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1.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(5): 389-396, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237011

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this rapid review is to provide an update on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on Gastroenterology and Hepatology departments, our patients, and our new way of working. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are affected by SARS-CoV-2, especially in patients with immunosuppressive therapies. Patients with liver transplantation should be followed closely. Digestive endoscopy is a high-risk procedure for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. While the pandemic lasts, we must adapt its indications and promote protective measures for patients and healthcare professionals alike. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed our priorities and the way we work, although we do not know what the repercussions will be after normality is reinstated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Digestive System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/therapy , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Infection Control/methods , Liver Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24409, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125185

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus seems to contribute significantly to increased postoperative complications and mortality after emergency surgical procedures. Additionally, the fear of COVID-19 contagion delays the consultation of patients, resulting in the deterioration of their acute diseases by the time of consultation. In the specific case of urgent digestive surgery patients, both factors significantly worsen the postoperative course and prognosis. Main working hypothesis: infection by COVID-19 increases postoperative 30-day-mortality for any cause in patients submitted to emergency/urgent general or gastrointestinal surgery. Likewise, hospital collapse during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic increased 30-day-mortality for any cause. Hence, the main objective of this study is to estimate the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30-days-after-surgery. Secondary objectives are: to estimate the cumulative incidence of postoperative complications and to develop a specific postoperative risk propensity model for COVID-19-infected patients.A multicenter, observational retrospective cohort study (COVID-CIR-study) will be carried out in consecutive patients operated on for urgent digestive pathology. Two cohorts will be defined: the "pandemic" cohort, which will include all patients (classified as COVID-19-positive or -negative) operated on for emergency digestive pathology during the months of March to June 2020; and the "control" cohort, which will include all patients operated on for emergency digestive pathology during the months of March to June 2019. Information will be gathered on demographic characteristics, clinical and analytical parameters, scores on the usual prognostic scales for quality management in a General Surgery service (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and LUCENTUM scores), prognostic factors applicable to all patients, specific prognostic factors for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, postoperative morbidity and mortality (at 30 and 90 postoperative days). The main objective is to estimate the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days after surgery. As secondary objectives, to estimate the cumulative incidence of postoperative complications and to develop a specific postoperative risk propensity model for SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.The protocol (version1.0, April 20th 2020) was approved by the local Institutional Review Board (Ethic-and-Clinical-Investigation-Committee, code PR169/20, date 05/05/20). The study findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant national and international scientific meetings.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04479150 (July 21, 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Diseases , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Emergency Treatment , Infection Control , Postoperative Complications , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/mortality , Digestive System Diseases/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/mortality , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/adverse effects , Emergency Treatment/methods , Emergency Treatment/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Research Design , Risk Assessment/methods
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24604, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Mortality of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was high. Aims to examine whether time from symptoms onset to intensive care unit (ICU) admission affects incidence of extra-pulmonary complications and prognosis in order to provide a new insight for reducing the mortality. A single-centered, retrospective, observational study investigated 45 critically ill patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in ICU of The Third People's Hospital of Yichang from January 17 to March 29, 2020. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to time from symptoms onset to ICU admission (>7 and ≤7 days) and into 2 groups according to prognosis (survivors and non-survivors). Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics and treatment data were studied. Compared with patients who admitted to the ICU since symptoms onset ≤7 days (55.6%), patients who admitted to the ICU since symptoms onset >7 days (44.4%) were more likely to have extra-pulmonary complications (19 [95.0%] vs 16 [64.0%], P = .034), including acute kidney injury, cardiac injury, acute heart failure, liver dysfunction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hyperamylasemia, and hypernatremia. The incidence rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothorax, and hospital-acquired pneumonia had no difference between the 2 groups. Except activated partial thromboplastin and Na+ concentration, the laboratory findings were worse in group of time from symptoms onset to ICU admission >7 days. There was no difference in mortality between the 2 groups. Of the 45 cases in the ICU, 19 (42.2%) were non-survivors, and 16 (35.6%) were with hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among these non-survivors, hospital-acquired pneumonia was up to 12 (63.2%) besides higher incidence of extra-pulmonary complications. However, hospital-acquired pneumonia occurred in only 4 (15.4%) survivors. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 who admitted to ICU at once might get benefit from intensive care via lower rate of extra-pulmonary complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Symptom Assessment , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Female , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/diagnosis , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/mortality , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Hyperamylasemia/diagnosis , Hyperamylasemia/etiology , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24409, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus seems to contribute significantly to increased postoperative complications and mortality after emergency surgical procedures. Additionally, the fear of COVID-19 contagion delays the consultation of patients, resulting in the deterioration of their acute diseases by the time of consultation. In the specific case of urgent digestive surgery patients, both factors significantly worsen the postoperative course and prognosis. Main working hypothesis: infection by COVID-19 increases postoperative 30-day-mortality for any cause in patients submitted to emergency/urgent general or gastrointestinal surgery. Likewise, hospital collapse during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic increased 30-day-mortality for any cause. Hence, the main objective of this study is to estimate the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30-days-after-surgery. Secondary objectives are: to estimate the cumulative incidence of postoperative complications and to develop a specific postoperative risk propensity model for COVID-19-infected patients.A multicenter, observational retrospective cohort study (COVID-CIR-study) will be carried out in consecutive patients operated on for urgent digestive pathology. Two cohorts will be defined: the "pandemic" cohort, which will include all patients (classified as COVID-19-positive or -negative) operated on for emergency digestive pathology during the months of March to June 2020; and the "control" cohort, which will include all patients operated on for emergency digestive pathology during the months of March to June 2019. Information will be gathered on demographic characteristics, clinical and analytical parameters, scores on the usual prognostic scales for quality management in a General Surgery service (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and LUCENTUM scores), prognostic factors applicable to all patients, specific prognostic factors for patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, postoperative morbidity and mortality (at 30 and 90 postoperative days). The main objective is to estimate the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days after surgery. As secondary objectives, to estimate the cumulative incidence of postoperative complications and to develop a specific postoperative risk propensity model for SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.The protocol (version1.0, April 20th 2020) was approved by the local Institutional Review Board (Ethic-and-Clinical-Investigation-Committee, code PR169/20, date 05/05/20). The study findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant national and international scientific meetings.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04479150 (July 21, 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Diseases , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Emergency Treatment , Infection Control , Postoperative Complications , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/mortality , Digestive System Diseases/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/mortality , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/adverse effects , Emergency Treatment/methods , Emergency Treatment/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Research Design , Risk Assessment/methods
5.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(2): 126-128, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-984164

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the broader clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: In this descriptive, prospective study, we included confirmed pediatric patients with COVID-19 who presented to the emergency department of a pediatric tertiary care center from April to July, 2020. All patients were confirmed by the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, and we analyzed 24 symptoms and 25 signs. RESULTS: Among the 50 patients with COVID-19, the most common symptoms were fever, excessive cry and dry cough; digestive symptoms were frequently found (24%). The most common signs were pharyngeal erythema and irritability. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should recognize that the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 in children is wider than previously described, often with nonspecific signs and symptoms, and digestive symptoms should raise suspicion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Diseases , Symptom Assessment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Irritable Mood/physiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22736, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal manifestations are common in patients with COVID-19, but the association between specific digestive symptoms and COVID-19 prognosis remains unclear. This study aims to assess whether digestive symptoms are associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: We will search PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to September, 2020, to identify studies that compared the prevalence of at least one specific digestive symptom between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients or between non-survivors and survivors. Two independent reviewers will assess the risk of bias of the included cohort studies using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses will be conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of individual symptoms using the inverse variance method with the random-effects model. We will conduct subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and meta-regression analyses to explore the sources of heterogeneity. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis will comprehensively evaluate the association between different digestive symptoms and the severity and mortality of patients infected with COVID-19. This study will provide evidence to help determine whether special protective measures and treatment options are needed for patients with digestive system comorbidities during the COVID-19 pandemic. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202090055.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 113(2): 142-146, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713382

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused a global pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. It was first observed to cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome. However, gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations have been increasingly recognized. Gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhea, epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Diarrhea is the most common GI manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 and can present without or without respiratory symptoms. Patients with GI symptoms have been associated with longer duration of illness and may be associated with more severe illness. Mechanism of diarrhea is thought to be related to direct viral cytotoxicity occurring when the SARS-CoV-3 enters GI cells via the ACE-2 receptor. Inflammatory response and cytokine release likely contributes to symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 can cause hepatic injury. Studies have shown mild to moderate elevation of liver enzymes. The pattern of liver abnormalities can be hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed. Patients with severe infection have significantly higher rates of liver injury and worse outcomes. Proposed mechanisms for injury include immune mediated systemic inflammatory response, direct cytotoxicity from viral replication and hypoxia-reperfusion dysfunction. Recent data suggests that GI and hepatic injury may be under-recognized manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with diarrhea and liver disease may have a worse prognosis. The rapidly evolving literature continues to reveal a growing body of information which enables updated guidance for management. More investigation is needed which focuses on vulnerable patients, including the elderly, those with underlying illness, as well as, racial and ethnic minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digestive System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Causality , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 44(4): 403-406, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597127

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia is a serious life-threatening disease and it has affected many people globally, especially the people who live in China. A high prevalence of hepatobiliary diseases has been observed in 2019-nCoV patients and some may require emergency surgery. In the context of the novel coronavirus pneumonia, new challenges have arisen for surgeons in terms of ways to effectively treat outpatients, safety of medical staffs in performing surgery treatment, and the lack of efficient postoperative management and follow-up procedure. It is hoped that through this article, surgeons will have a better system in hepatobiliary diseases classification, treatment selection, and protective measures to improve the clinical practice in accordance with the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/surgery , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Lactones , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Perioperative Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Postoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes , Telemedicine , Triage
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 2375-2377, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437178

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major worldwide threat caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly spreading to a global pandemic. As of May 11, 2020, 4,176,346 cases have been reported worldwide, 219,814 in Italy, and of them, 81,871 occurred in the Lombardy region.1 Although the respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 have been widely described, the impact on the gastrointestinal (GI) system remains less clear. The reported prevalence of digestive symptoms ranges from 3% to 79%, depending on the setting,2-5 but data on GI endoscopic and histologic findings in COVID-19 patients are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the GI endoscopic and histologic findings in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(6): 332-347, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116776

ABSTRACT

The set of measures proposed by SEPD, AEEH, GETECCU and AEG are aimed to help departments in their resumption of usual activity. We have prepared a number of practical recommendations regarding patient management and the stepwise resumption of healthcare activity. These recommendations are based on the sparse, changing evidence available, and will be updated in the future according to daily needs and the availability of expendable materials to suit them; in each department they will be implemented depending upon the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in each region, and the burden the pandemic has represented for each hospital. The general objectives of these recommendations include: (a)To protect our patients against the risks of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and to provide them with high-quality care. (b)To protect all healthcare professionals against the risks of infection with SARS-CoV-2. (c)To resume normal functioning of our departments in a setting of ongoing risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Gastroenterology/organization & administration , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System/instrumentation , Digestive System Diseases/complications , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/therapy , Disinfection , Drug Interactions , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , Symptom Assessment , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Universal Precautions
18.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(6): 916-923, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-77893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) most commonly presents with respiratory symptoms, including cough, shortness of breath, and sore throat. However, digestive symptoms also occur in patients with COVID-19 and are often described in outpatients with less severe disease. In this study, we sought to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms and mild disease severity. METHODS: We identified COVID-19 patients with mild disease and one or more digestive symptoms (diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting), with or without respiratory symptoms, and compared them with a group presenting solely with respiratory symptoms. We followed up patients clinically until they tested negative for COVID-19 on at least 2 sequential respiratory tract specimens collected ≥24 hours apart. We then compared the clinical features between those with digestive symptoms and those with respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: There were 206 patients with low severity COVID-19, including 48 presenting with a digestive symptom alone, 69 with both digestive and respiratory symptoms, and 89 with respiratory symptoms alone. Between the 2 groups with digestive symptoms, 67 presented with diarrhea, of whom 19.4% experienced diarrhea as the first symptom in their illness course. The diarrhea lasted from 1 to 14 days, with an average duration of 5.4 ± 3.1 days and a frequency of 4.3 ± 2.2 bowel movements per day. Concurrent fever was found in 62.4% of patients with a digestive symptom. Patients with digestive symptoms presented for care later than those with respiratory symptoms (16.0 ± 7.7 vs 11.6 ± 5.1 days, P < 0.001). Nevertheless, patients with digestive symptoms had a longer duration between symptom onset and viral clearance (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be fecal virus positive (73.3% vs 14.3%, P = 0.033) than those with respiratory symptoms. DISCUSSION: We describe a unique subgroup of COVID-19 patients with mild disease severity marked by the presence of digestive symptoms. These patients are more likely to test positive for viral RNA in stool, to have a longer delay before viral clearance, and to experience delayed diagnosis compared with patients with only respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Diarrhea , Digestive System Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods
19.
J Dig Dis ; 21(4): 199-204, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42091

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of an acute respiratory syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, now known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), beginning in December 2019, has attracted an intense amount of attention worldwide. As the natural history and variety of clinical presentations of this disease unfolds, extrapulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 have emerged, especially in the digestive system. While the respiratory mode of transmission is well known and is probably the principal mode of transmission of this disease, a possibility of the fecal-oral route of transmission has also emerged in various case series and clinical scenarios. In this review article, we summarize four different aspects in published studies to date: (a) gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19; (b) microbiological and virological investigations; (c) the role of fecal-oral transmission; and (d) prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the digestive endoscopy room. A timely understanding of the relationship between the disease and the digestive system and implementing effective preventive measures are of great importance for a favorable outcome of the disease and can help climnicians to mitigate further transmission by taking appropriate measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Digestive System Diseases , Endoscopy, Digestive System/standards , Gastroenterology/standards , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/virology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/microbiology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Hospital Units/standards , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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