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World Neurosurg ; 156: 11, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454571


Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are acquired pathologic shunts between the carotid circulation and the cavernous sinus that result in venous congestion.1 They often present with ocular symptoms, such as chemosis, proptosis, and blurry vision. Cranial nerve deficits and increased intraocular pressure are often seen on the neuro-ophthalmologic examination.2 If left untreated, they can lead to cortical venous reflux and intracranial hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram is the gold standard to diagnose these lesions. The hallmark of dural CCF is opacification of venous structures in the arterial phase of the angiogram. Dependent on carotid branches contributing to the fistula, 4 types are classically defined by Barrow et al.3 When the fistula is indirect (types B-D), the goal of treatment is obliteration via the transvenous route.4 We present the case of a patient who had chemosis and proptosis of the left eye with imaging findings concerning for dural CCF (Video 1). An informed consent was obtained and the patient underwent a cerebral angiogram and treatment of the CCF. In the operative video, we showcase the treatment of a type D CCF using transvenous embolization with Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, CA) and achieve angiographic cure of the fistula. We were able to use Onyx for embolization since the superselective injection did not show cortical venous drainage. This is important as obliteration of cortical veins with liquid embolisate could cause venous infarcts. To our knowledge, this is the first video article that illustrates the endovascular embolization of a CCF and highlights the angiographic findings pre- and post-embolization.

Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Polyvinyls/administration & dosage , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/complications , Exophthalmos/diagnostic imaging , Exophthalmos/etiology , Exophthalmos/therapy , Humans , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Middle Aged
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109866, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386296


Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The therapeutic combinations have a wide range of virucidal effects on DNA and RNA containing viruses. The combinations also exhibit anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidative effects. Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection. The therapeutic compound can be applied as both etiological and pathogenesis therapy and used as an effective and safe antiseptic (disinfectant) for human and animals as well.

Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Iodides/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Zinc Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Virus Diseases/drug therapy