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1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
J Nutr Biochem ; 97: 108787, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253236

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of mysterious pneumonia at the end of 2019 is associated with widespread research interest worldwide. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) targets multiple organs through inflammatory, immune, and redox mechanisms, and no effective drug for its prophylaxis or treatment has been identified until now. The use of dietary bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds (PC), has emerged as a putative nutritional or therapeutic adjunct approach for COVID-19. In the present study, scientific data on the mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of PC and their usefulness in COVID-19 mitigation are reviewed. In addition, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of dietary PC are studied. Moreover, the implications of digestion on the putative benefits of dietary PC against COVID-19 are presented by addressing the bioavailability and biotransformation of PC by the gut microbiota. Lastly, safety issues and possible drug interactions of PC and their implications in COVID-19 therapeutics are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Phenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Phenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacokinetics , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/pharmacokinetics , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085070

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19), is a worldwide pandemic, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is a respiratory virus that infects people of all ages. Although it may present with mild to no symptoms in most patients, those who are older, immunocompromised, or with multiple comorbidities may present with severe and life-threatening infections. Throughout history, nutraceuticals, such as a variety of phytochemicals from medicinal plants and dietary supplements, have been used as adjunct therapies for many disease conditions, including viral infections. Appropriate use of these adjunct therapies with antiviral proprieties may be beneficial in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of COVID-19. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of nutraceuticals, such as vitamins C, D, E, zinc, melatonin, and other phytochemicals and function foods. These nutraceuticals may have potential therapeutic efficacies in fighting the threat of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Functional Food/analysis , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology
4.
J Food Biochem ; 45(1): e13557, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917749

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV), the pathogenic agent of COVID-19 disease, started to expand from Wuhan, China, on December 2019 and in 2 months, it spread worldwide giving origin to a pandemic. COVID-19 has a stronger transmission capacity by inhalation of infectious aerosols and after an incubation time of 3-14 days, it may be responsible for diseases ranging from the asymptomatic to fatal consequences. COVID-19 has emerged as a multifaceted, multisystem, multi-organ disorder, which produces its pathogenic effects through a quite ubiquitous target at the level of multiple organs and in which oxidative stress and inflammatory process play relevant roles. Thus, besides the development of a pharmacological therapy, in the field of alternative and coadjutant therapeutic, the use of dietary supplements or nutraceuticals for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be a useful strategy. Herein, we specifically comment on some literature evidences, which link the food-derived antioxidants and metal-chelating agents with treatment and prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation that play a key role in the progression of COVID-19. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Oxidative stress and inflammation are key factors increasing COVID-19 severity especially in the presence of chronic diseases associated with the antioxidant system fragility. These evidences support the recommendation of antioxidants supplementation as useful strategies against COVID-19. In light with these observations, herein, a comment which describes the major antioxidants and metal-chelating agents from food sources that might be useful for the treatment and prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/diet therapy , Plant Extracts/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chelating Agents/metabolism , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Food Analysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 511-515, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829118

ABSTRACT

The current experiment was performed to find the potential effect of inorganic and organic forms of zinc (Zn) on growth, intestinal histomorphology, immune response, and paraoxonase (PON1) activity in broiler. In this experiment, a total of 450 broiler chickens were assigned to four experimental and control groups. The birds received organic Zn at the rate of 50 mg/kg (OZ-50) and 60 mg/kg (OZ-60) or inorganic Zn at the rate of 50 mg/kg (IZ-50) and 60 mg/kg (IZ-60) for an experimental period of 30 days. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher feed consumption, body weight, feed conversion ratio, and production efficiency factor (PEF) were recorded in OZ-50. Similarly, antibody titer against infectious bronchitis (IB) and PON1 activity was higher (P < 0.05) in OZ-50 compared with the control group. In addition, significantly (P < 0.05) higher villus dimensions and goblet cell count were recorded for the group OZ-50 compared with other treatments. It was concluded that the organic form of Zn was superior in improving the growth, histological features of intestines, humoral response, and PON1 activity in broiler.


Subject(s)
Chickens/growth & development , Chickens/metabolism , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Intestines/anatomy & histology , Zinc Compounds/metabolism , Zinc/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Aryldialkylphosphatase/metabolism , Avian Proteins/metabolism , Diet/veterinary , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Intestines/drug effects , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc Compounds/administration & dosage
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 286-290, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694042

ABSTRACT

The world is desperately seeking for a sustainable solution to combat the coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Recent research indicated that optimizing Vitamin D blood levels could offer a solution approach that promises a heavily reduced fatality rate as well as solving the public health problem of counteracting the general vitamin D deficiency. This paper dived into the immunoregulatory effects of supplementing Vitamin D3 by elaborating a causal loop diagram. Together with D3, vitamin K2 and magnesium should be supplemented to prevent long-term health risks. Follow up clinical randomized trials are required to verify the current circumstantial evidence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Vitamin K 2/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin K 2/blood
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