Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 311
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 717816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595671

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin C has been reported to have beneficial effects on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on pathological parameters and survival duration of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 120 hospitalized critically ill patients infected with COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 31) received one capsule of 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 69) received the same nutrition except for vitamin C supplements. Measurement of pathological and biochemical parameters was performed at baseline and after 2 weeks of the intervention. Results: Following 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation, the level of serum K was significantly lower in the patients compared with the control group (3.93 vs. 4.21 mEq/L, p < 0.01). Vitamin C supplementation resulted in a higher mean survival duration compared with that of the control group (8 vs. 4 days, p < 0.01). There was a linear association between the number of days of vitamin C intake and survival duration (B = 1.66, p < 0.001). The vitamin C supplementation had no effect on blood glucose, mean arterial pressure, arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), kidney function, cell blood count (CBC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), albumin, hematocrit (Hct), and other serum electrolytes including sodium (Na), calcium, and phosphorus (P). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the potential of vitamin C supplementation in enhancing the survival duration of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.irct.ir/trial/55074, identifier IRCT20151226025699N5.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935379, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate outcomes and hospitalization rates in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of early COVID-19 treated at home with prescribed and non-prescribed treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of a cohort of 158 Italian patients with early COVID-19 treated at home were analyzed. Treatments consisted of indomethacin, low-dose aspirin, omeprazole, and a flavonoid-based food supplement, plus azithromycin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and betamethasone as needed. The association of treatment timeliness and of clinical variables with the duration of symptoms and with the risk of hospitalization was evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=85) was treated at the earliest possible time (<72 h from onset of symptoms), and group 2 (n=73) was treated >72 h after the onset of symptoms. Clinical severity at the beginning of treatment was similar in the 2 groups. In group 1, symptom duration was shorter than in group 2 (median 6.0 days vs 13.0 days, P<0.001) and no hospitalizations occurred, compared with 19.18% hospitalizations in group 2. One patient in group 1 developed chest X-ray alterations and 2 patients experienced an increase in D-dimer levels, compared with 30 and 22 patients, respectively, in group 2. The main factor determining the duration of symptoms and the risk of hospitalization was the delay in starting therapy (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS This real-world study of patients in the community showed that early diagnosis and early supportive patient management reduced the severity of COVID-19 and reduced the rate of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements , Early Diagnosis , Female , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Time , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580697

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have afflicted human health and despite great advancements in scientific knowledge and technologies, continue to affect our society today. The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has put a spotlight on the need to review the evidence on the impact of nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy immune system, particularly in instances where there are limited therapeutic treatments. Selenium, an essential trace element in humans, has a long history of lowering the occurrence and severity of viral infections. Much of the benefits derived from selenium are due to its incorporation into selenocysteine, an important component of proteins known as selenoproteins. Viral infections are associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and may result in oxidative stress. Studies suggest that selenium deficiency alters immune response and viral infection by increasing oxidative stress and the rate of mutations in the viral genome, leading to an increase in pathogenicity and damage to the host. This review examines viral infections, including the novel SARS-CoV-2, in the context of selenium, in order to inform potential nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy immune system.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selenium/immunology , Selenium/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/diet therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Selenium/deficiency , Selenoproteins/physiology
4.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Health Promotion/methods , Life Style , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551616

ABSTRACT

A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 72 volunteers who received a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique ß-1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of heat-treated probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc (ABB C1®) or placebo on the next day after getting vaccinated against influenza (Chiromas®) (n = 34) or the COVID-19 (Comirnaty®) (n = 38). The duration of treatment was 30 and 35 days for the influenza and COVID-19 vaccine groups, respectively. Mean levels of CD4+T cells increased from 910.7 at baseline to 1000.2 cells/µL after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in the ABB C1® group, whereas there was a decrease from 1055.1 to 929.8 cells/µL in the placebo group. Changes of CD3+T and CD8+T lymphocytes showed a similar trend. In the COVID-19 cohort, the increases in both IgG and IgM were higher in the ABB C1® supplement than in the placebo group. Serum levels of selenium and zinc showed a higher increase in subjects treated with the active product than in those receiving placebo. No serious adverse events related to ABB C1® or tolerance issues were reported. The study findings validate the capacity of the ABB C1® product to stimulate trained immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Selenium/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , beta-Glucans/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Selenium/immunology , Zinc/immunology , beta-Glucans/immunology
6.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 68(3): 393-398, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547880

ABSTRACT

The time of COVID-19 pandemic focused the attention of scientist to recognise the complex medical symptoms of the disease, modes of infection and possible therapies. The organisms' response towards SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on many individual factors and the course of disease is described as unprecedented and complex. Numerous symptoms from the respiratory system, abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract, stroke, liver damage and coagulopathy, among others, are accompanied by negative side effects of the pandemic lifestyle, including immunity depletion, overall fitness impairment, skin condition worsening, psychological and psychiatric consequences. There is an urgent need to seek all possible routes for assuring favouring conditions to build and support the organisms' microbiological barriers and enhance immunity, which will also help during the ongoing vaccination action. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and environmental Bacillus species are microorganisms typically found in food products or dietary supplements, but also applied on body surfaces or technological surfaces at home and in the industry. Since the contemporary definition of probiotics points to positive health effects, it is of highest importance to follow strict regulations and standards of product manufacturing, especially in the times of biohazard risks and rising public distrust of therapies. There is an urgent need to seek all possible routes for assuring the favouring conditions to build and support the organisms' microbiological barriers and enhance the immunity, that will serve also during the ongoing vaccination action. Probiotic LAB and environmental Bacillus species are microorganisms typically found in food products or dietary supplements, but also applied on body surface or technological surfaces in household and industry. Since the contemporary definition of probiotics points out the positive health effects, it is of highest importance to follow strict regulations and standards of product manufacturing, especially in the times of biohazard and rising public distrust of therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Probiotics/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Dietary Supplements , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542691

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on how nutrition may help prevent and/or assist with recovery from the harmful effects of strenuous acute exercise and physical training (decreased immunity, organ injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fatigue), with a focus on nutritional supplements. First, the effects of ketogenic diets on metabolism and inflammation are considered. Second, the effects of various supplements on immune function are discussed, including antioxidant defense modulators (vitamin C, sulforaphane, taheebo), and inflammation reducers (colostrum and hyperimmunized milk). Third, how 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate monohydrate (HMB) may offset muscle damage is reviewed. Fourth and finally, the relationship between exercise, nutrition and COVID-19 infection is briefly mentioned. While additional verification of the safety and efficacy of these supplements is still necessary, current evidence suggests that these supplements have potential applications for health promotion and disease prevention among athletes and more diverse populations.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Athletes , Dietary Supplements , Exercise/immunology , Oxidative Stress , Physical Endurance , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Physical Endurance/drug effects , Physical Endurance/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sports Nutritional Sciences
8.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 276-292, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry for studies listed from database inception to May 1, 2020. Double-blind RCTs of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation for any duration, with a placebo or low-dose vitamin D control, were eligible if they had been approved by a research ethics committee, and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Studies reporting results of long-term follow-up of primary RCTs were excluded. Aggregated study-level data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration and age, were obtained from study authors. Using the proportion of participants in each trial who had one or more ARIs, we did a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs (primary outcome) compared with placebo. Subgroup analyses were done to estimate whether the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25(OH)D concentration (<25 nmol/L vs 25·0-49·9 nmol/L vs 50·0-74·9 nmol/L vs >75·0 nmol/L), vitamin D dose (daily equivalent of <400 international units [IU] vs 400-1000 IU vs 1001-2000 IU vs >2000 IU), dosing frequency (daily vs weekly vs once per month to once every 3 months), trial duration (≤12 months vs >12 months), age at enrolment (<1·00 years vs 1·00-15·99 years vs 16·00-64·99 years vs ≥65·00 years), and presence versus absence of airway disease (ie, asthma only, COPD only, or unrestricted). Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. The study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190633. FINDINGS: We identified 1528 articles, of which 46 RCTs (75 541 participants) were eligible. Data for the primary outcome were obtained for 48 488 (98·1%) of 49 419 participants (aged 0-95 years) in 43 studies. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the vitamin D supplementation group had one or more ARIs (14 332 [61·3%] of 23 364 participants) than in the placebo group (14 217 [62·3%] of 22 802 participants), with an OR of 0·92 (95% CI 0·86-0·99; 37 studies; I2=35·6%, pheterogeneity=0·018). No significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs was observed for any of the subgroups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects of supplementation were observed in trials in which vitamin D was given in a daily dosing regimen (OR 0·78 [95% CI 0·65-0·94]; 19 studies; I2=53·5%, pheterogeneity=0·003), at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (0·70 [0·55-0·89]; ten studies; I2=31·2%, pheterogeneity=0·16), for a duration of 12 months or less (0·82 [0·72-0·93]; 29 studies; I2=38·1%, pheterogeneity=0·021), and to participants aged 1·00-15·99 years at enrolment (0·71 [0·57-0·90]; 15 studies; I2=46·0%, pheterogeneity=0·027). No significant interaction between allocation to the vitamin D supplementation group versus the placebo group and dose, dose frequency, study duration, or age was observed. In addition, no significant difference in the proportion of participants who had at least one serious adverse event in the vitamin supplementation group compared with the placebo group was observed (0·97 [0·86-1·07]; 36 studies; I2=0·0%, pheterogeneity=0·99). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. INTERPRETATION: Despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials, vitamin D supplementation was safe and overall reduced the risk of ARI compared with placebo, although the risk reduction was small. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU for up to 12 months, and age at enrolment of 1·00-15·99 years. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires further investigation. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/diet therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 802, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Because of the effect of vitamins on modulating the immune system function, we have evaluated the effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E in ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study was a randomized and single-blinded clinical trial in which 60 subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group (n=30) received vitamins, and the control group did not receive any vitamin or placebo. The intervention was included 25,000 IU daily of vitamins A, 600,000 IU once during the study of D, 300 IU twice daily of E, 500 mg four times daily of C, and one amp daily of B complex for 7 days. At baseline and after the 7-day intervention, the serum levels of inflammatory markers, vitamins, and the SOFA score were assessed. In addition, the mortality rate and duration of hospitalization were evaluated after the intervention (IRCT registration number: IRCT20200319046819N1/registration date: 2020-04-04, https://www.irct.ir/trial/46838 ). RESULTS: Significant changes were detected in serum levels of vitamins (p < 0.001 for all vitamins), ESR (p < 0.001), CRP (p = 0.001), IL6 (p = 0.003), TNF-a (p = 0.001), and SOFA score (p < 0.001) after intervention compared with the control group. The effect of vitamins on the mortality rate was not statistically significant (p=0.112). The prolonged hospitalization rate to more than 7 days was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p=0.001). Regarding the effect size, there was a significant and inverse association between receiving the intervention and prolonged hospitalization (OR = 0.135, 95% CI 0.038-0.481; p=0.002); however, after adjusting for confounders, it was not significant (OR=0.402, 95% CI 0.086-1.883; p=0.247). CONCLUSION: Supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E could improve the inflammatory response and decrease the severity of disease in ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamins , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamins/adverse effects
11.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 89, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The associations between vitamin D and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and clinical outcomes are controversial. The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 is also not clear. METHODS: We identified relevant cohort studies that assessed the relationship between vitamin D, COVID-19 infection and associated death and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported vitamin D supplementation on the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and medRxiv databases up to June 5th, 2021. Evidence quality levels and recommendations were assessed using the GRADE system. RESULTS: Eleven cohort studies with 536,105 patients and two RCTs were identified. Vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/ml) or insufficiency (< 30 ng/ml) was not associated with an significant increased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR for < 20 ng/ml: 1.61, 95% CI: 0.92-2.80, I2 = 92%) or in-hospital death (OR for < 20 ng/ml: 2.18, 95% CI: 0.91-5.26, I2 = 72%; OR for < 30 ng/ml: 3.07, 95% CI: 0.64-14.78, I2 = 66%). Each 10 ng/ml increase in serum vitamin D was not associated with a significant decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.79-1.08, I2 = 98%) or death (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.40-1.06, I2 = 79%). The overall quality of evidence (GRADE) for COVID-19 infection and associated death was very low. Vitamin D supplements did not significantly decrease death (OR: 0.57, I2 = 64%) or ICU admission (OR: 0.14, I2 = 90%) in patients with COVID-19. The level of evidence as qualified using GRADE was low. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggested that vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was not significantly linked to susceptibility to COVID-19 infection or its associated death. Vitamin D supplements did not significantly improve clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. The overall GRADE evidence quality was low, we suggest that vitamin D supplementation was not recommended for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , GRADE Approach , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476477

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While the use of folic acid pre-pregnancy and iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and postnatal have been demonstrated to be effective and are recommended interventions by WHO, ensuring individuals adhere to the supplementation regimen can be a challenge. Self-care interventions that support an individual's ability to promote their own health with or without the support of health workers could help promote the uptake and adherence to supplementation. This systematic review assessed the evidence around self-management of IFA or folic acid supplementation accessed over-the-counter during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and postnatal periods. METHODS: Peer-reviewed studies were included if they compared self-management of IFA or folic acid supplementation with health worker-initiated supplement use on maternal and/or fetal and newborn health outcomes, end-users' or health workers' values and preferences, or cost and/or cost-effectiveness. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and EMBASE for articles published through November 2020, hand-searched clinical trial registries, reviewed databases and contacted experts in the field. Abstract screening and full-text review were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Overall, 2344 results were identified, and 28 studies were identified for full-text review. All studies were excluded, as they were not primary research, lacked the outcomes of interest, lacked specificity in supplement type, and/or lacked a comparison group. CONCLUSION: No evidence was identified that distinguishes self-management of folic acid supplements pre-pregnancy and of IFA supplements during pregnancy and postnatal, highlighting a gap in our current understanding of self-care related to dietary supplementation in pregnancy. The findings of this review identify an area for further research to support the current movement towards self-care interventions as an added choice to help individuals more fully attain their reproductive health and rights. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020205548.


Subject(s)
Iron , Self-Management , Dietary Supplements , Female , Folic Acid , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114738, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466608

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal importance and potential activity of Siddha herbal formulations have proved over several centuries against a wide range of causative agents as Influenza, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Tuberculosis. The traditional medicine system of Siddha is a valuable therapeutic approach for treating viral respiratory infections like Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be effectively employed to target the host response and preventive care to boost the immune system. Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK), an official polyherbal formulation has been used in Siddha traditional medicine for centuries. However, the role of KSK in regulating inflammation and the underlying molecular mechanisms has remained elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of KSK using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used for this study. The Inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The NF-κB nulcear translocation and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was analyzed with westernblot. RESULTS: KSK supplementation decreased LPS mediated TLR-4 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE-2. Moreover, it inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and thereby inhibited the expression of iNOS in the cell. The Western blot analysis further confirmed that KSK strongly prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IκB which is normally required for the activation of NF-κB and hereby suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was significantly decreased with the presence of KSK treatment. Results suggested that KSK manipulates its anti-inflammatory effects mainly through blocking the TLR mediated NF-κB signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study has proven that KSK could be a potential therapeutic drug for alleviating excessive inflammation in many inflammation-associated diseases like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Mice , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463752

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Vitamin D, in addition to its effect on mineral homeostasis, plays a key role in muscle metabolism. Vitamin D supplementation is involved in muscle recovery after damage as a consequence of either pathology or after high-intensity exercise. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vitamin D on muscle fitness in elderly patients in the recovery phase after SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was conducted at the Soria Norte Health Center. The study consisted of a double-blind trial with two groups of men (placebo and vitamin D-supplemented) (n = 15/group). Treatment with vitamin D (cholecalciferol: 2000 IU/day) and placebo was carried out for 6 weeks. Circulating hematological and biochemical parameters (total protein, glucose, vitamin D, urea, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, alanine aminotransferase/glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and myoglobin) and the hormones cortisol and testosterone were determined. As for respiratory function tests, FEV1 and respiratory flow were also studied. For physical fitness tests, the "six-minute walk test" (6MWT) was used. Results: After vitamin D supplementation, we observed that serum creatine kinase levels returned to optimal values. This change suggests a protective role of vitamin D against muscle catabolism compared to placebo. In terms of physical test results, we observed only slight non-significant improvements, although patients reported feeling better. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation produces decreases in indicators of muscle damage, which may ultimately contribute to improving the health status and quality of life of patients who have suffered from COVID-19, during the recovery process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Muscles , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 758347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463526

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study aim was to assess the association of vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and severe outcomes in subjects admitted for COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pseudonymised medical record data from subjects admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona, Spain) for COVID-19 during March and April 2020. The composite primary study outcome was defined as death and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Association between risk factors and study outcomes was evaluated by bivariate analysis, followed by logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 1,267 persons were hospitalised during the observation period. Overall, 14.9% of the subjects were on active vitamin D supplementation treatment before admission. The subjects in the vitamin D group were significantly older than subjects without vitamin D supplementation. We observed higher rates of the primary outcome (death and/or IMV) among the persons with previous use of vitamin D (30.1 vs. 22.9% in those not receiving treatment). In the bivariate analysis, previous use of vitamin D was positively associated with death and/or IMV [odds ratio (OR): 1.45 95% CI: 1.03; 2.04]; however, after adjustment for other risk factors this association disappeared (OR: 1.09 95%CI: 0.65; 1.81). Conclusion: We did not find an association between vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and death and/or IMV in subjects admitted for COVID-19. The age and the burden of age-associated comorbidities were independently associated with the in-hospital events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 699389, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450805

ABSTRACT

The impact of zinc (Zn) sufficiency/supplementation on COVID-19-associated mortality and incidence (SARS-CoV-2 infections) remains unknown. During an infection, the levels of free Zn are reduced as part of "nutritional immunity" to limit the growth and replication of pathogen and the ensuing inflammatory damage. Considering its key role in immune competency and frequently recorded deficiency in large sections of different populations, Zn has been prescribed for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes in COVID-19 without any corroborating evidence for its protective role. Multiple trials are underway evaluating the effect of Zn supplementation on COVID-19 outcome in patients getting standard of care treatment. However, the trial designs presumably lack the power to identify negative effects of Zn supplementation, especially in the vulnerable groups of elderly and patients with comorbidities (contributing 9 out of 10 deaths; up to >8,000-fold higher mortality). In this study, we have analyzed COVID-19 mortality and incidence (case) data from 23 socially similar European populations with comparable confounders (population: 522.47 million; experiencing up to >150-fold difference in death rates) and at the matching stage of the pandemic (March 12 to June 26, 2020; first wave of COVID-19 incidence and mortality). Our results suggest a positive correlation between populations' Zn-sufficiency status and COVID-19 mortality [r (23): 0.7893-0.6849, p-value < 0.0003] as well as incidence [r (23):0.8084-0.5658; p-value < 0.005]. The observed association is contrary to what would be expected if Zn sufficiency was protective in COVID-19. Thus, controlled trials or retrospective analyses of the adverse event patients' data should be undertaken to correctly guide the practice of Zn supplementation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zinc/blood , Zinc/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051230, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443604

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and vitamin D deficiency are major public health problems. According to the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity as well as the bidirectional relationship between obesity and vitamin D metabolism and storage, vitamin D supplementation in obese and overweight subjects could have beneficial effects on the energy and metabolic homoeostasis. This review will assess the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on the energy and metabolic homoeostasis in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols, we retrieved the relevant literature from the following electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from inception to June 2021. A manual search of the reference lists of all the relevant research articles will be performed to identify additional studies. We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English that examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on energy and metabolic homoeostasis in overweight and obese subjects. RCTs with multiple vitamin D groups will also be included. Two reviewers will independently complete the article selection, data extraction and rating. The bias tool from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. A narrative or quantitative synthesis will be performed based on the available data. The planned start and end dates for the study were 1 February 2021 and 1 March 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for this review. The results of this review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021228981.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Overweight , Dietary Supplements , Homeostasis , Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vitamin D
20.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Zinc and copper are important to protect cells from oxidative stress and to enhance immunity. An association between low zinc levels and the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome has been shown for people with COVID-19. We aimed to study serum zinc and copper concentrations in people with severe COVID-19 and zinc supplementation in parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Thirty-five people with COVID-19 in need of PN were studied in a retrospective design. Serum samples were collected at three time points: at the start of PN, between 3 and 7 d after, and at the end of PN. RESULTS: Participants were on PN for a mean of 14 d, with a mean (± SD) daily supplemental zinc of 14.8 ± 3.7 mg/d. Serum zinc increased during PN administration from 98.8 ± 22.8 to 114.1 ± 23.3 µg/dL (Wilks' λ = 0.751, F = 5.459, P = 0.009). Conversely, serum copper did not vary from baseline (107.9 ± 34.2 µg/dL) to the end of the study (104.5 ± 37.4 µg/dL, Wilks' λ = 0.919, F = 1.453, P = 0.248). Serum zinc within the first week after starting PN and at the end of PN inversely correlated with total hospital stay (r = -0.413, P = 0.014, and r = -0.386, P = 0.022, respectively). Participants in critical condition presented lower serum copper (z = 2.615, P = 0.007). Mortality was not associated with supplemental zinc or with serum zinc or copper concentrations at any time of the study (P > 0.1 for all analyses). CONCLUSIONS: Serum zinc concentrations during PN support were inversely associated with length of hospital stay but not with mortality. Serum copper concentrations were lower in participants in critical condition but not associated with prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Copper , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...