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1.
Work ; 68(1): 77-80, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, rehabilitation facilities have become less accessible for patients with a stroke. Lack of early, intensive rehabilitation misses the opportunity for recovery during the critical time window of endogenous plasticity and improvement post-stroke. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this commentary was to highlighting the benefits of telework and telerehabilitation programs for workers with a stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Relevant publications regarding the management of individuals with a stroke, telerehabilitation and teleworking in the setting of COVID-19 were reviewed. RESULTS: Previous studies showed that telerehabilitation can effectively provide an alternate method of promoting recovery for patients with a stroke. With the physical distancing precautions in place for mitigating viral spread, teleworking can also provide a method for long term recovery and improvements in quality of life after a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this commentary addresses the benefits of physically distant, safe and effective alternatives to support individuals who live with a stroke during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Stroke/complications , Telerehabilitation/methods , Teleworking , Work/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Telerehabilitation/trends , Work/trends
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons with disabilities (PwDs) in India. About 27.4 million cases were reported as of 27 May 2021. The continuing pandemic in the form of subsequent waves is expected to have negative repercussions for the disabled globally, particularly in India, where access to health, rehabilitation, and social care services is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown restrictions on PwDs in India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of disruption due to COVID-19 and the associated countrywide lockdown restrictions on PwD in India during the first wave. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach, data were collected from a representative sample of 403 persons with disabilities in 14 states in India during the COVID-19 first wave at two different points in time (Lockdown and post-lockdown phase). Factors associated with the negative impact were examined using the Chi-square test for associations. The paired comparisons between 'lockdown' with the 'post-lockdown' phase are presented using McNemar's test and the marginal homogeneity test to compare the proportions. Additionally, a subsample of the participants in the survey was identified to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to gain in-depth insights on the study question and substantiate the quantitative findings. The framework approach was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: About 60% of the PwDs found it difficult to access emergency medical services during the lockdown, and 4.6% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Likewise, 12% found it difficult to access rehabilitation services during the lockdown, and 5% post lockdown (p = 0.03). About 76% of respondents were apprehensive of the risk of infection during the lockdown, and this increased to 92% post lockdown (p < 0.001). Parents with children were significantly impacted due to lockdown in the areas of Medical (p = 0.007), Rehabilitation (p = 0.001), and Mental health services (p = 0.001). The results from the qualitative study supported these quantitative findings. PWDs felt that the lockdown restrictions had negatively impacted their productivity, social participation, and overall engagement in everyday activities. Access to medicines and rehabilitation services was felt to be extremely difficult and detrimental to the therapeutic benefits that were gained by them during the pre-pandemic time. None of the pandemic mitigation plans and services was specific or inclusive of PWDs. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and the associated lockdown restrictions have negatively impacted persons with disabilities during the first wave in India. It is critical to mainstream disability within the agenda for health and development with pragmatic, context-specific strategies and programs in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2032929, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740667

ABSTRACT

The National Disability Policy was launched in Zimbabwe in June 2021 and includes a range of commitments for the provision of disability-inclusive health services and rehabilitation. Fulfilment of these pledges is important, as at least 7% of the population have disabilities, and people with disabilities face greater challenges accessing healthcare services and experience worse health outcomes. However, it will require financial investment which is challenging as the needs of people with disabilities are set against a background of widespread health systems failures in Zimbabwe, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Zimbabwe currently faces an epidemic of TB and HIV and a growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with a lack of investment, healthcare staff or infrastructure to provide the necessary care. Urgent action is therefore needed to strengthen the health system and 'build back better' after both the pandemic and the regime change. The Zimbabwean government may face the dilemma, common in many low-resource settings, of whether to focus on disability or to wait until the health system has been strengthened for the majority. This paper proposed four complementary arguments why it is important to focus on people with disabilities. First, this focus respects the rights of people with disabilities, including those specified in the new National Disability Policy. Second, it will be challenging to reach the Sustainable Development Goals, including those on health and other global health targets, without including people with disabilities. Third, there is a growing rationale that disability-inclusive health systems will work better for all, and fourth, that they will create cost savings. Everyone will therefore benefit when the health systems are designed for inclusion. In conclusion, a focus on disability may help to strengthen health systems for all as well as helping to achieve human rights and global development goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736904

ABSTRACT

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization (WHO) was established as an international framework for monitoring rehabilitation outcomes and the impacts of health interventions since, as the term "functioning" implies, it emphasizes a person's "lived health" in addition to their biological health status. Equine-assisted therapy (EAT) represents a holistic intervention approach that aims to improve both biomedical functioning and the patient's lived health in relation to performing activities and participating in social situations. In this study, the psychometric properties of an ICF-based digital assessment tool for the measurement of the rehabilitation impacts of EAT were analyzed via simultaneous confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and reliability and sensitivity tests. In total, 265 patients from equine-assisted therapy centers in Germany were included for CFA. Change sensitivity was assessed via multi-level analyses based on 876 repeated assessments by 30 therapists. Results show satisfactory model-fit statistics; McDonald's omega (ML) showed excellent scores for the total scale (ω = 0.96) and three subscales (ω = 0.95; ω = 0.95, ω = 0.93). The tool proved itself to be change sensitive and reliable (change sensitivity p ≤ 0.001), retest r = 0.745 **, p ≤ 0.001). Overall, the developed assessment tool satisfactorily fulfills psychometric requirements and can be applied in therapeutic practice.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Equine-Assisted Therapy , Animals , Disability Evaluation , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Horses , Humans , International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health , Reproducibility of Results
7.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 24, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions, MSK pain and MSK injury/trauma are the largest contributors to the global burden of disability, yet global guidance to arrest the rising disability burden is lacking. We aimed to explore contemporary context, challenges and opportunities at a global level and relevant to health systems strengthening for MSK health, as identified by international key informants (KIs) to inform a global MSK health strategic response. METHODS: An in-depth qualitative study was undertaken with international KIs, purposively sampled across high-income and low and middle-income countries (LMICs). KIs identified as representatives of peak global and international organisations (clinical/professional, advocacy, national government and the World Health Organization), thought leaders, and people with lived experience in advocacy roles. Verbatim transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews were analysed inductively using a grounded theory method. Data were organised into categories describing 1) contemporary context; 2) goals; 3) guiding principles; 4) accelerators for action; and 5) strategic priority areas (pillars), to build a data-driven logic model. Here, we report on categories 1-4 of the logic model. RESULTS: Thirty-one KIs from 20 countries (40% LMICs) affiliated with 25 organisations participated. Six themes described contemporary context (category 1): 1) MSK health is afforded relatively lower priority status compared with other health conditions and is poorly legitimised; 2) improving MSK health is more than just healthcare; 3) global guidance for country-level system strengthening is needed; 4) impact of COVID-19 on MSK health; 5) multiple inequities associated with MSK health; and 6) complexity in health service delivery for MSK health. Five guiding principles (category 3) focussed on adaptability; inclusiveness through co-design; prevention and reducing disability; a lifecourse approach; and equity and value-based care. Goals (category 2) and seven accelerators for action (category 4) were also derived. CONCLUSION: KIs strongly supported the creation of an adaptable global strategy to catalyse and steward country-level health systems strengthening responses for MSK health. The data-driven logic model provides a blueprint for global agencies and countries to initiate appropriate whole-of-health system reforms to improve population-level prevention and management of MSK health. Contextual considerations about MSK health and accelerators for action should be considered in reform activities.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones/injuries , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Muscles/injuries , Musculoskeletal Pain/therapy , Bone and Bones/physiopathology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Muscles/physiopathology , World Health Organization
9.
Rehabil Nurs ; 46(4): 187-196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is impacting post-acute inpatient rehabilitation nursing practice from preadmission assessment to inpatient care delivery and transition planning. Patients with disability following COVID-19 require interventions to address respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial issues. The pandemic has resulted in changes to program structures and how inpatient rehabilitation facilities approach family caregiver engagement amidst visitation restrictions. Technology solutions can be utilized to reduce the patient and their family's feelings of isolation and support caregiver preparation for discharge. Nurse leaders are essential in supporting staff during this crisis through authentic presence and providing resources and training. Rehabilitation nurses are key in helping patients and families manage rehabilitation and the aftermath of COVID-19 to restore optimal functioning. In this clinical consultation, we synthesize insights learned from the COVID-19 responses at three inpatient rehabilitation facilities. We describe the impact of rehabilitation nursing interventions to improve outcomes for patients with COVID-19 and their caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Continuity of Patient Care , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Inpatients , Rehabilitation Nursing/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Caregivers , Humans
10.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 64(5): 547-556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201351

ABSTRACT

This commentary addresses barriers to care among older adults living with neurodiversity (ND), and their aging family carers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Factors contributing to inequities are described and the significant negative consequences of current policy decisions on the social and mental health of older adults with ND and their aging family carers are highlighted. The commentary calls for a collective social work response that highlights the critical role of support and advocacy necessary to redress social exclusion.


Subject(s)
Aging/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Caregivers/standards , Disabled Persons/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Work/methods
12.
Respiration ; 100(5): 416-422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients recovering from the SARS-coronavirus-2 disease 19 (COVID-19), high prevalence of muscle weakness and physical performance impairment has been observed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in these subjects in a real-life setting. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of patients recovering from COVID-19, including those requiring assisted ventilation or oxygen therapy, consecutively admitted to an in-patient pulmonary rehabilitation program between April 1 and August 15, 2020. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB: primary outcome), Barthel Index (BI), and six-min walking distance were assessed as outcome measures. RESULTS: Data of 140 patients were analyzed. After rehabilitation, patients showed improvements in SPPB {from: (median [IQR]) 0.5 (0-7) to 7 (4-10), p < 0.001} and BI (from 55 [30-90] to 95 [65-100], p < 0.001), as well as in other assessed outcome measures. The proportion of patients unable at admission to stand, rise from a chair and walk was significantly reduced (p < 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation is possible and effective in patients recovering from COVID-19. Our findings may be useful to guide clinicians taking care of patients surviving COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(7): 1308-1316, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report symptoms, disability, and rehabilitation referral rates after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization in a large, predominantly older population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, with postdischarge telemonitoring of individuals hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 at the first month after hospital discharge, as part of a comprehensive telerehabilitation program. SETTING: Private verticalized health care network specialized in the older population. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals hospitalized because of COVID-19. We included 1696 consecutive patients, aged 71.8±13.0 years old and 56.1% female. Comorbidities were present in 82.3% of the cases (N=1696). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dependence for basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) using the Barthel Index and Lawton's Scale. We compared the outcomes between participants admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) vs those admitted to the ward. RESULTS: Participant were followed up for 21.8±11.7 days after discharge. During postdischarge assessment, independence for ADL was found to be lower in the group admitted to the ICU than the ward group (61.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), 55.8%-66.2%] vs 72.7% [95% CI, 70.3%-75.1%], P<.001). Dependence for IADL was also more frequent in the ICU group (84.6% [95% CI, 80.4%-88.2%] vs 74.5%, [95% CI, 72.0%-76.8%], P<.001). Individuals admitted to ICU required more oxygen therapy (25.5% vs 12.6%, P<.001), presented more shortness of breath during routine (45.2% vs 34.5%, P<.001) and nonroutine activities (66.3% vs 48.2%, P<.001), and had more difficulty standing up for 10 minutes (49.3% vs 37.9% P<.001). The rehabilitation treatment plan consisted mostly of exercise booklets, which were offered to 65.5% of participants. The most referred rehabilitation professionals were psychologists (11.8%), physical therapists (8.0%), dietitians (6.8%), and speech-language pathologists (4.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals hospitalized because of COVID-19 present high levels of disability, dyspnea, dysphagia, and dependence for both ADL and IADL. Those admitted to the ICU presented more advanced disability parameters.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation , Telerehabilitation/methods , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Rehabil Psychol ; 65(4): 313-322, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To inform the field of rehabilitation psychology about the impacts of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on the disability community in the United States and the additional sources of stress and trauma disabled people face during these times. METHOD: A review of the literature on disability and COVID-19 is provided, with an emphasis on sources of trauma and stress that disproportionately impact the disability community and the ways in which disability intersects with other marginalized identities in the context of trauma and the pandemic. We also reflect on the potential impacts on the field of psychology and the ways in which psychologists, led by rehabilitation psychologists, can support disabled clients and the broader disability community at both the individual client and systemic levels. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic introduces unique potential sources of trauma and stress within the disability community, including concerns about health care rationing and ableism in health care, isolation, and the deaths and illnesses of loved ones and community members. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Rehabilitation psychologists and other professionals should be aware of the potential for trauma and stress among disabled clients and work with them to mitigate its effects. Additionally, psychologists should also work with the disability community and disabled colleagues to address systemic and institutional ableism and its intersections with other forms of oppression. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Wounds and Injuries/psychology , COVID-19/complications , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Wounds and Injuries/complications
17.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(6): 1075-1083, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the consequences of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), with particular attention to unique effects for individuals with chronic disability. DESIGN: Individuals with and without a history of TBI completed a web-based survey. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the Vanderbilt Brain Injury Patient Registry in Nashville, TN, and completed the survey from their homes between May and June 2020, during social distancing related to the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=47) in the chronic phase of moderate-severe TBI (>6mo postinjury) and 51 noninjured comparison (NC) peers completed the survey. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants, or respondents, answered a mix of multiple choice and free text questions about how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their work, education, medical care, social communication, sources of information and decision making, and mental and physical well-being. Individuals with TBI also answered questions about how TBI has affected their experiences of the pandemic. RESULTS: As a group, respondents with TBI reported less pandemic-related behavior change (eg, daily habits, virtual social visits, and masking) than NC peers. Both NCs and respondents with TBI identified health care providers as trusted sources of public health information. One-third of individuals with TBI indicated that brain injury has made coping with the pandemic more difficult, and respondents identified mental health challenges and social isolation as key barriers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that health care providers should look for ways to provide tailored education and reduce social isolation for individuals with disability during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We discuss several direct suggestions from participant responses.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/rehabilitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adult , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 111: 103889, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 measures face-to-face contact is limited and professional carers have to find other ways to support people with intellectual disabilities. COVID-19 measures can increase stress in people with intellectual disabilities, although some people may adapt to or grow from these uncertain situations. Resilience is the process of effectively negotiating, adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress and trauma. The current study aims to provide professional carers with new insights into how they can support people with intellectual disabilities. METHOD: An online survey was shared through the social media and organizational newsletters of MEE ZHN (a non-governmental organization for people with disabilities). The resilience framework by Ungar (2019) was adapted to fit to people with intellectual disabilities during COVID-19 measures. Statistical analyses were performed in SPSS statistics version 26. RESULTS: Results show that professional carers applied diverse and distal methods to maintain contact with people with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 measures. Professional carers reported a significant decrease in the quality of contact with clients with intellectual disabilities, but overall high levels of resilience in the same clients. IMPLICATIONS: Online methods of communication are possibly insufficient for professionals to cover all needs of people with intellectual disabilities. During this pandemic professionals should be aware of stress but also of resilience in people with intellectual disabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Disabled Persons , Intellectual Disability , Psychosocial Support Systems , Resilience, Psychological , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Disabled Persons/psychology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Intellectual Disability/rehabilitation , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Professional-Patient Relations , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Work ; 67(1): 37-46, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that emerged in late 2019, and later become a global pandemic, has unleashed an almost unprecedented global public health and economic crisis. OBJECTIVE: In this perspective, we examine the effects of COVID-19 and identify a likely 'new normal' in terms of challenges and opportunities within the fields of disability, telework, and rehabilitation. METHODS: We use a systems thinking lens informed by recent empirical evidence and peer-reviewed qualitative accounts regarding the pandemic to identify emerging challenges, and pinpoint opportunities related to health and changing employment infrastructure of people with disabilities and rehabilitation professionals. RESULTS: From our interpretation, the key leverage points or opportunities include: (1) developing disability-inclusive public health responses and emergency preparedness; (2) enabling employment and telework opportunities for people with disabilities; (3) addressing the new requirements in rehabilitation service provision, including participating as essential team members in the care of people with infectious diseases such as COVID-19; (4) embracing the added emphasis on, and capacity for, telehealth; and (5) developing greater resilience, distance learning, and employability among the rehabilitation workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has become increasingly challenging to the lives of people with disabilities and rehabilitation professionals; however, key challenges can be minimized and opportunities can be capitalized upon in order to 'build back better' after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/economics , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Economic Recession , Employment/organization & administration , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Workplace/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Education, Distance , Humans , Organizational Innovation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rehabilitation Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Systems Analysis , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telemedicine , Workforce/trends
20.
Disabil Health J ; 14(2): 101050, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957007

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has exacerbated pre-existing difficulties children and adults with disability face accessing quality health care. Some people with disability are at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 because they require support for personal care and are unable to physically distance, e.g. those living in congregate settings. Additionally, some people with disability have health conditions that put them at higher risk of poor outcomes if they become infected. Despite this, governments have been slow to recognise, and respond to, the unique and diverse health care needs of people with disability during COVID-19. While some countries, including Australia, have improved access to high-quality health care for people with disability others, like England, have failed to support their citizens with disability. In this Commentary we describe the health care responses of England and Australia and make recommendations for rapidly improving health care for people with disability in the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia , Child , England , Humans , Pandemics
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