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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259995, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533419

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Digital technology has the potential to improve health outcomes and health system performance in fragmented and under-funded mental health systems. Despite this potential, the integration of digital technology tools into mental health systems has been relatively poor. This is a protocol for a synthesis of qualitative evidence that will aim to determine the barriers and facilitators to integrating digital technologies in mental health systems and classify them in contextual domains at individual, organisational and system levels. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The methodological framework for systematic review of qualitative evidence described in Lockwood et al. will be applied to this review. A draft search strategy was developed in collaboration with an experienced senior health research librarian. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Scopus, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Google Scholar, as well as hand searching of reference lists and reviews will identify relevant studies for inclusion. Study selection will be carried out independently by two authors, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. The quality of selected studies will be assessed using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research. Data will be charted using JBI QUARI Data Extraction Tool for Qualitative Research. Findings will be defined and classified both deductively in a priori conceptual framework and inductively by a thematic analysis. Results will be reported based on the Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research. The level of confidence of the findings will be assessed using GRADE-CERQual. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not require ethics approval. The systematic review will inform policy and practices around improving the integration of digital technologies into mental health care systems.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/trends , Mental Health Services/trends , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods , Checklist , Consensus , Digital Technology/trends , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Government Programs , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Medical Assistance , Mental Health/trends , Policy , Qualitative Research
3.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(6): Doc101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435940

ABSTRACT

Aim: Using a comparison of digital teaching in medicine before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, the aim of the study was to examine how ad hoc digitization has changed (1) the design of digital teaching, (2) the attitudes toward and the capabilities of digital teaching and learning and (3) the future importance of individual digital teaching elements. Methods: Students and lecturers from the Medical Faculty of Ulm were asked to voluntarily participate in online surveys during the summer semesters of 2019 and 2020. The data was subsequently analyzed from a longitudinal and cross-sectional view descriptively as well as by using t-tests and Chi2-tests. In addition, using regression analyses, the results were controlled for associations with age, study progress, and media affinity. Results: In the summer semester 2019, 163 students (6.1% response rate) and 56 lecturers (11.5%) participated in the surveys. In the following year, the participation increased to 285 students (10.4%) and 64 lecturers (12.8%). Video-based teaching elements such as videoconferencing and lecture recordings were increasingly used after the COVID-19 outbreak and considered more significant for future teaching. In contrast, virtual reality, augmented reality and 360°-videos, grouped under the term extended reality (XR), are descriptively becoming less important. Most lecturers would like to teach more digitally even after the pandemic but fear a decrease in learning effectiveness and contact with students, who tend to prefer asynchronous learning opportunities. Conclusion: Video-based teaching elements proved to be a low-threshold and time-efficient solution during the lockdown and were also recommended for future use. The XR technology has been put on the back burner for the time being, but in view of the increased digital teaching motivation and capabilities, it can be assumed that lecturers will recognize and use the potential of XR as soon as they have the freedom to design innovative teaching again.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digital Technology , Education, Medical , Teaching , Cross-Sectional Studies , Digital Technology/trends , Disease Outbreaks , Education, Medical/methods , Faculty, Medical , Germany , Humans , Students, Medical , Teaching/trends
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254522, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315886

ABSTRACT

As smart technology proliferates, enterprises must engage not only in the transformation of intelligence but contend with pressure do so as soon as possible. Smart transformation is critical for manufacturing enterprises in the development of smart manufacturing. This study addressed the gap between maturity models and project management by designing an effective assessment framework for smart transformation. It adopts the Smart Industry Readiness Index, created by the Singapore Economic Development Board, as a maturity assessment model to analyze enterprises' smart transformation and formulate project management strategies. Enterprises can use this model to examine the maturity level of their transformation and assess scope for improvement in their project strategies and implementation barriers. This study focuses on Taiwanese enterprises using data collected from 165 valid questionnaires and subjected to a cluster analysis. Enterprises were divided into three categories. The results reveal that, first, most enterprises' smart transformation is at an immature or medium-maturity level, and is therefore amenable to further improvement. Second, inconsistent with research findings, many enterprises invest in transformation projects but fail to advance these projects to maturity. Third, most enterprises' project management plans fail to meet actual transformation needs. Using the thematically oriented maturity model proposed in this study, Taiwanese enterprises can effectively evaluate the maturity of their transformation projects. In conclusion, the study highlights that Taiwanese enterprises must identify more effective external resources to strengthen their competitiveness.


Subject(s)
Industrial Development/trends , Models, Economic , Digital Technology/economics , Digital Technology/trends , Taiwan
5.
Med J Aust ; 214 Suppl 8: S5-S40, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256945

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1: HOW AUSTRALIA IMPROVED HEALTH EQUITY THROUGH ACTION ON THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: Do not think that the social determinants of health equity are old hat. In reality, Australia is very far away from addressing the societal level drivers of health inequity. There is little progressive policy that touches on the conditions of daily life that matter for health, and action to redress inequities in power, money and resources is almost non-existent. In this chapter we ask you to pause this reality and come on a fantastic journey where we envisage how COVID-19 was a great disruptor and accelerator of positive progressive action. We offer glimmers of what life could be like if there was committed and real policy action on the social determinants of health equity. It is vital that the health sector assists in convening the multisectoral stakeholders necessary to turn this fantasy into reality. CHAPTER 2: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER CONNECTION TO CULTURE: BUILDING STRONGER INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE WELLBEING: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have long maintained that culture (ie, practising, maintaining and reclaiming it) is vital to good health and wellbeing. However, this knowledge and understanding has been dismissed or described as anecdotal or intangible by Western research methods and science. As a result, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture is a poorly acknowledged determinant of health and wellbeing, despite its significant role in shaping individuals, communities and societies. By extension, the cultural determinants of health have been poorly defined until recently. However, an increasing amount of scientific evidence supports what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have always said - that strong culture plays a significant and positive role in improved health and wellbeing. Owing to known gaps in knowledge, we aim to define the cultural determinants of health and describe their relationship with the social determinants of health, to provide a full understanding of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander wellbeing. We provide examples of evidence on cultural determinants of health and links to improved Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing. We also discuss future research directions that will enable a deeper understanding of the cultural determinants of health for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: HEALTHY, LIVEABLE AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES: Good city planning is essential for protecting and improving human and planetary health. Until recently, however, collaboration between city planners and the public health sector has languished. We review the evidence on the health benefits of good city planning and propose an agenda for public health advocacy relating to health-promoting city planning for all by 2030. Over the next 10 years, there is an urgent need for public health leaders to collaborate with city planners - to advocate for evidence-informed policy, and to evaluate the health effects of city planning efforts. Importantly, we need integrated planning across and between all levels of government and sectors, to create healthy, liveable and sustainable cities for all. CHAPTER 4: HEALTH PROMOTION IN THE ANTHROPOCENE: THE ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: Human health is inextricably linked to the health of the natural environment. In this chapter, we focus on ecological determinants of health, including the urgent and critical threats to the natural environment, and opportunities for health promotion arising from the human health co-benefits of actions to protect the health of the planet. We characterise ecological determinants in the Anthropocene and provide a sobering snapshot of planetary health science, particularly the momentous climate change health impacts in Australia. We highlight Australia's position as a major fossil fuel producer and exporter, and a country lacking cohesive and timely emissions reduction policy. We offer a roadmap for action, with four priority directions, and point to a scaffold of guiding approaches - planetary health, Indigenous people's knowledge systems, ecological economics, health co-benefits and climate-resilient development. Our situation requires a paradigm shift, and this demands a recalibration of health promotion education, research and practice in Australia over the coming decade. CHAPTER 5: DISRUPTING THE COMMERCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: Our vision for 2030 is an Australian economy that promotes optimal human and planetary health for current and future generations. To achieve this, current patterns of corporate practice and consumption of harmful commodities and services need to change. In this chapter, we suggest ways forward for Australia, focusing on pragmatic actions that can be taken now to redress the power imbalances between corporations and Australian governments and citizens. We begin by exploring how the terms of health policy making must change to protect it from conflicted commercial interests. We also examine how marketing unhealthy products and services can be more effectively regulated, and how healthier business practices can be incentivised. Finally, we make recommendations on how various public health stakeholders can hold corporations to account, to ensure that people come before profits in a healthy and prosperous future Australia. CHAPTER 6: DIGITAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION: We live in an age of rapid and exponential technological change. Extraordinary digital advancements and the fusion of technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things and quantum computing constitute what is often referred to as the digital revolution or the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0). Reflections on the future of public health and health promotion require thorough consideration of the role of digital technologies and the systems they influence. Just how the digital revolution will unfold is unknown, but it is clear that advancements and integrations of technologies will fundamentally influence our health and wellbeing in the future. The public health response must be proactive, involving many stakeholders, and thoughtfully considered to ensure equitable and ethical applications and use. CHAPTER 7: GOVERNANCE FOR HEALTH AND EQUITY: A VISION FOR OUR FUTURE: Coronavirus disease 2019 has caused many people and communities to take stock on Australia's direction in relation to health, community, jobs, environmental sustainability, income and wealth. A desire for change is in the air. This chapter imagines how changes in the way we govern our lives and what we value as a society could solve many of the issues Australia is facing - most pressingly, the climate crisis and growing economic and health inequities. We present an imagined future for 2030 where governance structures are designed to ensure transparent and fair behaviour from those in power and to increase the involvement of citizens in these decisions, including a constitutional voice for Indigenous peoples. We imagine that these changes were made by measuring social progress in new ways, ensuring taxation for public good, enshrining human rights (including to health) in legislation, and protecting and encouraging an independent media. Measures to overcome the climate crisis were adopted and democratic processes introduced in the provision of housing, education and community development.


Subject(s)
Health Equity/trends , Health Promotion/trends , Australia , Commerce , Community Health Planning/trends , Digital Technology/trends , Environmental Health/trends , Forecasting , Health Services, Indigenous/trends , Humans , Social Determinants of Health/trends
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 346-351, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907115

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed great challenges in people's daily lives. Highly sensitive laboratory techniques played a critical role in clinical COVID-19 diagnosis and management. In this study the feasibility of using a new digital PCR-based detection assay for clinical COVID-19 diagnosis was investigated by comparing its performance with that of RT-PCR. Clinical patient samples and samples obtained from potentially contaminated environments were analyzed. The study included 10 patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses, 32 validated samples of various types derived from different clinical timepoints and sites, and 148 environmentally derived samples. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids were more readily detected in respiratory tract samples (35.0%). In analyses of environmentally derived samples, the positivity rate of air samples was higher than that of surface samples, probably due to differences in virus concentrations. Digital PCR detected SARS-CoV-2 in several samples that had previously been deemed negative, including 3 patient-derived samples and 5 environmentally derived samples. In this study digital PCR exhibited higher sensitivity than conventional RT-PCR, suggesting that it may be a useful new method for clinical SARS-CoV-2 detection. Improvement of SARS-CoV-2 detection would substantially reduce the rates of false-negative COVID-19 test results, in particular those pertaining to asymptomatic carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/genetics , Digital Technology/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Digital Technology/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/trends , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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