using history alone without reviewing documented physical examination. Participants included adults admitted to a tertiary hospital with no maternity or obstetric services. Those terminally ill, undergoing end-of-life palliative care, with disordered eating or admitted to emergency or intensive care units were excluded. McNemar's test assessed paired categorical data. Cohen's kappa coefficient assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were completed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in malnutrition identification (p < 0.454) with 97% (473/489) of assessments identical. High sensitivity (87.2%, 68/78), specificity (98.9%, 405/411), positive (91.9%, 68/74) and negative (97.6%, 405/415) predictive values were evident. High inter- and intra-rater reliability was confirmed (kappa values 0.875 and 0.987). CONCLUSION: The Abridged-SGA utilising the four key factors of the SGA history identified many malnourished amongst those without COVID-19 who otherwise would not be identified when physical distancing is required due to the pandemic. It did not overestimate malnutrition. Until alternative means of assessing physical parameters remotely are validated, the pragmatic value of practitioners' judgement when utilising the Abridged-SGA was confirmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Diet/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Malnutrition/complications , Pandemics , Physical Examination , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Weight Loss
18.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(3): 312-317, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present an update of birth cohort study designs and their contributions to allergic risk. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database was used to search for relevant articles. STUDY SELECTIONS: Peer-reviewed prospective and retrospective studies involving the assessment of allergy using human birth cohorts between 2014 and 2021 were evaluated. RESULTS: Parental history of allergic diseases, especially in cases involving both parents, is associated with increased risk of allergy. Exposure to prenatal and postnatal smoking and limited diet diversity were associated with increased allergic burden. The impact of early-life infections and antibiotics on disease development may be associated with the onset of asthma, though this remains debated. Cohort studies also revealed that the mode of delivery and breastfeeding duration affect the odds ratio of asthma and eczema development. Household exposures, including pets, house dust mites, and scented aeroallergens may confer protective effects, whereas high air pollution exposure and low socioeconomic status may be risk enhancing. Exposure to antibiotics during early life may be associated with increased asthma risk, whereas viral infections may lead to disease protection, though the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on allergic risk is yet to be understood. CONCLUSION: Although evaluating the risk of allergic disease development is complex, clinicians can apply these insights on the multifactorial nature of atopy to better understand and potentially mitigate disease development.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Breast Feeding/methods , Diet/methods , Eczema/immunology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Inheritance Patterns/immunology , Allergens/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Eczema/etiology , Eczema/genetics , Eczema/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/genetics , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Pets/immunology , Pregnancy , Pyroglyphidae/chemistry , Pyroglyphidae/immunology , Risk Factors , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
19.
Nutr Res ; 90: 1-12, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202105

ABSTRACT

Since the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is linked to chronic inflammation, people with initial lower inflammatory status could have better outcomes from exposure to this disease. Because dietary habits are one of the most important modifiable risk factors for inflammation, identification of dietary components associated with inflammation could play a significant role in controlling or reducing the risk of COVID-19. We investigated the inflammatory potential of diets consumed by African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) women of childbearing age (n = 509) who are at high risk for exposure to COVID-19 by being residents of Birmingham, Alabama, a city severely affected by this pandemic. The overall pro- and anti- inflammatory scores were calculated using dietary intake data gathered using Block food frequency questionnaire. The proinflammatory potential of diets consumed by AAs was significantly higher compared to CAs. Several anti- and proinflammatory nutrients and food groups consumed differed by race. With consumption of a greater number of antioxidants and B-vitamins, CAs switched toward an anti-inflammatory score more effectively than AAs while AAs performed better than CAs in improving the anti-inflammatory score with the consumption of a greater number of minerals and vitamin D. Effective race-specific dietary modifications or supplementation with nutrients identified will be useful to improve proinflammatory diets toward anti-inflammatory. This approach could aid in controlling the current COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics of a similar nature in women at risk for exposure.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Inflammation/physiopathology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Alabama , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201237

ABSTRACT

In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Feeding Behavior , Nutritive Value , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Beverages , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Diet Surveys , Energy Intake , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Vegetables
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