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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(21): e33883, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237573

ABSTRACT

Since 2020, COVID-19 has affected the entire world. Various dietary supplements/herbal foods are recommended to protect against and/or treat COVID-19 through social media and conventional media platforms, although their effects are unproven. Hence, this study aimed to investigate dietary supplementation and/or herbal food consumption habits intended to protect against and/or treat COVID-19, as well as common thoughts and beliefs about these products during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted as an online survey via the "SurveyMonkey" platform between June and December 2021. Participants were invited to participate in the study via social media (Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp) and the questionnaire was administered online. A total of 1767 participants were confirmed to be eligible. Overall, 35.3% used dietary supplements/herbal foods for protection against COVID-19 and 67.1% used them for treatment. Most believed that certain dietary supplements/herbal foods have an effect on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. According to the COVID-19 infection status, participants differed in their opinions regarding the protective effects of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19 (P = .02). It is important to raise public awareness of this issue and to avoid the unnecessary use of dietary supplements before sufficient evidence has been presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Habits
2.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234826

ABSTRACT

Social media is a popular source of nutrition information and can influence food choice. Instagram is widely used in Australia, and nutrition is frequently discussed on Instagram. However, little is known about the content of nutrition information published on Instagram. The aim of this study was to examine the content of nutrition-related posts from popular Australian Instagram accounts. Australian Instagram accounts with ≥100,000 followers, that primarily posted about nutrition, were identified. All posts from included accounts, from September 2020 to September 2021, were extracted and posts about nutrition were included. Post captions were analysed using Leximancer, a content analysis software, to identify concepts and themes. Text from each theme was read to develop a description and select illustrative quotes. The final sample included 10,964 posts from 61 accounts. Five themes were identified: (1) recipes; (2) food and nutrition practices; (3) body goals; (4) food literacy and (5) cooking at home. Recipes and practical information about nutrition and food preparation are popular on Instagram. Content about weight loss and physique-related goals is also popular and nutrition-related Instagram posts frequently include marketing of supplements, food and online programs. The popularity of nutrition-related content indicates that Instagram may be a useful health-promotion setting.


Subject(s)
Marketing , Social Media , Humans , Australia , Health Promotion , Food , Dietary Supplements , Nutritive Value
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233471

ABSTRACT

Despite progress on the Millennium and Sustainable Development Goals, significant public health challenges remain to address communicable and non-communicable diseases and health inequities. The Healthier Societies for Healthy Populations initiative convened by WHO's Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research; the Government of Sweden; and the Wellcome Trust aims to address these complex challenges. One starting point is to build understanding of the characteristics of successful government-led interventions to support healthier populations. To this end, this project explored five purposefully sampled, successful public health initiatives: front-of-package warnings on food labels containing high sugar, sodium or saturated fat (Chile); healthy food initiatives (trans fats, calorie labelling, cap on beverage size; New York); the alcohol sales and transport ban during COVID-19 (South Africa); the Vision Zero road safety initiative (Sweden) and establishment of the Thai Health Promotion Foundation. For each initiative a qualitative, semistructured one-on-one interview with a key leader was conducted, supplemented by a rapid literature scan with input from an information specialist. Thematic analysis of the five interviews and 169 relevant studies across the five examples identified facilitators of success including political leadership, public education, multifaceted approaches, stable funding and planning for opposition. Barriers included industry opposition, the complex nature of public health challenges and poor interagency and multisector co-ordination. Further examples building on this global portfolio will deepen understanding of success factors or failures over time in this critical area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Government , Health Status , Chile , Dietary Supplements
4.
Nutrients ; 15(5)2023 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232774

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to evaluate the effects of high-dose cholecalciferol (VD3) supplements (50,000 IU/week) on selected circulating cytokines associated with cytokine storms in adults with vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial, based in Jordan, included 50 participants receiving vitamin D3 supplements (50,000 IU/week) for 8 weeks; the exact number was assigned to the control group. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α), and leptin were measured in serum at baseline and 10 weeks (wash out: 2 weeks). Our results revealed that vitamin D3 supplementation significantly increased the serum levels of 25OHD, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, and leptin compared with baseline. In contrast, the serum level of TNF-α insignificantly increased in the group receiving vitamin D3 supplementation. Although the observations of this trial may refer to a potential negative effect of VD3 supplementation during cytokine storms, further trials are required to clarify the potential benefits of VD3 supplement during cytokine storms.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Cytokines , Leptin , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D , Double-Blind Method
5.
Molecules ; 28(10)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232256

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the scientific evidence investigating selenium's relationship with COVID-19, aiming to support, or refute, the growing hypothesis that supplementation could prevent COVID-19 etiopathogenesis. In fact, immediately after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, several speculative reviews suggested that selenium supplementation in the general population could act as a silver bullet to limit or even prevent the disease. Instead, a deep reading of the scientific reports on selenium and COVID-19 that are available to date supports neither the specific role of selenium in COVID-19 severity, nor the role of its supplementation in the prevention disease onset, nor its etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Humans , Selenium/therapeutic use , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements
6.
Women Health ; 63(6): 454-463, 2023 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242699

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the correlation between mothers' COVID-19 fears and their attitudes toward feeding their children and using food supplements. The mothers of 312 children aged 3-6 years participated in this study. Data were collected online using the Descriptive Characteristics Form for Children and Their Families, the Questionnaire Form on Food Supplement Use, the Mother's Attitudes Toward the Feeding Process Scale (MAFPS), and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. During the pandemic, 58.9% of children used food supplements. Of these, 38.7% used vitamins/multivitamins, 39.4% used food supplements to strengthen their immunity against the disease, and 23.8% of mothers stated that the food supplement was effective in preventing COVID-19. As the fear of coronavirus increased, the mothers' attitudes toward feeding their children were negatively affected. The mothers' fears of COVID-19 negatively affected their attitudes toward feeding their children by 24.0%. Therefore, nurses should ask whether mothers use food supplements for their children during the pandemic period and inform those who use them about the effects and possible side effects of using this method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Attitude , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241372

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency appeared as a worldwide pandemic markedly earlier than the COVID-19 pandemic was announced in global media [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Vitamins , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(4): 1619-1625, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327675

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in relieving dry eye symptoms and signs in symptomatic visual display terminal users (VDT). Methods: A randomized controlled study was done; eyes of 470 VDT users were randomized to receive four capsules twice daily for 6 months (O3FAgroup), each containing 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid. The O3FA group was compared with another group (n = 480) who received four capsules of a placebo (olive oil) twice daily. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The primary outcome was improvement in omega-3 index (a measure of EPA and DHA ratio in RBC membrane). Secondary outcomes were improvement dry eye symptoms, Nelson grade on conjunctival impression cytology, Schirmer test values, tear film breakup time (TBUT), and tear film osmolarity. Means of groups (pre-treatment, 1, 3, and 6-months) were compared with repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: At baseline, 81% patients had low omega-3 index. In the O3FA group, a significant increase in omega-3 index, improvement in symptoms, reduction in tear film osmolarity, and increase in Schirmer, TBUT, and goblet cell density was observed. These changes were not significant in the placebo group. Improvement in test parameters was significantly (P < 0.001) better in patients with low omega3 index (<4%) subgroup. Conclusion: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids are effective for dry eye in VDT users; omega-3 index appears to be the predictor to identify potential dry eye patients who are likely to benefit from oral omega-3 dietary intervention.


Subject(s)
Dry Eye Syndromes , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Conjunctiva , Tears
9.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28784, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326406

ABSTRACT

Several studies have shown a possible correlation between gut microbiota and COVID-19. However, the cause-and-effect relationship between the two has not been investigated. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization study (MR) study using publicly available GWAS data. Inverse variance weighted (IVW) analysis was the main MR analysis technique and was supplemented with other sensitivity analyses. Forty-two bacterial genera were associated with COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization, and severity in the IVW method. Among these gut microbiota, five gut microbiota (genus unknowngenus [id.1000005472], family unknownfamily [id.1000005471], genus Tyzzerella3, order MollicutesRF9.id.11579, and phylum Actinobacteria) were significantly associated with COVID-19 hospitalization and severity. Three gut microbiota (class Negativicutes, order Selenomonadales, and class Actinobacteria) were significantly associated with COVID-19 hospitalization and susceptibility, while two microbiota (class Negativicutes and order Selenomonadales) were significantly associated with COVID-19 hospitalization and severity, and susceptibility. Sensitivity analysis did not detect any heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy. Our findings demonstrated that several microorganisms were causally linked to COVID-19, and improved our understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Dietary Supplements , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(1): 137-144, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321424

ABSTRACT

Spirulina, a blue-green microalga is an eminent functional food due to its unique nutritional and disease-mitigating properties. The main objective of this article is to present an overview of the nutritional composition of Spirulina. Along with its therapeutic potential and applications in the food industry. Studies included in this review have suggested spirulina to be a rich source of complete proteins, essential fatty acids (EFAs), vitamins, minerals and various bioactive compounds like carotenoids, chlorophyll, and xanthophylls. This makes Spirulina a promising functional food for the treatment of ailments like diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), COVID-19, neuroinflammatory conditions and gut dysbiosis. Additionally, data from numerous studies suggest its use in food formulations, primarily in sports supplements, bakery products, beverages, dairy products, snack sources and confectionaries. It has also been used by the National Aeronautics and Space Association (NASA) for astronauts on space missions to the Moon and Mars. Furthermore, spirulina's use as a natural food additive possesses enormous potential for further research. Owing to its high nutritional profile and disease-fighting potential, it lends itself to numerous food formulations. Therefore, based on the findings of previous studies, further progress can be made considering spirulina's application in the food additive industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spirulina , Humans , Functional Food , Spirulina/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Food Additives/metabolism
11.
Nutr J ; 22(1): 25, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the prior evidence of the impacts of sumac on glycemic indices, lipid profile and visceral fat, there is a lack of evidence regarding the efficacy of sumac in cases with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of sumac supplementation on MetS markers among adults with this syndrome. METHODS: In this triple-blinded randomized placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial 47 adults with MetS were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg sumac or placebo (lactose) capsule, twice a day. Each phase took 6 weeks and there was a 2-week washout between phases. All clinical evaluations and laboratory tests were conducted before and after each phase. RESULTS: At the baseline of the study, mean (± SD) age, weight, and waist circumference of participants were respectively 58.7 (± 5.8) yr, 79.9 (± 14.3) kg, and 107.6 (± 10.8) cm. Intention to treat analysis (ITT) analyses revealed that sumac supplementation decreased systolic blood pressure by 5 mmHg (128.8 ± 21.4 at the baseline vs. 123.2 ± 17.6 after 6 weeks intervention, P = 0.001). The comparison of changes in two trial arms showed that sumac supplementation significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (sumac group -5.59 ± 10.6 vs. control group 0.76 ± 10.5, P = 0.004), but did not change anthropometric indices or diastolic blood pressure. Similar results were also found in the per-protocol analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-over trial revealed that sumac supplementation could reduce systolic blood pressure in men and women with MetS. Daily intake of 1000 mg sumac, as an adjuvant therapy, may be beneficial in management of MetS in adults.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome , Rhus , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anthropometry , Blood Pressure , Dietary Supplements , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Cross-Over Studies
12.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323015

ABSTRACT

Despite the enormous global market of dietary supplements, the impact of dietary supplements on kidney disease is still unclear. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2015 to 2017, this study evaluated the association between dietary supplement and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 13,271 Korean adults. Among the dietary supplements, vitamin and mineral intake was the highest at 61.41%, followed by omega-3 fatty acids at 11.85%, and ginseng at 7.99%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in those who consumed amino acids and proteins, ginseng and red ginseng, and herbal medicine (plant extract)-berries than in those who did not. Conversely, patients who consumed probiotic supplements had a significantly lower prevalence of CKD than those who did not. In the population without CKD risk factors or history of CKD, the prevalence of CKD was high in the group consuming ginseng and red ginseng. After adjusting for covariates, the herbal medicine (plant extract)-berry group showed an independent association with CKD incidence. In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary supplements may affect kidney function. Further large-scale cohort studies are required to elucidate the exact effects of each dietary supplement on CKD.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Plant Extracts , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 56: 142-148, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319367

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There must be a perfect balance between Food and Dietary supplements (DS) to ensure optimal well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a webinar on the change in knowledge and attitude about the role of vitamins, minerals and DS among medical and nursing undergraduates so that they could bring about a positive change in popular practices, as well-informed Health Care Professionals (HCPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional analytical study comprising 12 knowledge and 11 attitude questions administered to medical and nursing undergraduates with the help of semi-structured and pre-validated google form both before and after a webinar explaining the role of key nutrients and also the evidence and recommendations surrounding DS. Data were analyzed using STATA.12 to assess the impact of the webinar. RESULTS: There were 415 participants, with 265 medical and 150 nursing students. There was a significant improvement both in the knowledge (4.95 (±1.45), 7.76 (±1.69) and attitude scores (pre-webinar mean score 31.8 (±5.57) post-webinar mean score 27.7 (±4.90))of the participants after the webinar. An overall positive correlation before the webinar changed to a more significant negative correlation, indicating a positive impact of the webinar (0.0054-0.0701). CONCLUSION: The study suggests that continuing education informing various HCPs and undergraduate students about the absolute necessity of a diet rich in nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics is the need of the hour. Additionally, the efficacy and safety concerns, appropriate indications and dosages of various DS should be adequately stressed so that informed decisions can be made. Such training programs might have a far-reaching impact on the nutrition choices of the population at large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamins , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tertiary Healthcare , Dietary Supplements , Minerals , Students , Vitamin A , Vitamin K , Hospitals, Teaching
15.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 20(1): 2206802, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation, sunlight radiationradiation, and home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on the seasonal changes in 25(OH)D concentration and selected biomarkers in young soccer players along a one-year training cycle. METHOD: Forty elite young soccer players (age: 17.2 ± 1.16 years, body mass: 70.2 ± 5.84, and body height: 179.1 ± 4.26 cm) participated in the research. Only 24 players completed the measurements during all four time- points (T1-: September 2019, T2-: December 2019, T3-: May 2020, and T4-: August 2020) and were divided into two subgroups: supplemented group (GS) and placebo group (GP). Players from GS received 5,000 IU of vitamin D for 8 weeks (January-MarchJanuary-March 2020). Several biomarkers such as 25(OH)D, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), muscle damage markersmarkers, and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: AnalysisThe analysis of the total group demonstrated significant seasonal changes in 25(OH)D, HGB, asparagine aminotransferaseaminotransferase, and creatine kinase along the one1-year training cycle. The level of 25(OH)D concentrationinconcentration in T4 was significantly (p < 0.001, pη [ = 0.82) higher in both subgroups in comparison to T2 and T3. Moreover, the significant (p = 0.023) but poor (r = -0.23) correlation between 25(OH)D and WBC was calculated. CONCLUSION: Current research confirmed the significant seasonal changes in 25(OH)D concentration during four seasons. 8-weekEight-week vitamin D supplementation had no extended effect on the level of 25(OH)D concentration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Soccer , Adolescent , Humans , Biomarkers , Dietary Supplements , Hemoglobins , Pandemics , Seasons , Soccer/physiology , Sunlight , Vitamin D , Vitamins
16.
Nutrients ; 15(9)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314708

ABSTRACT

Administering N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could counteract the effect of free radicals, improving the clinical evolution of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This study aimed to investigate the clinical and biochemical effects of administering NAC to critically ill patients with COVID-19. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on ICU patients (n = 140) with COVID-19 and divided into two groups: patients treated with NAC (NAC-treated group) and patients without NAC treatment (control group). NAC was administered as a continuous infusion with a loading dose and a maintenance dose during the study period (from admission until the third day of ICU stay). NAC-treated patients showed higher PaO2/FiO2 (p ≤ 0.014) after 3 days in ICU than their control group counterparts. Moreover, C-reactive protein (p ≤ 0.001), D-dimer (p ≤ 0.042), and lactate dehydrogenase (p ≤ 0.001) levels decreased on the third day in NAC-treated patients. Glutathione concentrations decreased in both NAC-treated (p ≤ 0.004) and control (p ≤ 0.047) groups after 3 days in ICU; whereas glutathione peroxidase did not change during the ICU stay. The administration of NAC manages to improve the clinical and analytical response of seriously ill patients with COVID-19 compared to the control group. NAC is able to stop the decrease in glutathione concentrations.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , COVID-19 , Humans , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Glutathione , Dietary Supplements
17.
Trials ; 22(1): 953, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a main health burden with several related comorbidities. It has been shown that endothelial function, vascular structure, and metabolic parameters are considerably disrupted in patients with type 1 diabetes. Omega-3 as an adjuvant therapy may exert profitable effects on type 1 diabetes and its complications by improving inflammation, oxidative stress, immune responses, and metabolic status. Because no randomized clinical trial has examined the effects of omega-3 consumption in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes; the present study aims to close this gap. METHODS: This investigation is a randomized clinical trial, in which sixty adolescents with type 1 diabetes will be randomly assigned to receive either omega-3 (600 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Evaluation of anthropometric parameters, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as an endothelial function marker, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a vascular structure marker, proteinuria, biochemical factors including glycemic and lipid profile, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), as well as blood pressure will be done at the baseline and end of the trial. Also, dietary intake and physical activity will be assessed throughout the study. Statistical analysis will be performed using the SPSS software (Version 24), and P < 0.05 will be considered statistically meaningful. DISCUSSION: It is hypothesized that omega-3 supplementation may be beneficial for the management of type 1 diabetes and its complications by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress and also modulating immune responses and glucose and lipid metabolism through various mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate any effect of omega-3 on patients with type 1 diabetes. ETHICAL ASPECTS: This trial received approval from Medical Ethics Committee of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (IR.IUMS.REC.1400.070). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20210419051010N1 . Registered on 29 April 2021.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Biomarkers , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Iran , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e45, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292541

ABSTRACT

Surveillance data indicate that food security rates increased among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020 and 2021) compared with pre-pandemic (2019), but this could have been due to increased participation from better resourced households. Our objective was to examine if demographic differences between SNAP-participating households in each year were responsible for the increased prevalence of food secure households. We calculated the observed 30-d food security prevalence among SNAP-participating households for each year. We used indirect standardisation to produce expected 2020 and 2021 prevalences with 2019 as the standard population using household size, income, age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, presence of children, single parent household, metropolitan status and census region. We calculated standardised prevalence ratios (SPRs) to understand if the observed prevalence was higher than expected given any changes in the demographic profile compared to 2019. The Current Population Survey data were collected by the United States Census Bureau and Department of Agriculture. Our sample included 5,245 SNAP-participating households. The observed prevalence of food secure households increased by 3⋅6 percentage points comparing 2019 to 2020 (SPR = 1⋅06, 95 % confidence interval = 1⋅00, 1⋅11) and by 8⋅6 percentage comparing 2019 to 2021 (SPR = 1⋅13, 95 % confidence interval = 1⋅07, 1⋅18). The greater prevalence of food secure SNAP households during the pandemic did not appear to be attributable to socio-demographic differences compared to pre-pandemic. Despite hesitance among policymakers to expand or enhance social safety net programmes, permanently incorporating COVID-19-related policy interventions could lessen food insecurity in years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Child , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements
19.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been speculated that higher concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) provide some protection against COVID-19. We assessed whether there is any relationship between 25OHD concentrations and the subsequent development of COVID-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Concentrations of 25OHD were measured in March-April 2020 in 134 healthy subjects (57 males), age range 6-50, from a single urban general practice in central Poland. Data on COVID-19 infection during the subsequent 12 months (prior to the vaccination program) were obtained from the national database of COVID-19 cases. None of the subjects received any 25OHD supplements. RESULTS: The average 25OHD concentrations were 18.1 ± 7.39 ng/mL (37.3% had 25OHD above 20 ng/mL). Thirty-one (23.1%) patients developed COVID-19 infection, but an increased risk was only observed in individuals with 25OHD concentrations below 12 ng/mL (COVID-19 infection in 11 out of 25 patients (44%) with 25OHD < 12 ng/mL versus 20 out of 109 (18.3%) for those with 25OHD above 12 ng/mL, p = 0.0063). Such a relationship was no longer observed for subjects with 25OHD concentrations above 20 ng/mL (p = 0.2787). CONCLUSIONS: Although only a minority of healthy subjects had 25OHD concentrations above 20 ng/mL in spring, an increased risk of subsequent COVID-19 infection was only observed in those with severe 25OHD deficiency (<12 ng/mL).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Male , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Dietary Supplements
20.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 184(3): 291-301, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290461

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The favorable effects of probiotics have been demonstrated in allergic disorders. However, the underlying immunological mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the improvement of clinical symptoms and immunological balance after receiving probiotics in patients with asthma. METHODS: The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 40 patients with asthma were enrolled. They were treated with probiotics or placebo: 1 capsule/day for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function test, percentage of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs, and gene expression of T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt, and Foxp3 in PBMCs were assessed at baseline and after treatment. RESULTS: Our results showed a significant increase in the expression of FoxP3 and CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs population, while RORγt and GATA3 expression were reduced. In addition, pulmonary function tests showed a significant improvement in forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity after receiving probiotics. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that 8-week treatment with probiotic supplementation can control T-helper 2-predominant and Th17 pro-inflammatory responses and improve forced vital and forced expiratory volume in asthmatic patients. It seems probiotics can be used besides common treatments for patients with asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Probiotics , Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/genetics , Dietary Supplements , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics
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