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1.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): 1058-1067, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the risk for healthcare providers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study; patients were enrolled between March 11, and April 29, 2020. The date of final follow-up was July 30, 2020. We used a propensity score matching approach to compare outcomes. Study outcomes were formulated before data collection and analysis. SETTING: Critical care units at two large metropolitan hospitals in New York City. PATIENTS: Five-hundred forty-one patients with confirmed severe coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with modified visualization and ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Required time for discontinuation off mechanical ventilation, total length of hospitalization, and overall patient survival. Of the 541 patients, 394 patients were eligible for a tracheostomy. One-hundred sixteen were early percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with median time of 9 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 7-12 d), whereas 89 were late percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with a median time of 19 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 16-24 d). Compared with patients with no tracheostomy, patients with an early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had a higher probability of discontinuation from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference, 30%; p < 0.001; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.34-5.84; p = 0.006) and a lower mortality (absolute difference, 34%, p < 0.001; hazard ratio for death, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.22; p < 0.001). Compared with patients with late percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, patients with early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had higher discontinuation rates from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference 7%; p < 0.35; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.3; p = 0.04) and had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (absolute difference, -15 d; p < 0.001). None of the healthcare providers who performed all the percutaneous dilational tracheostomies procedures had clinical symptoms or any positive laboratory test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: In coronavirus disease 2019 patients on mechanical ventilation, an early modified percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was safe for patients and healthcare providers and associated with improved clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Dilatation/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
3.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 16-21, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize an experience of endoscopy-assisted dilatational tracheostomies in patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 31 endoscopy-assisted dilatational tracheostomies in patients with COVID-19 for the period from April 17 to June 10, 2020 (11 women and 19 men). Mean age of patients was 66.7 years (range 48-87). Tracheostomy was performed using Ciaglia (22) and Griggs (9) techniques. All procedures were carried out at the intensive care unit in elective fashion. RESULTS: Tracheostomy was performed in 19.8% of ICU patients or 36.9% of all patients on mechanical ventilation within 6.5±2.5 days [min 3, max 11]. There were 22 survivors with tracheostomy (70.9%) that is comparable with survival of patients without mechanical ventilation (79.7%) and slightly higher than in patients on ventilation without tracheostomy (65.4%). No complications during the procedure were noted. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy-assisted dilatational tracheostomy is preferred for prolonged mechanical ventilation, including patients with COVID-19. The undeniable advantages of this operation are fewer intraoperative complications due to endoscopic control, and lower risk of tracheal strictures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dilatation/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Endoscopy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tracheostomy/instrumentation , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dilatation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
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