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1.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 110, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971806

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to describe osteoporosis-related care patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Alberta, Canada, relative to the 3-year preceding. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional study design encompassing 3-month periods of continuous administrative health data between March 15, 2017, and September 14, 2020, described osteoporosis-related healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and treatment patterns. Outcomes included patients with osteoporosis-related healthcare encounters, physician visits, diagnostic and laboratory test volumes, and treatment initiations and disruptions. The percent change between outcomes was calculated, averaged across the control periods (2017-2019), relative to the COVID-19 periods (2020). RESULTS: Relative to the average control March to June period, all HCRU declined during the corresponding COVID-19 period. There was a reduction of 14% in patients with osteoporosis healthcare encounters, 13% in general practitioner visits, 9% in specialist practitioner visits, 47% in bone mineral density tests, and 13% in vitamin D tests. Treatment initiations declined 43%, 26%, and 35% for oral bisphosphonates, intravenous bisphosphonates, and denosumab, respectively. Slight increases were observed in the proportion of patients with treatment disruptions. In the subsequent June to September period, HCRU either returned to or surpassed pre-pandemic levels, when including telehealth visits accounting for 33-45% of healthcare encounters during the COVID periods. Oral bisphosphonate treatment initiations remained lower than pre-pandemic levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the COVID-19 pandemic and corresponding public health lockdowns further heightened the "crisis" around the known gap in osteoporosis care and altered the provision of care (e.g., use of telehealth and initiation of treatment). Osteoporosis has a known substantial care and management disparity, which has been classified as a crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic created additional burden on osteoporosis patient care with healthcare encounters, physician visits, diagnostic and laboratory tests, and treatment initiations all declining during the initial pandemic period, relative to previous years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Humans , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/therapy , Pandemics
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 544, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951103

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic mainly affects the respiratory system; however, several oral and maxillofacial post-COVID-19 complications have also been observed. This series reports the growing number of osteonecrosis cases associated with post-COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, multi-center case series that reports cases with maxillary osteonecrosis after various periods of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the period between January and August 2021 based on the PROCESS guidelines. RESULTS: Twelve cases were reported with post-COVID-19 manifestation of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the maxillary jaw. Five patients were hospitalized during COVID-19 management and all of the twelve cases had at least one systematic Co-morbidity, and undertake corticosteroids prescription based on the COVID-19 disease treatment protocol. The mean onset of osteonecrosis symptoms appearance was 5.5 ± 2.43 weeks calculated from the day of the negative PCR test. The management was successfully done through surgical debridement and pre and post-operative antibiotics. No anti-fungal medications were prescribed as the fungal culture and the histopathological report were negative. CONCLUSION: Post-COVID-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (PC-RONJ) could be now considered as one of the potential post-COVID-19 oral and maxillofacial complications that occurs unprovokedly and mainly in the maxilla.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteonecrosis , COVID-19/complications , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Humans , Morbidity , Osteonecrosis/drug therapy , Osteonecrosis/epidemiology , Osteonecrosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 800376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662577

ABSTRACT

Background: Although genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Methodology: A retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients. Results: Twelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination. Conclusion: Patients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/epidemiology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(11): 2177-2183, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513806

ABSTRACT

The determinants of the susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations are yet not fully understood. Amino-bisphosphonates (N-BPs) have anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to reduce the incidence of lower respiratory infections, cardiovascular events, and cancer. We conducted a population-based retrospective observational cohort study with the primary objective of determining if oral N-BPs treatment can play a role in the susceptibility to development of severe COVID-19. Administrative International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical ModificationI (ICD-9-CM) and anatomical-therapeutic chemical (ATC) code data, representative of Italian population (9% sample of the overall population), were analyzed. Oral N-BPs (mainly alendronate and risedronate) were included in the analysis, zoledronic acid was excluded because of the low number of patients at risk. Incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was 12.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.61-15.04) and 11.55 (95% CI, 8.91-14.20), of intensive care unit (ICU) utilization because of COVID-19 was 1.25 (95% CI, 0.38-2.11) and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.49-2.36), and of all-cause death was 4.06 (95% CI, 2.50-5.61) and 3.96 (95% CI, 2.41-5.51) for oral N-BPs users and nonusers, respectively. Sensitivity analyses that excluded patients with prevalent vertebral or hip fragility fractures and without concomitant glucocorticoid treatment yielded similar results. In conclusion, we found that the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, and COVID-19 potentially related mortality were similar in N-BPs-treated and nontreated subjects. Similar results were found in N-BPs versus other anti-osteoporotic drugs. We provide real-life data on the safety of oral N-BPs in terms of severe COVID-19 risk on a population-based cohort. Our results do not support the hypothesis that oral N-BPs can prevent COVID-19 infection and/or severe COVID-19; however, they do not seem to increase the risk. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risedronic Acid , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Ther ; 43(4): 711-719, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and severe hypercalcemia, parathyroidectomy remains the only curative therapy. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, when many hospital visits are suspended and surgeries cannot be performed, the management of these patients represents a challenging clinical situation. This article presents a literature review and discussion of the pharmacologic management of PHPT and severe hypercalcemia, which can be used as a temporary measure during the COVID-19 pandemic until parathyroidectomy can be performed safely. METHODS: This narrative review was conducted by searching literature on the PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases using the terms primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, cinacalcet, bisphosphonates, denosumab, vitamin D, raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy, coronavirus, and COVID-19. FINDINGS: Appropriate monitoring and remote medical follow-up of these patients are essential until the resolution of the pandemic. Cinacalcet is the drug of choice for controlling hypercalcemia, whereas bisphosphonate or denosumab is the drug for improving bone mineral density. Combined therapy with cinacalcet and bisphosphonates or cinacalcet and denosumab should be considered when the effects on serum calcium and bone mineral density are simultaneously desired. IMPLICATIONS: Medical management of PHPT and severe hypercalcemia presents a reasonable alternative for parathyroid surgery during the COVID-19 outbreak and should be instituted until the pandemic ends and surgery can be performed safely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/drug therapy , Bone Density/drug effects , Calcium/blood , Cinacalcet/administration & dosage , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Parathyroidectomy , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/pharmacology
7.
Br J Haematol ; 193(6): 1034-1043, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949386

ABSTRACT

Bone-modifying therapies are essential in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. Zoledronic acid is preferred over other bisphosphonates due to its superiority in reducing the incidence of skeletal-related events and improving survival. The anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-κΒ ligand (RANKL)-targeted agent denosumab has shown its non-inferiority compared to bisphosphonates in preventing skeletal-related events among newly diagnosed patients with myeloma bone disease. Denosumab may confer a survival benefit in patients eligible for autologous transplantation. Denosumab may present a safer profile for patients with renal impairment. Discontinuation of bone-directed therapies can be considered for patients with deep responses and after an adequate time period on treatment; however, a rebound effect may become evident especially in the case of denosumab. Three-monthly infusions of zoledronic acid or at-home denosumab administration should be considered during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Measures to prevent hypocalcaemia, renal toxicity and osteonecrosis of the jaw are important for all bone-modifying agents.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Denosumab/adverse effects , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , Denosumab/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypercalcemia/complications , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Osteolysis/complications , Osteolysis/drug therapy , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Zoledronic Acid/therapeutic use
8.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 261, 2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617269

ABSTRACT

Amino-bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZA) can possibly ameliorate or prevent severe COVID-19 disease by at least three distinct mechanisms: (1) as immunostimulants which could boost γδ T cell expansion, important in the acute response in the lung; (2) as DC modulators, limiting their ability to only partially activate T cells; and (3) as prenylation inhibitors of small GTPases in the endosomal pathway of the DC to prevent expulsion of lysosomes containing SARS-CoV-2 virions. Use of ZA or other amino-bisphosphonates as modulators of COVID-19 disease should be considered.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Endosomes/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Endosomes/drug effects , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 300-306, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599332

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic has massively distorted our health care systems and caused catastrophic consequences in our affected communities. The number of victims continues to increase, and patients at risk can only be protected to a degree, because the virulent state may be asymptomatic. Risk factors concerning COVID-19-induced morbidity and mortality include advanced age, an impaired immune system, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cancer treated with chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the risk and impact of COVID-19 in patients with mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndromes. Because no published data are yet available, expert opinions are, by necessity, based on case experience and reports from patients. Although the overall risk to acquire the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may not be elevated in mast cell disease, certain conditions may increase the risk of infected patients to develop severe COVID-19. These factors include certain comorbidities, mast cell activation-related events affecting the cardiovascular or bronchopulmonary system, and chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, such treatments should be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis during a COVID-19 infection. In contrast, other therapies, such as anti-mediator-type drugs, venom immunotherapy, or vitamin D, should be continued. Overall, patients with mast cell disorders should follow the general and local guidelines in the COVID-19 pandemic and advice from their medical provider.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Mastocytosis, Systemic/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Expert Testimony , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/immunology , Mast Cells/pathology , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/pathology , Mastocytosis, Systemic/diagnosis , Mastocytosis, Systemic/epidemiology , Mastocytosis, Systemic/pathology , Myeloablative Agonists/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Precision Medicine/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
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