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1.
AAPS J ; 24(1): 19, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605878

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have become the breakthrough technology most anticipated to have a transformative effect on pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). This is partially driven by revolutionary advances in computational technology and the parallel dissipation of previous constraints to the collection/processing of large volumes of data. Meanwhile, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and to patients has become prohibitively expensive. Recognizing these headwinds, AI/ML techniques are appealing to the pharmaceutical industry due to their automated nature, predictive capabilities, and the consequent expected increase in efficiency. ML approaches have been used in drug discovery over the past 15-20 years with increasing sophistication. The most recent aspect of drug development where positive disruption from AI/ML is starting to occur, is in clinical trial design, conduct, and analysis. The COVID-19 pandemic may further accelerate utilization of AI/ML in clinical trials due to an increased reliance on digital technology in clinical trial conduct. As we move towards a world where there is a growing integration of AI/ML into R&D, it is critical to get past the related buzz-words and noise. It is equally important to recognize that the scientific method is not obsolete when making inferences about data. Doing so will help in separating hope from hype and lead to informed decision-making on the optimal use of AI/ML in drug development. This manuscript aims to demystify key concepts, present use-cases and finally offer insights and a balanced view on the optimal use of AI/ML methods in R&D.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computational Biology , Drug Development , Machine Learning , Pharmaceutical Research , Research Design , Animals , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Computational Biology/trends , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Development/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Machine Learning/trends , Pharmaceutical Research/trends , Research Design/trends
2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(9): 2045-2053, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526155

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 seems to be the leading topic in research number of outstanding studies have been published in the field of aorta and peripheral vascular diseases likely affecting our clinical practice in the near future. This review article highlights key research on vascular diseases published in 2020. Some studies have shed light in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm and dissection suggesting a potential role for kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic options. A first proteogenomic study on fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) revealed a promising novel disease gene and provided proof-of-concept for a protein/lipid-based FMD blood test. The role of NADPH oxidases in vascular physiology, and particularly endothelial cell differentiation, is highlighted with potential for cell therapy development. Imaging of vulnerable plaque has been an intense field of research. Features of plaque vulnerability on magnetic resonance imaging as an under-recognized cause of stroke are discussed. Major clinical trials on lower extremity peripheral artery disease have shown added benefit of dual antithrombotic (aspirin plus rivaroxaban) treatment.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , Biomedical Research/trends , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Animals , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/epidemiology , Aortic Diseases/genetics , Aortic Diseases/therapy , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/genetics , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/therapy , Prognosis
3.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003788, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social innovations in health are inclusive solutions to address the healthcare delivery gap that meet the needs of end users through a multi-stakeholder, community-engaged process. While social innovations for health have shown promise in closing the healthcare delivery gap, more research is needed to evaluate, scale up, and sustain social innovation. Research checklists can standardize and improve reporting of research findings, promote transparency, and increase replicability of study results and findings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The research checklist was developed through a 3-step community-engaged process, including a global open call for ideas, a scoping review, and a 3-round modified Delphi process. The call for entries solicited checklists and related items and was open between November 27, 2019 and February 1, 2020. In addition to the open call submissions and scoping review findings, a 17-item Social Innovation For Health Research (SIFHR) Checklist was developed based on the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) Checklist. The checklist was then refined during 3 rounds of Delphi surveys conducted between May and June 2020. The resulting checklist will facilitate more complete and transparent reporting, increase end-user engagement, and help assess social innovation projects. A limitation of the open call was requiring internet access, which likely discouraged participation of some subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The SIFHR Checklist will strengthen the reporting of social innovation for health research studies. More research is needed on social innovation for health.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Health Services Research , Research Design , Socioeconomic Factors , Delphi Technique , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Social Determinants of Health , Stakeholder Participation
4.
J Healthc Manag ; 66(5): 332-335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434537
5.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(3): 163-170, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395055

ABSTRACT

It is necessary to reflect on the question, "How to prepare for medical education after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?" Although we are preparing for the era of Education 4.0 in line with the 4th industrial revolution of artificial intelligence and big data, most measures are focused on the methodologies of transferring knowledge; essential innovation is not being addressed. What is fundamentally needed in medicine is insightful intelligence that can see the invisible. We should not create doctors who only prescribe antispasmodics for abdominal pain, or antiemetic drugs for vomiting. Good clinical reasoning is not based on knowledge alone. Insightology in medicine is based on experience through Bayesian reasoning and imagination through the theory of mind. This refers to diagnosis of the whole, greater than the sum of its parts, by looking at the invisible using the Gestalt strategy. Identifying the missing process that links symptoms is essential. This missing process can be described in one word: context. An accurate diagnosis is possible only by understanding context, which can be done by standing in someone else's shoes. From the viewpoint of medicine, Education 4.0 is worrisome because people are still clinging to methodology. The subject we should focus on is "human", not "artificial" intelligence. We should first advance the "insightology in medicine" as a new paradigm, which is the "essence" that will never change even when rare "phenomena" such as the COVID-19 outbreak occur. For this reason, we should focus on teaching insightology in medicine, rather than teaching medical knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical/trends , Artificial Intelligence , Diffusion of Innovation , Humans , Knowledge , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 76, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since Canadian drug regulatory approval of mifepristone for medical abortion in 2015 and its market availability in January 2017, the role of pharmacists in abortion provision has changed rapidly. We sought to identify the factors that influenced the initiation and provision of medical abortion from the perspectives of Canadian pharmacists, bridging two frameworks - Diffusion of Innovation in Health Service Organizations and integrated knowledge translation. METHODS: We conducted one-on-one semi-structured interviews with pharmacists residing in Canada who intended to stock and dispense mifepristone within the first year of availability. Our data collection, analysis, and interpretation were guided by reflexive thematic analysis and supported by an integrated knowledge translation partnership with pharmacy stakeholders. RESULTS: We completed interviews with 24 participants from across Canada: 33% had stocked and 21% had dispensed mifepristone. We found that pharmacists were willing and able to integrate medical abortion care into their practice and that those who had initiated practice were satisfied with their dispensing experience. Our analysis indicated that several key Diffusion of Innovation constructs impacted the uptake of mifepristone, including: innovation (relative advantage, complexity and compatibility, technical support), system readiness (innovation-system fit, dedicated time, resources), diffusion and dissemination (expert opinion, boundary spanners, champions, social networks, peer opinions), implementation (external collaboration), and linkage. Participants' experiences suggest that integrated knowledge translation facilitated evidence-based changes to mifepristone dispensing restrictions, and communication of those changes to front line pharmacists. CONCLUSIONS: We illustrate how Diffusion of Innovation and integrated knowledge translation may work together as complimentary frameworks for implementation science research. Unlike in the USA, UK, and other highly regulated settings globally, pharmacists in Canada are permitted to dispense mifepristone for medical abortion. We contribute to literature that shows that mifepristone dispensed outside of hospitals, clinics, and medical offices is safe and acceptable to both patients and prescribers. This finding is of particular importance to the current COVID-19 pandemic response and calls for continued and equitable access to abortion care in primary practice.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal/administration & dosage , Abortion, Induced/methods , Diffusion of Innovation , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Pharmacists/statistics & numerical data , /methods , Canada , Humans , Interviews as Topic
9.
Br J Nurs ; 30(14): S34-S41, 2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319861

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: For the student nurse, peripheral venous cannulation is one of the most stressful skills to be learned. Although some healthcare employers/establishments offer courses on vascular access and infusion nursing as part of their onboarding programs, ultimately educational institutions should share the responsibility to ensure that graduating nurses can provide safe infusion therapies. METHODS: An innovative vascular access and infusion nursing (VAIN) curriculum was created and mapped onto the entry to practice undergraduate nursing program at McGill University in Montréal, Québec, Canada. This presented an opportunity to implement new teaching approaches. RESULTS: Students experienced multiple new teaching approaches including multimedia and experiential learning and live simulation to ensure acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills. The teaching approaches had to be rapidly modified with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The VAIN curriculum emphasizes simulation and directed practice, seeking to increase competence, confidence, and knowledge. The pandemic underscored the need for flexibility and creativity in content delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheterization, Peripheral , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Canada/epidemiology , Catheterization, Peripheral/nursing , Curriculum , Diffusion of Innovation , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration , Humans , Nursing Education Research , Nursing Evaluation Research , Students, Nursing/psychology , Teaching
10.
Br J Nurs ; 30(13): 770, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311463
11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(7): 499-503, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311322

ABSTRACT

Access to vaccines against covid-19 is a very topical issue. On the one hand, we are suffering from supply problems and inadequate availability of doses both nationally and internationally. On the other hand, public health needs do not coincide with those of the market economy: the need to vaccinate the entire world population to overcome the pandemic cannot be satisfied due to market rules and limits in production processes. The result is a radical inequality in access to vaccines. We are aware of the delicate balance between health and economy: the latter cannot ignore the former. Also for this reason, the demand for greater equity in access to vaccines is growing: the race for innovation may not be hindered by a targeted relaxation of the rules on intellectual property during a pandemic health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development , Intellectual Property , Biomedical Research/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Diffusion of Innovation , Global Health , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Italy , Needs Assessment , Patents as Topic , Public Health , Research Support as Topic/economics , Vaccination Coverage
12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 1): 45, 2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289720

ABSTRACT

Innovative people-centered care modalities including self-care interventions offer an opportunity to ensure continuity of healthcare services during COVID-19 and in post-COVID-19, as well as contribute to the achievement of universal health coverage. Parliamentarians are uniquely positioned to promote self-care interventions for sexual and reproductive health and rights through their legislative, budget allocation, oversight, and advocacy roles. However, existing health systems governance challenges in the Eastern Mediterranean region such as weak institutions setups, fragmentation of health programs, and limitation of resources could impede parliamentarians' progress. To address these challenges, the following recommended actions should be considered: (1) promote the adaptation of sexual and reproductive health and rights service packages at primary healthcare level to integrate self-care interventions (2) govern innovative people-centered care channels including self-care interventions; and (3) engage in a dialogue with civil society and communities to meet needs, raise public awareness and generate demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , Self Care , Sexual Health , Communication , Diffusion of Innovation , Government , Health Resources , Human Rights , Humans , Leadership , Mediterranean Region , Primary Health Care , Reproductive Health Services , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 1): 49, 2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-care interventions offer a solution to support the achievement of three goals of the World Health Organization (WHO): to improve universal health coverage, reach people in humanitarian situations, and improve health and well-being. In light of implementing WHO consolidated guidelines on self-care interventions to strengthen sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, pharmacists from four different EMR countries discussed the current SRH situation, inequality gaps, barriers to SRH service access and the pharmacist's crucial role as a first-line responder to patients before, during and after COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: Self-care interventions for SRH allow health care providers to serve a greater number of patients, improve progress toward universal health coverage, and reach people in humanitarian crises. In fact, these interventions can be significantly enhanced by utilizing community pharmacists as first-line health care providers. This review highlights the important role of community pharmacists in promoting self-care interventions and empowering individuals, families and communities. As a result, well-informed individuals will be authoritative in their health decisions. Exploring self-care interventions in the EMR was done through reviewing selected SRH services delivery through community pharmacists before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Somalia. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, community pharmacists were found to be excluded from both governmental and nongovernmental SRH programmes. During the pandemic, community pharmacists managed to support patients with self-care interventions, whether voluntarily or through their pharmacy associations. This highlights the need for the health care decision-makers to involve and support community pharmacists in influencing policies and promoting self-care interventions. CONCLUSION: Self-care interventions can increase individuals' choice and autonomy over SRH. Supporting community pharmacists will definitely strengthen SRH in the EMR and may help make the health system more efficient and more targeted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Reproductive Health , Self Care , Sexual Health , Decision Making , Diffusion of Innovation , Egypt , Female , Health Services , Humans , Jordan , Lebanon , Male , Mediterranean Region , Professional Role , Reproductive Health Services , Somalia
19.
Br J Nurs ; 29(12): S4, 2020 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232699
20.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(1): 63-72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented collaborative effort among industry, academia, regulatory bodies, and governments with huge financial investments. Scientists and researchers from India also left no stone unturned to find therapeutic and preventive measures against COVID-19. Indian pharmaceutical companies are one of the leading manufacturers of vaccine in the world, are utilizing its capacity to its maximum, and are one among the forerunners in vaccine research against COVID-19 across the globe. In this systematic review, the information regarding contribution of Indian scientists toward COVID-19 research has been gathered from various news articles across Google platform apart from searching PubMed, WHO site, COVID-19 vaccine tracker, CTRI, clinicaltrials.gov, and websites of pharmaceutical companies. The article summarizes and highlights the various therapeutic and vaccine candidates, diagnostic kits, treatment agents, and technology being developed and tested by Indian researcher community against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computer-Aided Design , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , India , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
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