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1.
Global Health ; 18(1): 56, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866380

ABSTRACT

A challenging concept to teach, few combined courses on epidemic-related global health diplomacy and security exist, and no known courses are currently available that have been exclusively designed for African nationals. In response, the University of California, San Francisco's Center for Global Health Delivery, Diplomacy and Economics (CGHDDE) developed and delivered a workshop for LMIC learners to better understand how politics, policy, finance, governance and security coalesce to influence global health goals and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Diplomacy , Africa/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Politics
2.
Lancet ; 399(10341): 2156-2166, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852280

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, global health diplomacy, foreign policy for health, and global health policy have changed substantially. Diplomacy is a constitutive part of the system of global health governance. COVID-19 hit the world when multilateral cooperation was subject to major challenges, and global health has since become integral to geopolitics. The importance of global health diplomacy, especially at WHO, in keeping countries jointly committed to improving health for everyone, has once again been shown. Through a systematic review, this Series paper explores how international relations concepts and theories have been applied to better understand the role of power in shaping positions, negotiations, and outcomes in global health diplomacy. We apply an international relations perspective to reflect on the effect that those concepts and theories have had on global health diplomacy over the past two decades. This Series paper argues that a more central role of international relations concepts and theories in analysing global health diplomacy would help develop a more nuanced understanding of global health policy making. However, the world has changed to an extent that was not envisioned in academic discourse. This shift calls for new international relations concepts and theories to inform global health diplomacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Policy Making , Public Policy
3.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(5): 1019-1024, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593631

ABSTRACT

Actualizing the vision of Global Digital Health is a central issue on the Global Health Diplomacy agenda. The COVID-reinforced need for accelerated digital health progress will require political structures and processes to build a foundation for Global Digital Health. Simultaneously, Global Health Diplomacy uses digital technologies in its enactment. Both phenomena have driven interest in the term "Digital Health Diplomacy." A review of the literature revealed 2 emerging but distinct definitions that have been published very recently, each with its associated discourse and practice. This multiplicity of ideas demonstrates the myriad ways in which global digital and political systems are becoming increasingly entangled. Untangling these, this paper proposes and discusses 3 dimensions of Digital Health Diplomacy: "Diplomacy for digital health," "Digital health for diplomacy," and "Digital health in diplomacy." It calls upon digital health professionals, diplomats, political and social scientists, epidemiologists, and clinicians to discuss, critique, and advance this emerging domain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , Global Health , Humans
4.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 152, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The steady rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide has been a key global health challenge. Governments have the primary responsibility for taking action to prevent and control NCDs. Given the growing importance of globalization of healthcare as well as the increasing use of soft power, governments need to identify challenges and opportunities to enhance global health diplomacy (GHD) for NCD prevention and control. The purpose of this qualitative research was to explain the challenges and opportunities of GHD for NCDs in Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2020 using a qualitative approach and through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 experts and specialists in related fields such as health policy, healthcare management, epidemiology and other related specialties. The participants were selected from all levels of diplomacy, including global, regional and national levels, with at least 3 years of experience in managerial, executive and scientific activities. Data analysis was performed by content analysis with an inductive approach. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The identified challenges were categorized into five main themes, including content challenges, structural challenges, process challenges, governance challenges and cultural challenges. Opportunities extracted from the interviews were also categorized into four main themes, including strong political will, utilizing the capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), multisectoral collaborations and a well-developed health system. CONCLUSIONS: NCD prevention and control requires a multilateral collaboration-based solution. Recognition of the challenges and opportunities in GHD can help draw significant lessons for building the necessary capacities and implementing more effective policies to prevent and control NCDs.


Subject(s)
Diplomacy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Global Health , Health Policy , Humans , Iran , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020354, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560886
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512331

ABSTRACT

The African continent is home to 15% of the world's population and suffers from a disease burden of more than 25% globally. In this COVID-19 era, the high burden and mortality are further worsened due to inequities, inequalities such as inadequate health systems, scarce financial and human resources, as well as unavailability of inexpensive medicines of good quality, safety, and efficacy. The Universal Health Coverage ensures that people have access to high-quality essential health services, secure, reliable, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines, as well as financial security. This paper aimed at addressing the critical need for a continental African Medicines Agency (AMA) in addressing the inequities and the role of global health diplomacy in building consensus to support the ratification of the Treaty of AMA. A literature review was done in Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Google Scholar search engine to identify the critical literature in the context of study objectives. All the articles published after 2015 till 2021 in the context of AMA were included. African Health Strategy 2016-2030 highlighted the importance of an African regulatory mechanism for medicines and medical products. Through global health diplomacy (GHD), the African Union and its partners can negotiate and cooperate in providing infrastructural, administrative, and regulatory support for establishing the AMA. The paper emphasizes the South-South cooperation and highlights the contributions of India and China in the supply of medicines and vaccines to Africa. A strong AMA created through GHD can be a vital instrument in utilizing Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities extension and an ideal partner for European and other regional regulatory authorities seeking to stem the tide of counterfeit, sub-standard, or fake products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Health Insurance
8.
Perspect Public Health ; 141(3): 133-135, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511683
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376535

ABSTRACT

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Diplomacy/methods , Drug Industry/methods , Global Health , Health Services Accessibility , Human Rights/methods , Humans , India , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332149

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is not the first and most frightening global pandemic, and it may not be the last. At the very least, this phenomenon has though seriously challenged the health systems of the world; it has created a new perspective on the value of national, regional, and international cooperation during crises. The post-coronavirus world could be a world of intensified nationalist rivalries on the economic revival and political influence. However, strengthening cooperation among nations at different levels will lead to the growth of health, economy, and security. The current situation is a touchstone for international actors in coordinating the efforts in similar future crises. At present, this pandemic crisis cannot be resolved except through joint international cooperation, global cohesion, and multilateralism. This perspective concludes that the pandemic could be an excellent opportunity for the scope of global health diplomacy (GHD) and how it can be applied and practiced for strengthening five global arenas, namely (1) International Cooperation and Global Solidarity, (2) Global Economy, Trade and Development, (3) Global Health Security, (4) Strengthening health systems, and (5) Addressing inequities to achieve the global health targets. GHD proves to be very useful for negotiating better policies, stronger partnerships, and achieving international cooperation in this phase with many geopolitical shifts and nationalist mindset among many nations at this stage of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(1): e8-e9, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213881
15.
Arch Med Res ; 52(7): 761-763, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201330

ABSTRACT

The wealthy countries have already secured 60% of the total coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine supplies for their citizens. Some of these countries have pre-ordered vaccine doses sufficient enough to vaccinate their population multiple times. India has recently initiated a diplomatic mission named "Vaccine Maitri" to provide COVID-19 vaccine doses to needy low-income countries. The ability of the country to manufacture cost-effective vaccines along with the ability to export large vaccine consignments worldwide will help to meet the global COVID-19 vaccine requirements. Furthermore, global vaccination coverage can only be achieved by ensuring equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
J Travel Med ; 28(7)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192268
18.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 12, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181130

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is considerably the biggest global health challenge of this modern era. Spreading across all regions of the world, this corona virus disease has disrupted even some of the most advanced economies and healthcare systems. With an increasing global death toll and no near end in sight, questions on the efficacy of global response mechanisms, including the role and relevancy of global health institutions, have emerged. Using a reflexive content analytic approach, this study sheds light on some of these questions, underscoring the disconnect between science, policymaking, and society. Global health funding approaches; politicization of the pandemic, including political blame gaming; mistrust of government and other institutions; and a lack of robust accountability measures are some of the pandemic response obstacles. However, COVID-19 has also presented an opportunity for a collaboration that may potentially solidify global solidarity. A pandemic response built on strategic global health diplomacy, vaccine diplomacy, and science diplomacy can spur both political and economic benefits, advancing development, health security, and justice. The virus thrives and flourishes in face of political divisions and lack of cooperation. While the current global crisis has exacerbated the existing social injustices in societies, national unity and global solidarity is essential to winning the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diplomacy/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physicians , Humans
20.
Int Nurs Rev ; 68(3): 380-387, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032356

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the factors affecting the emergence of diplomacy in Iranian nurse managers. BACKGROUND: Today, with the development of complex health systems, diplomacy in health care can take place at organizational, national and international levels. INTRODUCTION: Diplomacy's role is to convince others peacefully to achieve goals. Diplomacy in nursing can facilitate professional development and direct policy and decision-making process towards the development of a healthcare system. METHODS: The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. The sampling method was purposeful, and data were collected via in-depth, unstructured and face-to-face interviews with 16 participants. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed through conventional content analysis based on Graneheim and Lundman's work. RESULTS: In total, 212 codes were generated, which were grouped into three main categories, namely paradigmatic socio-political changes (two subcategories), nurses' dissatisfaction with their status in healthcare system (two subcategories) and multidimensional development of the nursing profession (four subcategories). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Socio-political changes, development of the nursing profession and nurses' dissatisfaction with the health system have led to the emergence of diplomacy roles in nurse managers, the recognition and development of which can improve the effectiveness of nurse managers in policymaking. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING & HEALTH POLICY: The recent COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has demonstrated the urgent need to use diplomacy to solve health problems and adjust or develop policymaking at the national and international levels. Strengthening their role in diplomacy, nurse managers can play an important role as diplomats at various levels of policymaking and in health crisis management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , Nurse Administrators , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
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