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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410476

ABSTRACT

Domiciliary confinement of people is one of the main strategies to limit the impact of COVID-19. Lockdowns have led to changes in lifestyle, emotional health, and eating habits. We aimed to evaluate the association of differences in dietary behaviours and lifestyle with self-reported weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in Chile. In this cross-sectional analytical study, five previously validated surveys were condensed into a single 86-item online questionnaire. The survey was sent to 1000 potential participants of the university community; it was kept online for 28 days to be answered. Of the 639 respondents, the mean self-reported weight gain during confinement was 1.99 kg (standard deviation [SE]: 0.17) and 0.7 (SE: 0.06) units of body mass index (BMI) (both p < 0.001) and the median difference in body weight during lockdown was 3.3% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.0-6.7). The differences of intake of most food groups before and during lockdown were associated with greater self-reported weight, BMI and percentage weight gain. Differences in lifestyle (odds ratio [OR] = 14.21, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.35-85.82) worsening eating habits (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 2.31-5.09), and more consumption of sweet or filled cookies and cakes during lockdown (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.42-3.13) were associated with self-reported weight gain. In conclusion, different dietary behaviours (mainly consumption of industrialized foods) during lockdown, as well as quality of life deterioration were the main factors associated with self-reported weight gain during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355019

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions sent college students online and off campus, potentially reducing access to healthy food. The objective of this cross-sectional, internet-based study was to use qualitative and quantitative survey methods to evaluate whether COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Texas, USA affected college students' ability to buy food, how/what they shopped for, how they prepared food, what they ate, how they felt about eating, and overall dietary quality (assessed using Healthy Eating Index [HEI] scores). Survey responses from 502 students (87.5% female; 59.6% nonwhite, mean age 27.5 ± 0.4 years, >50% graduate students) were analyzed. The qualitative analysis of open-ended questions revealed 110 codes, 17 subthemes, and six themes. Almost all students experienced changes in at least one area, the most common being changes in shopping habits. Participants with low or very low food security had lower HEI scores compared to food secure students (p = 0.047). Black students were more likely to report changes in their ability to buy food (p = 0.035). The COVID-19 restrictions varied in their impact on students' ability to access sufficient healthy food, with some students severely affected. Thus, universities should establish procedures for responding to emergencies, including identifying at-risk students and mobilizing emergency funds and/or food assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/standards , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Feeding Behavior , Female , Food Assistance , Food Security , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students , Texas/epidemiology , Universities/statistics & numerical data
3.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(9): 618-630, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323450

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study aims to develop a dietary consciousness scale and examine its reliability and validity, as well as investigate the changes in psychological aspects that influence diet among Japanese adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and clarify its related factors.Methods An online survey was conducted from July 1, 2020 to July 3, 2020. Participants were adults aged between 20 and 69 years selected from 13 prefectures where the government declared the state of emergency from April to May 2020. All selected participants were shopping or cooking foods for more than 2 days a week at the time of the survey. A total of 2,299 participants were included in the analysis. Dietary consciousness was measured using 12 items, and the construct was examined using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was examined as an indicator of internal validity, and the criterion-referenced validity was confirmed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. To determine changes in dietary consciousness, we calculated total scores based on changes in each item of the Dietary Consciousness Scale as follows: no change (0 points), improved (+1 point), and worsening (-1 point). The associations between the changes in dietary consciousness and characteristics or socioeconomic factors of the participants were examined using the chi-squared test and residual analysis.Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a model consisting of two factors fitted the data (GFI = 0.958, AGFI = 0.938, CFI = 0.931, RMSEA = 0.066). Cronbach's alpha of the first factor (importance of diet) was 0.838 and 0.734 for the second factor (precedence of diet), and the reliability was confirmed at 0.828 for the entire scale. In the examination of criterion-related validity, the higher the stage of change, the higher the total score of the scale, and a significant difference was observed (P<0.001). The percentage of participants whose precedence worsened was higher than the importance. Significant differences were observed regarding gender, age group, marital status, employment status, household annual income, and income change during the COVID-19 pandemic considering changes in both the importance and precedence of diet. Those who were in the "worsening tendency" group in both the importance and precedence were men, 20-29 years old, unmarried, full-time employees, with a household income of 4-6 million yen during the past year.Conclusion During the COVID-19 pandemic, the precedence of diet worsened, compared to its importance, and men, young, or unmarried persons show a worsening of dietary consciousness.


Subject(s)
/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Consciousness , Diet/psychology , Eating/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/economics , Diet/economics , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge changes in people's lifestyle, health, and social relationships. This situation has had an impact on children and adolescents, affecting their health, intellectual, physical, and emotional development. The survey aimed to compare eating behaviors, level of physical activity (PA), hours of sleep, and screen time among Polish children and adolescents aged 6-15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We obtained self-reported data from 1016 participants at two measurement points before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland to examine the influence of the lockdown and the distance learning on PA, dietary habits, sleep, and media usage of children and adolescents aged 6-15 years. The study identified dietary differences and changes in daily activity patterns (reduced sleep duration with higher sleep quality and reduced physical activity). Additionally, the increase in general media usage was observed during the pandemic alongside a reduction in smartphone usage. Together, the findings indicate increased sleep, physical activity, and reduced media usage and screen time among Polish children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Screen Time , Sleep , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273492

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exerts a negative influence on dietary behaviors, which may lead to health deterioration. Dietary behaviors may be determined by psychological characteristics, such as basic hope and resilience, which facilitate the effective adjustment to new difficult conditions. The professional literature includes no research on the role of basic hope and resilience in the context of undertaken dietary behaviors in the situations of mental load associated with pandemics. The study aimed at the description of the dietary behaviors of individuals with various intensities of the discussed psychological characteristics (basic hope and resilience); (2) The observational cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted with the participation of 1082 adult Polish inhabitants. Three psychological scales were used: PSS-10, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) and BHI-12 questionnaire. The assessment of the adherence to dietary recommendations was performed with the present authors' Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGA Index); (3) Results: The value of DGA Index was variable depending on the psychological profile of study participants. The highest adherence to the principles of appropriate nutrition was observed in individuals characterized by the ability to cope with difficult situations and those who quickly adapted to new changing circumstances. The DGA Index values became poorer with the deterioration of the coping ability as regards stress and mental load; (4) Conclusions: Nutritional education during pandemics should encompass the psychological profile of the patients. It requires the implementation of a different psychodietetic approach which will facilitate a more effective introduction of a well-balanced diet.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Hope , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Nutrition Policy , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259551

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on populations at an economic, health, and on an interpersonal level, it is still unclear how it has affected health-risk behaviors, such as comfort food consumption over time. This study longitudinally examines the effect of the perceived impact of COVID-19 on comfort food consumption and whether this effect is mediated by emotional distress. A convenience sample of 1048 students and university staff (academic and non-academic) from two universities completed monthly online surveys during the COVID-19 pandemic across six waves (W; W1 to W6). Participants reported their perceived impact of COVID-19 (economic, interpersonal, and health), comfort food consumption, and emotional distress (DASS-21). Using structural equation models, we found an indirect longitudinal effect of the perceived impact of COVID-19 (W1) on comfort food consumption (W3 to W6) through increased emotional distress (W2). The perceived negative impact of COVID-19 on comfort food consumption was fully mediated by the emotional distress during the first waves (W3 and W4), ending in a partial mediation in the last waves (W5 and W6). These findings contribute to disentangling the mechanisms by which the perceived impact of COVID-19 affects comfort food consumption over time, and highlight the role of emotional distress. Future interventions should address comfort food consumption by focusing on handling emotional distress during a crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet/psychology , Emotions , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Faculty , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diet therapy , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
7.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 34(4): 670-678, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social isolation enforced as a result of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may impact families' lifestyle and eating habits. The present study aimed to assess the behaviour and dietary patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents during the social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present study was conducted using an online, anonymous cross-sectional survey with 589 children and 720 adolescents from Brazil during a nationwide social isolation policy. The Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis with the Dunn post-hoc method and a radar chart were used to compare the weekly consumption of each food by age group and isolation status. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted using R statistical software, version 4.0.2 (R Foundation for Statisitical Computing). RESULTS: We found that isolated families showed breakfast eating habits and the consumption of raw salad, vegetables, beans and soft drinks. Lower-class isolated families and those from the Northeast region consumed fruits, juices, vegetables and beans less frequently. Compared to children, adolescents were less isolated (p = 0.016), less active (p < 0.001), exposed to longer screen time (p < 0.001), showed an inadequate sleeping pattern (p = 0.002) and were from lower-class families (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Social isolation affected the eating habits of children and adolescents. Non-isolated families presented a lower consumption of healthy food, especially those among the lower class, from Northeast Brazil, as well as adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Brazil , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a period of contingency measures, including total or partial lockdowns all over the world leading to several changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours. This retrospective cohort study aimed at investigating Italian adult population lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic "Phase 1" lockdown (8 March-4 May 2020) and discriminate between positive and negative changes and BMI (body mass index) variations (ΔBMI). METHODS: A multiple-choice web-form survey was used to collect retrospective data regarding lifestyle/eating behaviours during "Phase 1" in the Italian adult population. According to changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours, the sample was divided into three classes of changes: "negative change", "no change", "positive change". For each class, correlations with ΔBMI were investigated. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1304 subjects (973F/331M). Mean ΔBMI differed significantly (p < 0.001) between classes, and was significantly related to water intake, alcohol consumption, physical activity, frequency of "craving or snacking between meals", dessert/sweets consumption at lunch. CONCLUSIONS: During "Phase 1", many people faced several negative changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours with potential negative impact on health. These findings highlight that pandemic exacerbates nutritional issues and most efforts need to be done to provide nutrition counselling and public health services to support general population needs.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Life Style , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Drinking , Exercise , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154462

ABSTRACT

Due to limited data about the impact of lockdown on health status, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on changes in dietary habits, physical activity and serum markers in healthy adults. A total of 38 asymptomatic adults aged from 23 to 59 with a normal BMI (22.5 kg/m2) participated in baseline and post-lockdown measurements that included dietary and physical activity assessment, anthropometric measurements and blood samples; and the lockdown survey which included dietary assessment and questionnaires about changes in lifestyle and physical activity. A decreased diet quality during lockdown was observed (Healthy Eating Index reduced from 64.59 to 61.08), which returned to near baseline post-lockdown. Energy intake decreased during lockdown (p = 0.002) and returned to baseline post-lockdown. Despite lower physical activity levels during lockdown (p = 0.035), we observed no significant changes in body composition. However, we observed a significant increase in serum glucose (p = 0.005), total cholesterol (p = 0.003), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.049) post-lockdown. Increase in serum glucose levels was pronounced in subjects with higher increase in energy intake (p = 0.039), increased omega-6 fatty acids intake (p = 0.016), those who were exposed to several risky contacts (p = 0.018, compared to those with less risky contacts) and those who were not active in nature (p = 0.008, compared to those active in nature). Increased serum LDL was correlated to decreased monounsaturated fatty acids intake (p = 0.028). Within the limits of this preliminary report, changes in serum markers observed among healthy subjects point to a possible impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on adults' health to be confirmed in larger groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Composition , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/psychology , Energy Intake , Exercise , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Slovenia/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138746

ABSTRACT

Due to the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese government implemented strict lockdown measures to control the spread of infection. The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on eating habits and lifestyles in the general population is unclear. This cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey to obtain an overview of the food access, food intake, and physical activity of Chinese residents during the initial stage of the COVID-19 lockdown, and to investigate the association between staying at home/working from home and changes in eating habits and lifestyles. A total of 2702 participants (70.7% women) were included. Most of the participants maintained their habitual diet, while 38.2% increased their snack intake, 54.3% reported reduced physical activity, and 45.5% had increased sleep duration. Most people (70.1%) reported no change in body weight, while 25.0% reported an increase. Always staying at home/working from home was associated with an increase in animal product, vegetable, fruit, mushroom, nut, water, and snack intake, as well as sleep duration and frequency of skipping breakfast (odds ratio (OR) 1.54, 1.62, 1.58, 1.53, 1.57, 1.52, 1.77, 2.29, and 1.76 respectively). Suggestions should be made to encourage people to reduce their snack intake, maintain the daily consumption of breakfast, and increase physical activity during future lockdown periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Eating/psychology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Food Supply , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(12): 3905-3915, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and its major correlates during the first Italian lockdown (9 March-3 May 2020). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Italy. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed 2992 subjects (mean age 57·9 ± 15·3 years, 40·4 % men). Individual participant data were pooled from two retrospective cohorts: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1501 adults, a portion of the larger Moli-sani study (n 24 325; 2005-2010) who were administered a phone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement and (2) the Analysis of Long Term Risk of Covid-19 Emergency is a web-based survey of 1491 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire by using Google forms.UPF was defined according to NOVA classification based on degree of food processing. An UPF score was created by assigning 1 point to increased consumption, -1 to decreased and 0 point for unchanged intakes of nineteen food items, with higher values indicating an increase in UPF during confinement. RESULTS: Overall, 37·5 % of the population reported some increase in UPF (UPF score ≥1). Adults were more likely to decrease UPF (multivariable regression coefficient ß = -1·94; 95 % CI -2·72, -1·17 for individuals aged >75 years as compared with 18-39 years) as did individuals from southern Italian regions as compared with Northern inhabitants (ß = -1·32; 95 % CI -1·80, -0·84), while UPF lowering associated with increased exercise (ß = -0·90; 95 % CI -1·46, -0·35) and weight loss (ß = -1·05; 95 % CI -1·51, -0·59) during confinement. CONCLUSIONS: During the first Italian lockdown, about 40 % of our population switched to unfavourable eating as reflected by increased UPF intake and this may have long-term effects for health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fast Foods , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Appetite ; 157: 105005, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125898

ABSTRACT

To limit the transmission of COVID-19, nationwide lockdown was imposed in France between March, 17th and May 10th, 2020. This disruption in individuals' daily routines likely altered food consumption habits. We examined how changes in food choice motives related to changes in nutritional quality during the lockdown compared to before. A convenience sample of 938 French adults completed online questionnaires on the Qualtrics platform at the end of April 2020. Participants were retrospectively asked about their food choice motives and food consumption during the month before and in the first month of the lockdown. The importance of nine food choice motives was assessed: health, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, ethical concern, weight control, mood, familiarity, and price, scoring from 1 to 4. Food intakes were recorded using a food frequency questionnaire including 110 foods, 12 non-alcoholic beverages and 4 alcoholic beverages. Adherence to the French dietary recommendations before and during the lockdown was estimated using the simplified PNNS-GS2, scoring from -17 to 11.5. The nutritional quality of diet was lower during the lockdown compared to before (-0.32, SD 2.28, p < 0.001). Food choice motives significantly changed and an increase in the importance of weight control was associated with increased nutritional quality (ß = 0.89, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.032), whereas an increase in the importance of mood was associated with decreased nutritional quality (ß = -0.43, p = 0.021, partial η2 = 0.006). The lockdown period in France was related to a decrease in nutritional quality of diet on average, which could be partly explained by changes in food choice motives. The lockdown was indeed related to modification of food choice motives, notably with an increase of mood as a food choice motive for 48% of the participants, but also with an increase of health (26%), ethical concern (21%) and natural content (19%) suggesting a growing awareness of the importance of sustainable food choices in some participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Motivation , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Choice Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124602

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused disruptions to what people eat, but the pandemic's impact on diet varies between individuals. The goal of our study was to test whether pandemic-related stress was associated with food intake, and whether relationships between stress and intake were modified by appetitive and cognitive traits. (2) Methods: We cross-sectionally surveyed 428 adults to examine current intake frequency of various food types (sweets/desserts, savory snacks, fast food, fruits, and vegetables), changes to food intake during the pandemic, emotional overeating (EOE), cognitive flexibility (CF), and COVID-19-related stress. Models tested associations of stress, EOE, and CF with food intake frequency and changes to intake. (3) Results: Models demonstrated that the positive relationship between stress and intake of sweets/desserts was stronger with higher EOE, while the positive relationship between stress and intake of chips/savory snacks was weaker with higher CF. Higher EOE was associated with greater risk of increased intake of palatable foods. (4) Conclusions: Findings suggest that emotional overeating may escalate stress-associated intake of high-sugar foods, and cognitive flexibility may attenuate stress-associated intake of high-fat foods. Differences in appetitive and cognitive traits may explain changes to and variability in food intake during COVID-19, and efforts to decrease emotional overeating and encourage cognitive flexibility could help lessen the effect of COVID-19-related stress on energy dense food intake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Eating/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Hyperphagia/epidemiology , Hyperphagia/etiology , Hyperphagia/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248008, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115308

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted lifestyle behaviour as public health initiatives aim to "flatten the curve". This study examined changes in activity patterns (physical activity, sedentary time, sleep), recreational physical activities, diet, weight and wellbeing from before to during COVID-19 restrictions in Adelaide, Australia. This study used data from a prospective cohort of Australian adults (parents of primary school-aged children; n = 61, 66% female, aged 41±6 years). Participants wore a Fitbit Charge 3 activity monitor and weighed themselves daily using Wi-Fi scales. Activity and weight data were extracted for 14 days before (February 2020) and 14 days during (April 2020) COVID-19 restrictions. Participants reported their recreational physical activity, diet and wellbeing during these periods. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine change over time. Participants slept 27 minutes longer (95% CI 9-51), got up 38 minutes later (95% CI 25-50), and did 50 fewer minutes (95% CI -69--29) of light physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. Additionally, participants engaged in more cycling but less swimming, team sports and boating or sailing. Participants consumed a lower percentage of energy from protein (-0.8, 95% CI -1.5--0.1) and a greater percentage of energy from alcohol (0.9, 95% CI 0.2-1.7). There were no changes in weight or wellbeing. Overall, the effects of COVID-19 restrictions on lifestyle were small; however, their impact on health and wellbeing may accumulate over time. Further research examining the effects of ongoing social distancing restrictions are needed as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Parents/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/psychology , Diet/trends , Exercise/psychology , Female , Fitness Trackers , Humans , Life Style , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948905

ABSTRACT

Social isolation has adverse effects on mental health, physical exercise, and dietary habits. This longitudinal observational study aimed to investigate the effects of mood states and exercise on nutritional choices, on 176 college students (92 males, 84 females; 23 ± 4 years old) during the COVID-19 lockdown. During 21 days, nutrition and exercise were daily monitored, and the mood states assessed. A factor analysis was used to reduce the number of nutritional variables collected. The relationships between exercise, mood and nutrition were investigated using a multivariate general linear model and a mediation model. Seven factors were found, reflecting different nutritional choices. Exercise was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and fish consumption (p = 0.004). Depression and quality of life were, directly and inversely, associated with cereals, legumes (p = 0.005; p = 0.004) and low-fat meat intake (p = 0.040; p = 0.004). Exercise mediated the effect of mood states on fruit, vegetables and fish consumption, respectively, accounting for 4.2% and 1.8% of the total variance. Poorer mood states possibly led to unhealthy dietary habits, which can themselves be linked to negative mood levels. Exercise led to healthier nutritional choices, and mediating the effects of mood states, it might represent a key measure in uncommon situations, such as home-confinement.


Subject(s)
Affect , COVID-19 , Diet/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Depression , Female , Humans , Italy , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Quarantine , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
16.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927616

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at identifying psychological and psychosocial variables that might predict weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in patients affected by overweight/obesity with and without a psychiatric diagnosis. An online survey was administered between 25 April and 10 May 2020, to investigate participants' changes in dietary habits during the lockdown period. 110 participants were recruited and allocated to two groups, 63 patients had no psychiatric diagnosis; there were 47 patients with psychiatric diagnosis. ANOVA analyses compared the groups with respect to psychological distress levels, risk perception, social support, emotion regulation, and eating behaviors. For each group, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted, including the factors that were found to significantly differ between groups. Weight gain during lockdown was reported by 31 of the participants affected by overweight/obesity without a psychiatric diagnosis and by 31 patients with a psychiatric diagnosis. Weight gain predictors were stress and low depression for patients without a psychiatric diagnosis and binge eating behaviors for patients with a psychiatric diagnosis. Of patients without a psychiatric diagnosis, 60% reported much more frequent night eating episodes. The risk of night eating syndrome in persons affected by overweight/obesity with no psychiatric diagnosis should be further investigated to inform the development of tailored medical, psychological, and psychosocial interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Analysis of Variance , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Diet Surveys , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Obesity/psychology , Overweight/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918929

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of many and may have influenced dietary habits through factors such as food security status and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to identify dietary habits and their associations with food insecurity and attitudes among adults living in the United States within three months post-mandated quarantine. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2020. Participants (n = 3133) responded to a 71-item questionnaire regarding demographics (n = 7), health information (n = 5), lifestyle habits (n = 8), dietary habits (n = 37), food attitudes (n = 8), and food security status (n = 6). Frequency counts and percentages were tabulated, and multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine associations using STATA v14 at a statistical significance level of p < 0.05. Results showed that most participants indicated no change in dietary habits (43.6-87.4%), yet participants reported increased consumption of sweets (43.8%) and salty snacks (37.4%). A significant positive association for food attitude scores (1.59, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.70; p < 0.001) and food security scores (1.19, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.45; p < 0.001) on total dietary habit scores was found. Future extensive population studies are recommended to help public health authorities frame actions to alleviate the impact that mandated quarantine has on dietary habits.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Attitude , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
18.
Appetite ; 157: 105005, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866417

ABSTRACT

To limit the transmission of COVID-19, nationwide lockdown was imposed in France between March, 17th and May 10th, 2020. This disruption in individuals' daily routines likely altered food consumption habits. We examined how changes in food choice motives related to changes in nutritional quality during the lockdown compared to before. A convenience sample of 938 French adults completed online questionnaires on the Qualtrics platform at the end of April 2020. Participants were retrospectively asked about their food choice motives and food consumption during the month before and in the first month of the lockdown. The importance of nine food choice motives was assessed: health, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, ethical concern, weight control, mood, familiarity, and price, scoring from 1 to 4. Food intakes were recorded using a food frequency questionnaire including 110 foods, 12 non-alcoholic beverages and 4 alcoholic beverages. Adherence to the French dietary recommendations before and during the lockdown was estimated using the simplified PNNS-GS2, scoring from -17 to 11.5. The nutritional quality of diet was lower during the lockdown compared to before (-0.32, SD 2.28, p < 0.001). Food choice motives significantly changed and an increase in the importance of weight control was associated with increased nutritional quality (ß = 0.89, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.032), whereas an increase in the importance of mood was associated with decreased nutritional quality (ß = -0.43, p = 0.021, partial η2 = 0.006). The lockdown period in France was related to a decrease in nutritional quality of diet on average, which could be partly explained by changes in food choice motives. The lockdown was indeed related to modification of food choice motives, notably with an increase of mood as a food choice motive for 48% of the participants, but also with an increase of health (26%), ethical concern (21%) and natural content (19%) suggesting a growing awareness of the importance of sustainable food choices in some participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Motivation , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Choice Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717742

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: This study aimed to analyze the impact of the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemics on the eating, exercise, and quality-of-life habits of pregnant women. (2) Methods: This was an internet-based cross-sectional survey which collected information about adherence to the Mediterranean diet, physical exercise, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and perceived obstacles (in terms of exercise, preparation for delivery, and medical appointments) of pregnant women before and after the confinement. The survey was conducted in 18-31 May 2020. (3) Results: A total of 90 pregnant women participated in this study. There was a significant decrease in the levels of physical activity (p < 0.01) as well as in HRQoL (p < 0.005). The number of hours spent sitting increased by 50% (p < 0.001), 52.2% were unable to attend delivery preparation sessions because these had been cancelled. However, there were no significant differences in the eating pattern of these women (p = 0.672). Conclusions: These results suggest the need to implement specific online programs to promote exercise and reduce stress, thus improving the HRQoL in this population, should similar confinements need to occur again for any reason in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Internet , Life Style , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quality of Life , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
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