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1.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200560

ABSTRACT

ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, can increase skeletal muscle size and function. However, HMB may be less effective at improving muscle function in people with insufficient Vitamin D3 (25-OH-D < 30 ng/mL) which is common in middle-aged and older adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that combining HMB plus Vitamin D3 (HMB + D) supplementation would improve skeletal muscle size, composition, and function in middle-aged women. In a double-blinded fashion, women (53 ± 1 yrs, 26 ± 1 kg/m2, n = 43) were randomized to take placebo or HMB + D (3 g Calcium HMB + 2000 IU D per day) during 12 weeks of sedentary behavior (SED) or resistance exercise training (RET). On average, participants entered the study Vitamin D3 insufficient while HMB + D increased 25-OH-D to sufficient levels after 8 and 12 weeks. In SED, HMB + D prevented the loss of arm lean mass observed with placebo. HMB + D increased muscle volume and decreased intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume in the thigh compared to placebo but did not change muscle function. In RET, 12-weeks of HMB + D decreased IMAT compared to placebo but did not influence the increase in skeletal muscle volume or function. In summary, HMB + D decreased IMAT independent of exercise status and may prevent the loss or increase muscle size in a small cohort of sedentary middle-aged women. These results lend support to conduct a longer duration study with greater sample size to determine the validity of the observed positive effects of HMB + D on IMAT and skeletal muscle in a small cohort of middle-aged women.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol , Muscle Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Aged , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Muscle, Skeletal , Double-Blind Method
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 552, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection is more frequent, and serious in people aged > 65 as they experience non-specific signs and symptoms delaying diagnosis and prompt treatment. Monitoring signs and symptoms using decision support tools (DST) is one approach that could help improve early detection ensuring timely treatment and effective care. OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyse decision support tools available to support detection of infection in older people (> 65 years). METHODS: A scoping review of the literature 2010-2021 following Arksey and O'Malley (2005) framework and PRISMA-ScR guidelines. A search of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycINFO using terms to identify decision support tools for detection of infection in people > 65 years was conducted, supplemented with manual searches. RESULTS: Seventeen papers, reporting varying stages of development of different DSTs were analysed. DSTs largely focussed on specific types of infection i.e. urine, respiratory, sepsis and were frequently hospital based (n = 9) for use by physicians. Four DSTs had been developed in nursing homes and one a care home, two of which explored detection of non- specific infection. CONCLUSIONS: DSTs provide an opportunity to ensure a consistent approach to early detection of infection supporting prompt action and treatment, thus avoiding emergency hospital admissions. A lack of consideration regarding their implementation in practice means that any attempt to create an optimal validated and tested DST for infection detection will be impeded. This absence may ultimately affect the ability of the workforce to provide more effective and timely care, particularly during the current covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1023903, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119689

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D supplementation and its impact on immunoregulation are widely investigated. We aimed to assess the prevention and treatment efficiency of vitamin D supplementation in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and any disease-related complications. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, medRxiv, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, and ClinicalTrial.gov) for studies published between 1 November 2019 and 17 September 2021. We considered randomized trials (RCTs) as potentially eligible when patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and received vitamin D supplementation versus a placebo or standard-of-care control. A random-effects model was implemented to obtain pooled odds ratios for the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the main outcome of mortality as well as clinical outcomes. We identified a total of 5,733 articles, of which eight RCTs (657 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Although no statistically significant effects were reached, the use of vitamin D supplementation showed a trend for reduced mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-1.71, p = 0.48] compared with the control group, with even stronger effects, when vitamin D was administered repeatedly (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.1-1.14). The mean difference for the length of hospitalization was -0.28 (95% CI -0.60 to 0.04), and the ORs were 0.41 (95% CI 0.15-1.12) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.27-1.02) for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, respectively. In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation did not improve the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, but trends of beneficial effects were observed. Further investigations are required, especially studies focusing on the daily administration of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19397, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119266

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has long been associated with reduced immune function that can lead to viral infection. Several studies have shown that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increases the risk of infection with COVID-19. However, it is unknown if treatment with Vitamin D can reduce the associated risk of COVID-19 infection, which is the focus of this study. In the population of US veterans, we show that Vitamin D2 and D3 fills were associated with reductions in COVID-19 infection of 28% and 20%, respectively [(D3 Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.80, [95% CI 0.77, 0.83]), D2 HR = 0.72, [95% CI 0.65, 0.79]]. Mortality within 30-days of COVID-19 infection was similarly 33% lower with Vitamin D3 and 25% lower with D2 (D3 HR = 0.67, [95% CI 0.59, 0.75]; D2 HR = 0.75, [95% CI 0.55, 1.04]). We also find that after controlling for vitamin D blood levels, veterans receiving higher dosages of Vitamin D obtained greater benefits from supplementation than veterans receiving lower dosages. Veterans with Vitamin D blood levels between 0 and 19 ng/ml exhibited the largest decrease in COVID-19 infection following supplementation. Black veterans received greater associated COVID-19 risk reductions with supplementation than White veterans. As a safe, widely available, and affordable treatment, Vitamin D may help to reduce the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116054

ABSTRACT

Active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3-calcitriol] is a secosteroid hormone whose receptor is expressed on all cells of the immune system. Vitamin D has a global anti-inflammatory effect and its role in the management of a SARS-CoV-2 infection has been investigated since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this narrative review, the laboratory and clinical results of a vitamin D supplementation have been collected from both open-label and blinded randomized clinical trials. The results are generally in favor of the utility of maintaining the serum concentrations of calcifediol [25(OH)D3] at around 40 ng/mL and of the absolute usefulness of its supplementation in subjects with deficient serum levels. However, two very recent large-scale studies (one open-label, one placebo-controlled) have called into question the contribution of vitamin D to clinical practice in the era of COVID-19 vaccinations. The precise role of a vitamin D supplementation in the anti-COVID-19 armamentarium requires further investigations in light of the breakthrough which has been achieved with mass vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18604, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106462

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D as an immunomodulator has not been studied in patients with severe COVID-19. This study aimed to estimate the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation on cellular immunity and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial was conducted (N = 110). Patients were randomly assigned to receive a weekly oral dose of 60,000 IU of vitamin D3 followed by daily maintenance doses of 5000 IU (n = 55) or placebo (n = 55). Primary outcomes were lymphocyte counts, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and serum levels of inflammatory markers on 7th day of treatment. On day 7, patients in the vitamin D3 group displayed significantly higher NK and NKT cell counts and NLR than those in the placebo group did. The mortality rate (37% vs 50%, P = 0.16), need for mechanical ventilation (63% vs 69%, P = 0.58), incidence of nosocomial infection (60% vs 41%, P = 0.05) did not significantly differ between groups. Vitamin D3 supplementation, compared with placebo, significantly increased lymphocyte counts, but did not translate into reduced mortality in ICU.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05092698.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol , Humans , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Double-Blind Method , Dietary Supplements , Immunity, Cellular
8.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099677

ABSTRACT

Melatonin has become a popular dietary supplement, most known as a chronobiotic, and for establishing healthy sleep. Research over the last decade into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, fertility, PCOS, and many other conditions, combined with the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to greater awareness of melatonin because of its ability to act as a potent antioxidant, immune-active agent, and mitochondrial regulator. There are distinct similarities between melatonin and vitamin D in the depth and breadth of their impact on health. Both act as hormones, affect multiple systems through their immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory functions, are found in the skin, and are responsive to sunlight and darkness. In fact, there may be similarities between the widespread concern about vitamin D deficiency as a "sunlight deficiency" and reduced melatonin secretion as a result of "darkness deficiency" from overexposure to artificial blue light. The trend toward greater use of melatonin supplements has resulted in concern about its safety, especially higher doses, long-term use, and application in certain populations (e.g., children). This review aims to evaluate the recent data on melatonin's mechanisms, its clinical uses beyond sleep, safety concerns, and a thorough summary of therapeutic considerations concerning dietary supplementation, including the different formats available (animal, synthetic, and phytomelatonin), dosing, timing, contraindications, and nutrient combinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Animals , Antioxidants , Circadian Rhythm , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamins
10.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071659

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), millions of people have died, and the medical system has faced significant difficulties. Our purpose was to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of vitamin C on in-hospital mortality and the ICU or hospital length of stay for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies that evaluated the effect of vitamin C supplementation, compared with standard treatment in COVID-19 patients who are ≥18 y of age. Nineteen trials were included in the meta-analysis. In-hospital mortality with and without vitamin C supplementation was 24.1% vs. 33.9% (OR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.37 to 0.95; p = 0.03), respectively. Sub-analysis showed that, in randomized clinical trials, in-hospital mortality varied and amounted to 23.9% vs. 35.8% (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.25 to 0.76; p = 0.003), respectively. In the non-randomized trials, in-hospital mortality was 24.2% vs. 33.5% (OR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.38 to 1.39; p = 0.33), respectively. The ICU length of stay was longer in patients treated with vitamin C vs. standard therapy, 11.1 (7.3) vs. 8.3 (4.7) days (MD = 1.91; 95%CI: 0.89 to 2.93; p < 0.001), respectively. Acute kidney injury in patients treated with and without vitamin C varied and amounted to 27.8% vs. 45.0% (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.40 to 0.78; p < 0.001), respectively. There were no differences in the frequency of other adverse events among patients' treatment with and without vitamin C (all p > 0.05). The use of vitamin C reduces hospital mortality. The length of stay in the ICU is longer among patients treated with vitamin C. In terms of patient safety, vitamin C has an acceptable profile. Low doses of vitamin C are effective and safe. Despite some evidence of the usefulness of vitamin C in modifying the course of COVID-19, it is too early to modify guidelines and recommendations. Further studies, in particular randomized clinical trials, are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071516

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has an immune-modulating effect on respiratory tract infections. For this reason, it has been proposed as part of the treatment in COVID-19. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with worse clinical outcomes of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation modifies the disease course. Therefore, eleven studies involving randomised clinical trials are analysed, in which groups of COVID-19 patients with or without vitamin D supplementation as part of the treatment are compared. A control group was treated with best available therapy, and in some of the clinical trials, also with a placebo. According to the outcomes, it seems that patients benefit from receiving a daily or maintained in time vitamin D dose regardless of vitamin D serum levels at the beginning of the trial. The administration of a single vitamin D dose does not seem to have any effect on the health status of these patients. However, the outcomes are heterogeneous and larger clinical trials are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(9): 673-681, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067577

ABSTRACT

Background: Incomplete data are often presented for determining the role of vitamin A supplement therapy for improving treatment outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Aims: We compared treatment effects between a group that received vitamin A added to the standard COVID-19 treatment and another group that received the standard drug treatment alone. Methods: Participants in this triple-blind controlled trial comprised 182 COVID-19 outpatients in Saveh City, Markazi Province, Islamic Republic of Iran, in 2020. Patients were randomly divided into experimental (n = 91) and control (n = 91) groups. Patients in the control group received the national standard treatment for COVID-19 (hydroxychloroquine), and those in the intervention group received 25 000 IU/d oral vitamin A for 10 days in addition to the standard treatment recommended by the national protocol. We evaluated the clinical symptoms, paraclinical criteria, and hospitalization status before and after 10 days of interventions. Results: The treatment groups did not differ significantly in clinical and paraclinical symptoms before the intervention. However, clinical symptoms such as fever, body ache, weakness and fatigue, paraclinical symptoms, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein showed significantly greater decreases in the experimental group 10 days post-intervention compared with the standard treatment alone (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin A supplementation demonstrated efficacy in improving some clinical and paraclinical symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Future studies should evaluate vitamin A supplementation with a larger sample size and compare different dosages, especially in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin A/therapeutic use
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066143

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has increased in the general population and is a public health issue. Vitamin D plays an important role in regulating the immune system, e.g., by modulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. In most countries, the recommended maximal daily dose of vitamin D3 is 4000 IU (100 µg) per day. In this study, we investigated whether a single vitamin D3 bolus can reduce the levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 6, IL8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) within one month. Fifty healthy Saudi males were recruited from the local community in Jeddah city and were orally supplemented with a single dose of 80,000 IU vitamin D3. Serum samples were collected at time points 0, 1 and 30 days, and serum levels of IL6, IL8 and TNF, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO4-) were determined. On average, the vitamin D3 bolus resulted in a significant increase in vitamin D status as well as in a significant decrease in the levels of inflammatory cytokines even one month after supplementation without changing serum Ca2+, PO4- or lipid levels. In conclusion, single high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation is safe for reducing inflammation markers and may lead to an update of current recommendations for vitamin D intake, in order to prevent critical health problems.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D Deficiency , Biomarkers , Calcium , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Male , Parathyroid Hormone , Phosphates , Saudi Arabia , Triglycerides , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins
14.
Curr Rev Clin Exp Pharmacol ; 17(3): 205-215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are a primary cause of illness and mortality over the world. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation in preventing and treating respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We used the Cochrane, PubMed, and MEDLINE Ovid databases to conduct our search. The inclusion criteria were placebo-controlled trials. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to measure the pooled effects of vitamin C supplementation on the incidence, severity, and duration of respiratory illness. RESULTS: We found ten studies that met our inclusion criteria out of a total of 2758. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of developing respiratory illness when taking vitamin C regularly across the study period was 0.94 (with a 95% confidence interval of 0.87 to 1.01) which found that supplementing with vitamin C lowers the occurrence of illness. This effect, however, was statistically insignificant (P= 0.09). This study showed that vitamin C supplementation had no consistent effect on the severity of respiratory illness (SMD 0.14, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.30: I2 = 22%, P=0.09). However, our study revealed that vitamin C group had a considerably shorter duration of respiratory infection (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.09, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Benefits of normal vitamin C supplementation for reducing the duration of respiratory tract illness were supported by our meta-analysis findings. Since few trials have examined the effects of therapeutic supplementation, further research is needed in this area.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Respiratory Tract Infections , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Incidence , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
15.
Anticancer Res ; 42(10): 5027-5034, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056773

ABSTRACT

Official public health pronouncements about sun exposure and vitamin D can be summarized as follows: First, there is no such thing as a safe tan. Therefore, avoid exposing the skin to sunshine. Second, in the absence of sunshine, a daily intake of 800 IU/day (20 mcg/d) vitamin D or less is sufficient for the health needs of almost all members of the population. However, exposure of the skin to sunlight induces multiple mechanisms that lower blood pressure, while also initiating production of vitamin D, which is needed to produce a hormone that regulates multiple systems including the cellular biology that affects cancer mortality. Disease-prevention relationships point to a beneficial threshold for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; the index of vitamin D nutrition] that is at least 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). To ensure the threshold for all adults, an average per-day minimum total input of vitamin D3 from sunshine/UVB exposure, and/or from food (natural food like fish or fortified food like milk), and/or vitamin supplementation of at least 4,000 IU/d (100 mcg/d) is required. Strong, although not Level-1, evidence indicates that the maintenance of that threshold will lower mortality overall, lower mortality from cancer, and lower the risk of certain other diseases such as respiratory infection and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Vitamin D Deficiency , Animals , Cholecalciferol , Dietary Supplements , Hormones , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Public Health , Sunlight/adverse effects , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
16.
Anticancer Res ; 42(10): 5009-5015, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056772

ABSTRACT

A symposium entitled "Vitamin D in Prevention and Therapy" was held on May 4-5, 2022, in Homburg, Germany to discuss important new advances in the field, including identification of new vitamin D signaling pathways, of new biologic effects of vitamin D-compounds (e.g., on the microbiome), and convincing proof of the relevance of vitamin D deficiency for the risk and outcome of many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardio-vascular, auto-immune, metabolic, and infectious diseases. Concerning the COVID-19-pandemic, an inverse association between 25(OH)D serum concentrations and SARS-CoV-2-infections, morbidity, and mortality was shown. In relation to cancer, several meta-analyses recently demonstrated an association of vitamin D-supplementation with significantly decreased mortality rates, which presumably would reduce health care costs. Considering the impressive body of evidence and the high safety of oral supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D, it was concluded that there is now an urgent need to act. In many countries worldwide, health care authorities need to increase efforts to address vitamin D deficiency, e.g., via food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D, and/or promoting moderate UV-exposure. It was estimated that in many countries, vitamin D intakes of the order of appr. 1,000 IE (25 µg)/day would be needed to bring and/or keep the vast majority of people over a serum 25(OH)D threshold of 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), which would be difficult to obtain alone from food fortification. New developments in personalized medicine may represent helpful tools to identify populations at risk for vitamin D deficiency and their responsiveness to vitamin D treatment.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Food, Fortified , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamins
17.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043873

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to associate with the impaired development of antigen-specific responses following vaccination. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplements might boost the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by conducting three sub-studies nested within the CORONAVIT randomised controlled trial, which investigated the effects of offering vitamin D supplements at a dose of 800 IU/day or 3200 IU/day vs. no offer on risk of acute respiratory infections in UK adults with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <75 nmol/L. Sub-study 1 (n = 2808) investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Sub-study 2 (n = 1853) investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on titres of combined IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) anti-Spike antibodies in eluates of dried blood spots collected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Sub-study 3 (n = 100) investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on neutralising antibody and cellular responses in venous blood samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. In total, 1945/2808 (69.3%) sub-study 1 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca); the remainder received two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer). Mean follow-up 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly elevated in the 800 IU/day vs. no-offer group (82.5 vs. 53.6 nmol/L; mean difference 28.8 nmol/L, 95% CI 22.8-34.8) and in the 3200 IU/day vs. no offer group (105.4 vs. 53.6 nmol/L; mean difference 51.7 nmol/L, 45.1-58.4). Vitamin D supplementation did not influence the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated participants (800 IU/day vs. no offer: adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.84; 3200 IU/day vs. no offer: 1.17, 0.81 to 1.70). Neither did it influence IgGAM anti-Spike titres, neutralising antibody titres or IFN-γ concentrations in the supernatants of S peptide-stimulated whole blood. In conclusion, vitamin D replacement at a dose of 800 or 3200 IU/day effectively elevated 25(OH)D concentrations, but it did not influence the protective efficacy or immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination when given to adults who had a sub-optimal vitamin D status at baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , Vitamin D , Vitamins
18.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043872

ABSTRACT

Although observational studies of health outcomes generally suggest beneficial effects with, or following, higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have generally not supported those findings. Here we review results from observational studies and RCTs regarding how vitamin D status affects several nonskeletal health outcomes, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia, autoimmune diseases, cancers, cardiovascular disease, COVID-19, major depressive disorder, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, all-cause mortality, respiratory tract infections, and pregnancy outcomes. We also consider relevant findings from ecological, Mendelian randomization, and mechanistic studies. Although clear discrepancies exist between findings of observational studies and RCTs on vitamin D and human health benefits these findings should be interpreted cautiously. Bias and confounding are seen in observational studies and vitamin D RCTs have several limitations, largely due to being designed like RCTs of therapeutic drugs, thereby neglecting vitamin D's being a nutrient with a unique metabolism that requires specific consideration in trial design. Thus, RCTs of vitamin D can fail for several reasons: few participants' having low baseline 25(OH)D concentrations, relatively small vitamin D doses, participants' having other sources of vitamin D, and results being analyzed without consideration of achieved 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D status and its relevance for health outcomes can usefully be examined using Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system from results of observational and other types of studies before further RCTs are considered and those findings would be useful in developing medical and public health policy, as they were for nonsmoking policies. A promising approach for future RCT design is adjustable vitamin D supplementation based on interval serum 25(OH)D concentrations to achieve target 25(OH)D levels suggested by findings from observational studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043446
20.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(6): 1977-1992, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035139

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections have been reported in fully vaccinated persons. Furthermore, rebound symptoms have been reported following the new FDA granted emergency use to combat SARS-CoV-2. Glycyrrhizin (GR) and boswellic acids (BAs) combination has been shown to have highly successful actions against COVID-19 in our recent clinical trial. However, the study is limited by the small sample size, and therefore, the aim of this article is to comprehensively evaluate recent evidence on the efficacy of GR and BAs in preventing the development of COVID-19 in patients with mild and moderate infections and in preventing post-COVID-19 cognitive impairment, which is the most important symptom after recovery from Covid-19 disease. We have reviewed and discussed information published since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic until July 2022 on preclinical (in vivo, in vivo and bioinformatics) and clinical studies related to the antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of Gr and BAs. Sixteen studies were performed to determine the efficacy of GR against SARS-CoV-2. Ten studies were used primarily for in vitro and in vivo assays and six used molecular docking studies. However, the antiviral activity of BAs against SARS-CoV-2 was determined in only five studies using molecular modeling and bioinformatics. All these studies confirmed that GR n and BAs have strong antiviral activity and can be used as a therapeutic agent for COVID-19 and as a protective agent against SARS-CoV-2. They may act by inhibiting the main protease SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) responsible for replication and blocking spike protein-mediated cell entry. Only seven rigorously designed clinical trials regarding the usefulness of GR, BAs or their combinations in the treatment of COVID-19 have been published as of July 2022. Although there is no clinical study regarding the treatment of cognitive impairment after COVID-19 that has been published so far, several preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential effect of GR and BAs in the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment by inhibiting the activity of several molecules that activate inflammatory signaling pathway. In conclusion, the findings of our study documented the beneficial use of GR and BAs to treat SARS-CoV-2 and its variants and prevent post-COVID cognitive impairment. However, it warrants further studies with a larger randomized sample size to ensure that the studies have sufficient evidence of benefits against COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents , Dietary Supplements
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