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Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(10): 1125-1127, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054202


A 55-year-old man with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a pacemaker was admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Before admission, the patient's medications included amiodarone, diltiazem, bisoprolol, atorvastatin, etizolam, and warfarin (WF). After admission, dexamethasone (DXM) and remdesivir (RDV) were initiated for treating COVID-19. The international normalized ratio (INR) on admission was 1.8, which increased to 3.4 on day 5 and to 6.9 on day 10 after admission. Although there have been reports that RDV may occasionally prolong prothrombin time and that the degree of prolongation is often less severe, the mechanism of action has not been elucidated till date. There are reports of prolonged INR when WF is co-administered with RDV and DXM, suggesting that drug interactions may be a potential cause for the prolongation. A similar drug interaction may have potentially occurred in the case reported here. In addition, this case used amiodarone (AMD), and it has been reported that the RDV concentration increases when used in combination with AMD. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the cause of INR prolongation. Thus, close monitoring of the patient is recommended when RDV is co-administered with high-risk agents to avoid unnecessary side effects.

Amiodarone , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Atorvastatin , Bisoprolol , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Diltiazem , Drug Interactions , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Middle Aged , Warfarin/pharmacology
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010343, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690680


The continuous emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the increasing number of breakthrough infection cases among vaccinated people support the urgent need for research and development of antiviral drugs. Viral entry is an intriguing target for antiviral drug development. We found that diltiazem, a blocker of the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 pore-forming subunit (Cav1.2 α1c) and an FDA-approved drug, inhibits the binding and internalization of SARS-CoV-2, and decreases SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells and mouse lung. Cav1.2 α1c interacts with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2, and affects the attachment and internalization of SARS-CoV-2. Our finding suggests that diltiazem has potential as a drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection and that Cav1.2 α1c is a promising target for antiviral drug development for COVID-19.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diltiazem/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
Cell Rep Med ; 1(4): 100059, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665121


In the current COVID-19 pandemic context, proposing and validating effective treatments represents a major challenge. However, the scarcity of biologically relevant pre-clinical models of SARS-CoV-2 infection imposes a significant barrier for scientific and medical progress, including the rapid transition of potentially effective treatments to the clinical setting. We use reconstituted human airway epithelia to isolate and then characterize the viral infection kinetics, tissue-level remodeling of the cellular ultrastructure, and transcriptional early immune signatures induced by SARS-CoV-2 in a physiologically relevant model. Our results emphasize distinctive transcriptional immune signatures between nasal and bronchial HAE, both in terms of kinetics and intensity, hence suggesting putative intrinsic differences in the early response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most important, we provide evidence in human-derived tissues on the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir monotherapy and explore the potential of the remdesivir-diltiazem combination as an option worthy of further investigation to respond to the still-unmet COVID-19 medical need.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bronchi/virology , Nose/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Airway Remodeling , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Bronchi/drug effects , Bronchi/immunology , Bronchi/ultrastructure , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Models, Biological , Nose/drug effects , Nose/immunology , Nose/ultrastructure , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment