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2.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 74-83, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244757

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In addition to many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the COVID-19 pandemic also limited prophylaxis, including the implementation of the vaccination program among children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the implementation of the vaccination program in the area covered by the care of patients of a selected Primary Health Care clinic in the city of Krakow in the field of selected vaccinations during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study based on secondary data was conducted in a selected clinic (Kraków, Poland) that cares for 1,982 children aged 0-19 years. An analysis of the vaccination coverage in selected groups of children in 2019, 2020 and 2021 was carried out based on annual reports (MZ-54). Vaccination coverage against: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza and pneumococcal infection was analyzed. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: In the general vaccination status of two-year-olds, no significant differences were observed in the period 2019-2021 (p=0.156). The percentage of fully vaccinated increased from 77.6% in 2019, to 81.5% in 2020 and to 85.2% in 2021. However, a high rate of vaccination refusals was observed in 2021 (4.1%) in this group. The percentage of 2-year-olds vaccinated against pneumococci (PCV) and 3-year-olds against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP), and measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) in the years 2019-2021 was increasing. For DTP and MMR, this increase was significant (p<0.05). In the group of older children, in 2020 the percentage of 7- and 15-year-olds vaccinated decreased compared to 2019 and 2021, but the difference was insignificant (p>0.05). A significant difference in vaccination coverage was observed in the group of 19-year-olds, in which in 2020 the percentage of vaccinated was 58% (in 2019 - 74.6%, in 2021 - 81%). The largest number of children under the age of 5 were vaccinated against influenza in 2021, but it was only less than 2% of this group. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitary restrictions introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the vaccination status of children in selected age groups against the analyzed vaccine-preventable diseases. The exception is the group of 19-year-olds, whose vaccination coverage in 2020 was much lower than in 2019 and 2021. In addition, an increase in refusals of vaccination was observed, reaching 4.1% in 2021 in the group of the youngest patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria , Influenza, Human , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Mumps/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Vaccination , Rubella/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110210, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299449

ABSTRACT

Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is one of the major mental illnesses that is terrifically intensifying worldwide. It is becoming overwhelming due to limited options for treatment. The complexity of addiction disorders is the main impediment to understanding the pathophysiology of the illness. Hence, unveiling the complexity of the brain through basic research, identification of novel signaling pathways, the discovery of new drug targets, and advancement in cutting-edge technologies will help control this disorder. Additionally, there is a great hope of controlling the SUDs through immunotherapeutic measures like therapeutic antibodies and vaccines. Vaccines have played a cardinal role in eliminating many diseases like polio, measles, and smallpox. Further, vaccines have controlled many diseases like cholera, dengue, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), human papillomavirus, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, etc. Recently, COVID-19 was controlled in many countries by vaccination. Currently, continuous effort is done to develop vaccines against nicotine, cocaine, morphine, methamphetamine, and heroin. Antibody therapy against SUDs is another important area where serious attention is required. Antibodies have contributed substantially against many serious diseases like diphtheria, rabies, Crohn's disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and bladder cancer. Antibody therapy is gaining immense momentum due to its success rate in cancer treatment. Furthermore, enormous advancement has been made in antibody therapy due to the generation of high-efficiency humanized antibodies with a long half-life. The advantage of antibody therapy is its instant outcome. This article's main highlight is discussing the drug targets of SUDs and their associated mechanisms. Importantly, we have also discussed the scope of prophylactic measures to eliminate drug dependence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria , Influenza, Human , Substance-Related Disorders , Vaccines , Humans , Diphtheria/drug therapy , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy
4.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 141(5): 441-447, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294399

ABSTRACT

Importance: New-onset retinal vascular occlusion (RVO) occurring acutely after messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination has been described in recent literature. Because RVO can cause vision loss or blindness, an epidemiologic investigation evaluating this potential association is of great importance to public health. Objective: To investigate how often patients are diagnosed with new RVO acutely after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine compared with influenza and tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective population-based cohort design using the TriNetX Analytics platform, a federated, aggregated electronic health record (EHR) research network containing the deidentified EHR data of more than 103 million patients, was used to examine aggregate EHR data. Data were collected and analyzed on October 20, 2022. Data on patients within the TriNetX Analytics platform were searched for the presence of vaccination Common Procedural Technology codes, and instances of newly diagnosed RVO within 21 days of vaccination were recorded and reported. Propensity score matching based on demographic characteristics (age, sex, race and ethnicity) and comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia) was performed between vaccination groups for evaluation of relative risks (RRs). Main Outcomes and Measures: The appearance of a new-encounter diagnosis of RVO within 21 days of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was the primary outcome. Historical comparison cohorts of patients receiving influenza and Tdap vaccinations allowed for evaluation of the RRs for RVO. Results: Of 3 108 829 patients (mean [SD] age at vaccination, 50.7 [20.4] years; 56.4% women) who received the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 104 (0.003%; 95% CI, 0.003%-0.004%) patients had a new diagnosis of RVO within 21 days of vaccination. After propensity score matching, the RR for new RVO diagnosis after the first dose of COVID-19 vaccination was not significantly different from that after influenza (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54-1.01) or Tdap (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44-1.38) vaccinations, but was greater when compared with the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccination (RR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.33-3.81). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that RVO diagnosed acutely after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination occurs extremely rarely at rates similar to those of 2 different historically used vaccinations, the influenza and Tdap vaccines. No evidence suggesting an association between the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and newly diagnosed RVO was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Diphtheria , Emblems and Insignia , Influenza, Human , Tetanus , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/immunology , Electronic Health Records , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Tetanus/immunology , Tetanus/prevention & control , Diphtheria/immunology , Diphtheria/prevention & control
6.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281764, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283042

ABSTRACT

In this study the authors examine the relationship between "zero-dose" communities and access to healthcare services. This was done by first ensuring the first dose of the Diphtheria Tetanus and Pertussis vaccine was a better measure of zero-dose communities than the measles-containing vaccine. Once ensured, it was used to examine the association with access to primary healthcare services for children and pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh. These services were divided into: a) unscheduled healthcare services such as birth assistance as well as seeking care and treatment for diarrheal diseases and cough/fever episodes and b) other scheduled health services such as antenatal care visits and vitamin A supplementation. Using recent Demographic Health Survey data (2014: Democratic Republic of Congo, 2015: Afghanistan, 2018: Bangladesh), data was analyzed via Chi Squared analysis or Fischer's Exact Test. If significant, a linear regression analysis was performed to examine if the association was linear. While the linear relationship observed between children who had received the first dose of the Diphtheria Tetanus and Pertussis vaccine (the reverse to zero-dose communities) and coverage of other vaccines was expected, the results of the regression analysis depicted an unexpected split in behavior. For scheduled and birth assistance health services, a linear relationship was generally observed. For unscheduled services associated with illness treatments, this was not the case. While it does not appear that the first dose of the Diphtheria Tetanus and Pertussis vaccine can be used to predict (at least in a linear manner) access to some primary (particularly illness treatment) healthcare services in emergency/ humanitarian settings, it can serve as an indirect measure of health services not associated with the treatment of childhood infections such as antenatal care, skilled birth assistance, and to a lesser degree even vitamin A supplementation.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Humans , Female , Child , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Tetanus/prevention & control , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Vitamin A , Pertussis Vaccine , Measles Vaccine , Health Services , Primary Health Care , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the effectiveness of tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis childhood immunization programs is unquestionable, the actual need for a periodic boosting vaccination in adults is controversial. In Italy, the Ministry of Health recommends a Tdap booster vaccination every 10 years. The aim of this study is to assess the real-world adherence of Italian regional healthcare services to national recommendations and to evaluate two alternative strategies. METHODS: Annual Tdap vaccine requirements by the 21 Italian regions were retrieved from related tender announcements, and regional and national vaccination coverage rates (VCRs) were estimated for three scenarios, namely the currently recommended 10-year booster vaccination, a single booster shot at age 50 and at age 65. RESULTS: In Scenario 1, no region reached a VCR > 30%, and the national VCR was 10.6%; in Scenario 2, five regions achieved the optimal vaccination coverage of ≥95%, but the vast majority continued to have inadequate VCRs, with a national VCR of 54.4%; in Scenario 3, five regions reached VCRs exceeding 100%, with VCRs from other regions significantly improving and a national VCR of 74.8%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial lack of adherence by Italian regional healthcare services to current national recommendations on tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis adult vaccination was shown. Scenario 3 is the most feasible, i.e., a single booster shot at age 65, possibly administrable along with other already-recommended, age-specific vaccines.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Diphtheria , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Aged , Child , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Italy , Middle Aged , Tetanus/prevention & control , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
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