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1.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636775

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 lockdown, a 'new normal' was established, involving a hybrid lifestyle that combined face-to-face with virtual activity. We investigated, in a case-control study, the impact of the 'new normal' on daily sleep and eating routines, compared with pre-pandemic conditions. To do this, we propose using social and eating jet lag as markers of the regularity in daily routines. Additionally, we studied whether the 'new normal' had an impact on the body mass index (BMI), diet quality, and other health-related variables. This study included 71 subjects in the pre-pandemic group, and 68 in the 'new normal' group (20-30 years). For all participants, we evaluated social and eating jet lag, BMI, diet and sleep quality, eating behaviors, physical activity, and well-being. General linear models were used to compare outcome variables between pre-pandemic and 'new normal' groups. The results revealed that the 'new normal' was associated with greater regularity in daily sleep and eating routines (-0.7 h of social jet lag (95% CI: -1.0, -0.4), and -0.3 h of eating jet lag (95% CI: -0.5, -0.1)), longer sleep duration on weekdays (1.8 h (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2)), and lower sleep debt (-1.3 h (95% CI: -1.7, -0.9)). Regarding BMI and other health-related variables, we observed that these variables were similar between 'new normal' and pre-pandemic groups. These findings indicate that the 'new normal' had a positive impact on daily sleep and eating routines. Additionally, our results indicated that the 'new normal' offered college students a more sustainable lifestyle, which was associated with more hours of sleep during the week and lower sleep debt. This, in the long run, could have a positive impact on BMI and overall health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Life Style , Linear Models , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625463

ABSTRACT

Undergraduates may face challenges to assure food security, related to economic and mental distress, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess food insecurity and its associated factors in undergraduates during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 to February 2021 with 4775 undergraduates from all Brazilian regions. The questionnaire contained socio-economic variables, the validated Brazilian food insecurity scale, and the ESQUADA scale to assess diet quality. The median age of the students was 22.0 years, and 48.0% reported income decreasing with the pandemic. Food insecurity was present in 38.6% of the students, 4.5% with severe food insecurity and 7.7% moderate. Logistic regressions showed students with brown and black skin color/race presented the highest OR for food insecurity; both income and weight increase or reduction during the pandemic was also associated with a higher OR for food insecurity, and better diet quality was associated with decreased OR for food insecurity. Our study showed a considerable presence of food insecurity in undergraduates. Policy for this population must be directed to the most vulnerable: those with brown and black skin color/race, who changed income during the pandemic, and those presented with difficulties maintaining weight and with poor diet quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
3.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625311

ABSTRACT

The numerous consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in healthy young people and the lack of clarity as to the long-term disease outcomes have spurred the search for risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the associations of nutritional behaviors, gut microbiota, and physical activity with the risk of COVID-19 in healthy young nonobese people. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake, and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). A balanced diet rich in vegetables and fruit, including nuts, wholegrain cereal products, and legumes, covers the need for vitamins and minerals. Such a diet can be an effective measure to reduce the risk of COVID-19 in nonobese healthy physically active young people with normal immune function. People with balanced diet and an average daily consumption of >500 g of vegetables and fruit and >10 g of nuts had an 86% lower risk of COVID-19 compared with those whose diet was not balanced and who consumed lower amounts of these products. It is well documented that proper nutrition, physical activity, and maintenance of normal weight facilitate good health by ensuring optimal immune function. The beneficial effects of these interventions should be strongly emphasized during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Poland , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573692

ABSTRACT

This study examines the correlation of acute and habitual dietary intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins, and their main food sources with the urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Participants (N = 419, men and women) provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using a standardized 24-HDR software and a validated dietary questionnaire, respectively. Intake of flavan-3-ols was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in 24-h urine were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic deconjugation. Simple and partial Spearman's correlations showed that urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their sum were more strongly correlated with acute than with habitual intake of individual and total monomers (acute rpartial = 0.13-0.54, p < 0.05; and habitual rpartial = 0.14-0.28, p < 0.01), proanthocyanidins (acute rpartial = 0.24-0.49, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.10-0.15, p < 0.05), theaflavins (acute rpartial = 0.22-0.31, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.20-0.26, p < 0.01), and total flavan-3-ols (acute rpartial = 0.40-0.48, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001). Similarly, urinary concentrations of flavan-3-ols were weakly correlated with both acute (rpartial = 0.12-0.30, p < 0.05) and habitual intake (rpartial = 0.10-0.27, p < 0.05) of apple and pear, stone fruits, berries, chocolate and chocolate products, cakes and pastries, tea, herbal tea, wine, red wine, and beer and cider. Moreover, all comparable correlations were stronger for urinary (-)-epicatechin than for (+)-catechin. In conclusion, our data support the use of urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, especially as short-term nutritional biomarkers of dietary catechin, epicatechin and total flavan-3-ol monomers.


Subject(s)
Biflavonoids/analysis , Catechin/urine , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Flavonoids/analysis , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/urine , Catechin/analysis , Diet Surveys , Eating , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410476

ABSTRACT

Domiciliary confinement of people is one of the main strategies to limit the impact of COVID-19. Lockdowns have led to changes in lifestyle, emotional health, and eating habits. We aimed to evaluate the association of differences in dietary behaviours and lifestyle with self-reported weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in Chile. In this cross-sectional analytical study, five previously validated surveys were condensed into a single 86-item online questionnaire. The survey was sent to 1000 potential participants of the university community; it was kept online for 28 days to be answered. Of the 639 respondents, the mean self-reported weight gain during confinement was 1.99 kg (standard deviation [SE]: 0.17) and 0.7 (SE: 0.06) units of body mass index (BMI) (both p < 0.001) and the median difference in body weight during lockdown was 3.3% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.0-6.7). The differences of intake of most food groups before and during lockdown were associated with greater self-reported weight, BMI and percentage weight gain. Differences in lifestyle (odds ratio [OR] = 14.21, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.35-85.82) worsening eating habits (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 2.31-5.09), and more consumption of sweet or filled cookies and cakes during lockdown (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.42-3.13) were associated with self-reported weight gain. In conclusion, different dietary behaviours (mainly consumption of industrialized foods) during lockdown, as well as quality of life deterioration were the main factors associated with self-reported weight gain during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Universities , Young Adult
7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410474

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two intervals during COVID-19 restrictions. The primary outcome was an assessment of sources of information and infant feeding practices in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. Data from 6934 responders (92.2% mothers) were analyzed. Most responders received information from multiple sources, with other parents, family members, or friends being the most frequently reported (48.6%), followed by webinars and experts' recommendations (40.8%). COVID-19 restrictions largely did not impact the method of feeding, changes in feeding patterns, or complementary feeding introduction, although the latter was more likely to be impacted in families with average versus the best financial situations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also most consistently showed that parents with a tertiary education and living in a city above 500 k were at higher odds of using webinars/experts' recommendations, internet/apps, and professional expert guides and lower odds of claiming no need to deepen knowledge. This study clarifies major issues associated with complementary feeding practices during the implementation of COVID-19 restrictions in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Parents , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257035, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398938

ABSTRACT

In several nations, caries in pre-school children remain a significant oral health issue. In an outbreak period such as the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remote contact and education aimed at the prevention of oral diseases and the preservation of children's oral health are more relevant than ever. Currently, the amount of published applications is far higher than the published scientific studies while the problems of usability remains vulnerable. The goal of this paper was to comprehensively document the phase of development and usability testing of a mobile application for diet and oral health, namely Gigiku Sihat, which was primarily intended to be used by parents and guardians of pre-school children. The mobile application was developed using the System Development Life Cycle principle. Apart from searching for the available oral health application on Android platform, the initial requirement gathering process consisted of situational analysis, concept generation, content development, and features and functional requirement determination. The mobile application design and implementation evolved at each phase before being finalised. Gigiku Sihat was successfully developed in the Bahasa Malaysia. Finalised Gigiku Sihat was installed on mobile devices to determine the usability using translated and validated System Usability Scale questionnaire namely Skala Kebolehgunaan Aplikasi Mudah Alih (SKAMA). The mean score usability with score of 68 and above was deemed to have good usability. This study found that Gigiku Sihat mean (SD) usability score was 77.0 (14.18). The results were promising as they showed that Gigiku Sihat had a good usability. Thus, the development of this mobile application focusing on diet and oral health served as a new source of oral health education and provided a necessary foundation in developing future improved mobile application development for parents in the prevention of early childhood caries.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Malaysia , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , User-Centered Design , User-Computer Interface
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374477

ABSTRACT

Food preferences are among the most influential factors of food habits in the vulnerable period of adolescence; in addition, gender-dependent differences in food preferences are also observed. The aim of the present study was to analyze differences in food habits between individuals stratified based on their food preferences in a population-based sample of adolescents aged 15-20. The study was conducted within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population in a group of 2419 secondary school students who were randomly chosen to participate in the study using a random quota sampling procedure. The food preferences were determined on the basis of a validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) (which enables assessing preference of vegetables, fruit, meat/fish, dairy, snacks, and starches), whereas food habits were determined on the basis of the Adolescents' Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) (which enables assessing food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits). The analysis involved three homogenous clusters ('low-preferring', 'hedonists', and 'high-preferring'), which were identified using the k-means algorithm. It was found that for a number of the assessed food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits, there were statistically significant differences between the 'low-preferring', 'hedonists', and 'high-preferring' clusters. Within food purchase habits, the food preference influenced frequency of buying pastries/cakes and frequency of eating takeaway meals for all the respondents, while for female respondents, it influenced also choice of desserts in restaurants, and for male respondents, it influenced choosing a low-fat lunch away from home (p < 0.05). Within food preparation habits, the food preference influenced the fat content in desserts at home, the frequency of eating at least one serving of vegetables/salad with an evening meal, the frequency of spreading butter/margarine on bread thinly, and the frequency of having cream on desserts for all the respondents; meanwhile, for female respondents, it also influenced the frequency of avoiding fried foods and the frequency of including chocolate/biscuits in their packed lunch (p < 0.05). Within food consumption habits, the food preference influenced the frequency of eating a dessert/pudding, eating at least one serving of fruit a day, eating at least one serving of vegetables/salad a day, avoiding sausages/burgers, trying to ensure they eat plenty of fruit and vegetables, and frequency of choosing fruit as a snack for all the respondents; meanwhile, for male respondents, it also influenced the frequency of eating sweet snacks and eating at least three servings of fruit most days (p < 0.05). Taking into account that some improper food habits may be typical for the specific clusters, there is an urgent need to analyze and address them for the purposes of public health and to bear in mind that some of those habits are gender-dependent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Food Preferences/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , Poland , Young Adult
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355019

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions sent college students online and off campus, potentially reducing access to healthy food. The objective of this cross-sectional, internet-based study was to use qualitative and quantitative survey methods to evaluate whether COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Texas, USA affected college students' ability to buy food, how/what they shopped for, how they prepared food, what they ate, how they felt about eating, and overall dietary quality (assessed using Healthy Eating Index [HEI] scores). Survey responses from 502 students (87.5% female; 59.6% nonwhite, mean age 27.5 ± 0.4 years, >50% graduate students) were analyzed. The qualitative analysis of open-ended questions revealed 110 codes, 17 subthemes, and six themes. Almost all students experienced changes in at least one area, the most common being changes in shopping habits. Participants with low or very low food security had lower HEI scores compared to food secure students (p = 0.047). Black students were more likely to report changes in their ability to buy food (p = 0.035). The COVID-19 restrictions varied in their impact on students' ability to access sufficient healthy food, with some students severely affected. Thus, universities should establish procedures for responding to emergencies, including identifying at-risk students and mobilizing emergency funds and/or food assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/standards , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Feeding Behavior , Female , Food Assistance , Food Security , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students , Texas/epidemiology , Universities/statistics & numerical data
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge changes in people's lifestyle, health, and social relationships. This situation has had an impact on children and adolescents, affecting their health, intellectual, physical, and emotional development. The survey aimed to compare eating behaviors, level of physical activity (PA), hours of sleep, and screen time among Polish children and adolescents aged 6-15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We obtained self-reported data from 1016 participants at two measurement points before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland to examine the influence of the lockdown and the distance learning on PA, dietary habits, sleep, and media usage of children and adolescents aged 6-15 years. The study identified dietary differences and changes in daily activity patterns (reduced sleep duration with higher sleep quality and reduced physical activity). Additionally, the increase in general media usage was observed during the pandemic alongside a reduction in smartphone usage. Together, the findings indicate increased sleep, physical activity, and reduced media usage and screen time among Polish children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Screen Time , Sleep , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288967

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about drastic measures that have significantly altered the norms of daily living. These measures have affected human behaviors in disparate ways. This study seeks to understand the impact of the pandemic on physical activity and dietary behavior among adults living in Kuwait. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 18 June and 15 July 2020, using a questionnaire disseminated through social media, including WhatsApp and Facebook. The target population was individuals aged 21 years or older living in the State of Kuwait. The study included 679 respondents; 57.9% were females, and 67.7% were Kuwaiti nationals. Both genders reported an increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and carbohydrates, and a decreased consumption of fish and sugary drinks. Compared to males, females reported eating more during the outbreak than their pre-pandemic eating behaviors (32.3% vs. 35.9%, p < 0.05). Approximately one-third of respondents (33.1%) reported performing less than 30 min of physical activity or exercise in a week, and 36.4% of respondents rated their quality of sleep as 'poor' or 'very poor'. The rate of smoking cigarettes among males was significantly higher than in females (40.6% vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). Physical activity was positively correlated with vegetable consumption and quality of sleep. Quality of sleep was negatively correlated with the consumption of sweets and snacks, just as the consumption of vegetables was negatively correlated with the consumption of sugary drinks. The overall negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kuwait necessitates the development of health promotion interventions to support positive physical activity and dietary behaviors using alternative coping strategies among the residents of Kuwait.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Young Adult
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 295-309, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280853

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have far-reaching consequences for developing countries through the combined effects of infection and mortality, and the mitigation measures that can impact food systems and diets. Using a mobile platform, this cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of COVID-19 on food prices and dietary quality for 1797 households in Nouna and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, Addis Ababa and Kersa in Ethiopia, and Lagos and Ibadan in Nigeria. We assessed the consumption of 20 food groups during the previous 7 days. The dietary diversity scores (DDS) and Prime Diet Quality Scores (PDQS) were used to assess dietary diversity and quality. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) linear models to evaluate associations between price changes for staples, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and animal source foods (ASFs) with the DDS and PDQS PDQS. Most participants reported increasing prices of staples, pulses, fruits, vegetables and ASF, and ≥ 40% reported the decreased consumption of staples, legumes, and other vegetables and fruits. The DDS (except in Kersa and Ouagadougou) and PDQS were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher pulse prices were associated with lower DDS (estimate, -0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.74 to 0.03; P = 0.07) in the combined analysis and in Burkina Faso (estimate, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.11). Higher vegetable prices were positively associated with the DDS (estimate, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.37). Lower crop production (estimate, -0.54; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.27) was associated with lower DDS. The price increases and worsening dietary diversity and quality call for social protection and other strategies to increase the availability and affordability of nutrient-rich foods during the COVID-19 pandemic and public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diet/standards , Food Security , Nutritional Status , Adult , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/economics , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 53(8): 706-711, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine how changes in feeling bored and eating because of boredom during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic relate to intuitive eating, diet quality, and snacking. METHODS: A representative sample of 360 US adults completed an online survey including changes in feeling bored and eating because of boredom since the COVID-19 pandemic. An ANCOVA and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to examine relationships between intuitive eating, diet quality, and snacking in individuals who experienced: (1) increases in feeling bored and eating because of boredom, (2) eating because of boredom only, (3) increases in feeling bored only, and (4) no change/decreases in feeling bored and eating because of boredom. RESULTS: Individuals who increased feeling bored and eating because of boredom and increased eating because of boredom only snacked more and scored lower in intuitive eating. Diet quality did not differ across groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although diet quality did not differ, eating because of boredom is potentially a negative impact on diet quality. Programs enhancing intuitive eating may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Boredom , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , United States/epidemiology
15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13597, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social containment measures imposed in Europe during the lockdown to face COVID-19 pandemic can generate long-term potential threats for metabolic health. METHODS: A cohort of 494 non-COVID-19 subjects living in 21 EU countries were interviewed by an anonymous questionnaire exploring anthropometric and lifestyle changes during 1-month lockdown. A subgroup of 41 overweight/obese Italian subjects with previously diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) joined the study following a 12-month follow-up period promoting weight loss by healthy lifestyle. RESULTS: During the lockdown, body weight increased in 55% of subjects (average 2.4 ± 0.9 kg). Weight change increased with age, but not baseline body mass index. Subjects living in Italy had greater weight gain than those living in other European Countries. Weight gain during the lockdown was highest in subjects reporting no physical activity, and low adherence to Mediterranean diet. In the NAFLD group, weight gain occurred in 70% of cases. Subjects reporting weight loss during lockdown had decreased fatty liver score at 3 months before the lockdown, as compared with 1 year before. CONCLUSIONS: Strict measures of social containment-even short-term-pave the way to the increased risk of metabolic abnormalities in the medium-long term. In this context, adherence to Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity play a protective role both in terms of weight gain and fatty liver development/progression, with implication for primary and secondary prevention. When adopting measures imposing social containment, intensive educational campaigns must increase public awareness about beneficial effects of healthy lifestyles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/metabolism , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Diet, Mediterranean , European Union , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Nutr Res ; 90: 1-12, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202105

ABSTRACT

Since the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is linked to chronic inflammation, people with initial lower inflammatory status could have better outcomes from exposure to this disease. Because dietary habits are one of the most important modifiable risk factors for inflammation, identification of dietary components associated with inflammation could play a significant role in controlling or reducing the risk of COVID-19. We investigated the inflammatory potential of diets consumed by African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) women of childbearing age (n = 509) who are at high risk for exposure to COVID-19 by being residents of Birmingham, Alabama, a city severely affected by this pandemic. The overall pro- and anti- inflammatory scores were calculated using dietary intake data gathered using Block food frequency questionnaire. The proinflammatory potential of diets consumed by AAs was significantly higher compared to CAs. Several anti- and proinflammatory nutrients and food groups consumed differed by race. With consumption of a greater number of antioxidants and B-vitamins, CAs switched toward an anti-inflammatory score more effectively than AAs while AAs performed better than CAs in improving the anti-inflammatory score with the consumption of a greater number of minerals and vitamin D. Effective race-specific dietary modifications or supplementation with nutrients identified will be useful to improve proinflammatory diets toward anti-inflammatory. This approach could aid in controlling the current COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics of a similar nature in women at risk for exposure.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Inflammation/physiopathology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Alabama , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201237

ABSTRACT

In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Feeding Behavior , Nutritive Value , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Beverages , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Diet Surveys , Energy Intake , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Vegetables
18.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 34(4): 670-678, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social isolation enforced as a result of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may impact families' lifestyle and eating habits. The present study aimed to assess the behaviour and dietary patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents during the social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present study was conducted using an online, anonymous cross-sectional survey with 589 children and 720 adolescents from Brazil during a nationwide social isolation policy. The Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis with the Dunn post-hoc method and a radar chart were used to compare the weekly consumption of each food by age group and isolation status. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted using R statistical software, version 4.0.2 (R Foundation for Statisitical Computing). RESULTS: We found that isolated families showed breakfast eating habits and the consumption of raw salad, vegetables, beans and soft drinks. Lower-class isolated families and those from the Northeast region consumed fruits, juices, vegetables and beans less frequently. Compared to children, adolescents were less isolated (p = 0.016), less active (p < 0.001), exposed to longer screen time (p < 0.001), showed an inadequate sleeping pattern (p = 0.002) and were from lower-class families (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Social isolation affected the eating habits of children and adolescents. Non-isolated families presented a lower consumption of healthy food, especially those among the lower class, from Northeast Brazil, as well as adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Brazil , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a period of contingency measures, including total or partial lockdowns all over the world leading to several changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours. This retrospective cohort study aimed at investigating Italian adult population lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic "Phase 1" lockdown (8 March-4 May 2020) and discriminate between positive and negative changes and BMI (body mass index) variations (ΔBMI). METHODS: A multiple-choice web-form survey was used to collect retrospective data regarding lifestyle/eating behaviours during "Phase 1" in the Italian adult population. According to changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours, the sample was divided into three classes of changes: "negative change", "no change", "positive change". For each class, correlations with ΔBMI were investigated. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1304 subjects (973F/331M). Mean ΔBMI differed significantly (p < 0.001) between classes, and was significantly related to water intake, alcohol consumption, physical activity, frequency of "craving or snacking between meals", dessert/sweets consumption at lunch. CONCLUSIONS: During "Phase 1", many people faced several negative changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours with potential negative impact on health. These findings highlight that pandemic exacerbates nutritional issues and most efforts need to be done to provide nutrition counselling and public health services to support general population needs.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Life Style , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Drinking , Exercise , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154462

ABSTRACT

Due to limited data about the impact of lockdown on health status, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on changes in dietary habits, physical activity and serum markers in healthy adults. A total of 38 asymptomatic adults aged from 23 to 59 with a normal BMI (22.5 kg/m2) participated in baseline and post-lockdown measurements that included dietary and physical activity assessment, anthropometric measurements and blood samples; and the lockdown survey which included dietary assessment and questionnaires about changes in lifestyle and physical activity. A decreased diet quality during lockdown was observed (Healthy Eating Index reduced from 64.59 to 61.08), which returned to near baseline post-lockdown. Energy intake decreased during lockdown (p = 0.002) and returned to baseline post-lockdown. Despite lower physical activity levels during lockdown (p = 0.035), we observed no significant changes in body composition. However, we observed a significant increase in serum glucose (p = 0.005), total cholesterol (p = 0.003), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.049) post-lockdown. Increase in serum glucose levels was pronounced in subjects with higher increase in energy intake (p = 0.039), increased omega-6 fatty acids intake (p = 0.016), those who were exposed to several risky contacts (p = 0.018, compared to those with less risky contacts) and those who were not active in nature (p = 0.008, compared to those active in nature). Increased serum LDL was correlated to decreased monounsaturated fatty acids intake (p = 0.028). Within the limits of this preliminary report, changes in serum markers observed among healthy subjects point to a possible impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on adults' health to be confirmed in larger groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Composition , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/psychology , Energy Intake , Exercise , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Slovenia/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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