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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 370-371, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734127
2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(5): 535-536, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594407
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 610, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disaster medicine is a component of the German medical education since 2003. Nevertheless, studies have shown some inconsistencies within the implementation of the national curriculum, and limits in the number of students trained over the years. Recently, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and other disasters have called attention to the importance of training medical students in disaster medicine on a coordinated basis. The aim of this study is to present and evaluate the disaster medicine and humanitarian assistance course, which was developed in the University of Tübingen, Germany. METHODS: The University Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine in Tübingen expanded the existing curriculum of undergraduate disaster medicine training with fundamentals of humanitarian medicine, integrating distance learning, interactive teaching and simulation sessions in a 40 h course for third-, fourth- and fifth- year medical students. This prospective and cross-sectional study evaluates the Disaster Medicine and Humanitarian Assistance course carried out over five semesters during the period between 2018 and 2020. Three survey tools were used to assess participants' previous experiences and interest in the field of disaster medicine, to compare the subjective and objective level of knowledge before and after training, and to evaluate the course quality. RESULTS: The total number of medical students attending the five courses was n = 102 of which n = 60 females (59%) and n = 42 males (41%). One hundred two students entered the mandatory knowledge assessment, with the rate of correct answers passing from 73.27% in the pre-test to 95.23% in the post-test (t [101] = 18.939, p < .001, d = 1.88). To determine the subjective perception of knowledge data were collected from 107 observations. Twenty-five did not complete the both questionnaires. Out of a remaining sample of 82 observations, the subjective perception of knowledge increased after the course (t [81] = 24.426, p < .001, d = 2.69), alongside with the interest in engaging in the field of disaster medicine (t [81] = 7.031, p < .001, d = .78). The 93.46% of the medical students (n = 100) graded the training received with an excellent overall score (1.01 out of 6). CONCLUSION: The study indicates a significant increase in students' understanding of disaster medicine using both subjective and objective measurements, as well as an increase interest in the field of disaster medicine and humanitarian assistance. Whereas former studies showed insufficient objective knowledge regarding disaster medical practices as well as subjective insecurities about their skills and knowledge to deal with disaster scenarios, the presented course seems to overcome these deficiencies preparing future physicians with the fundamentals of analysis and response to disasters. The development and successful implementation of this course is a first step towards fulfilling disaster medicine education requirements, appearing to address the deficiencies documented in previous studies. A possible adaptation with virtual reality approaches could expand access to a larger audience. Further effort must be made to develop also international training programs, which should be a mandatory component of medical schools' curricula.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Medicine , Relief Work , Students, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Med J Aust ; 213 Suppl 11: S3-S32.e1, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456469

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1: RETAIL INITIATIVES TO IMPROVE THE HEALTHINESS OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTS IN RURAL, REGIONAL AND REMOTE COMMUNITIES: Objective: To synthesise the evidence for effectiveness of initiatives aimed at improving food retail environments and consumer dietary behaviour in rural, regional and remote populations in Australia and comparable countries, and to discuss the implications for future food environment initiatives for rural, regional and remote areas of Australia. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid review of articles published between January 2000 and May 2020. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE (EBSCOhost), Health and Society Database (Informit) and Rural and Remote Health Database (Informit), and included studies undertaken in rural food environment settings in Australia and other countries. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria, including five conducted in Australia. Four of the Australian studies were conducted in very remote populations and in grocery stores, and one was conducted in regional Australia. All of the overseas studies were conducted in rural North America. All of them revealed a positive influence on food environment or consumer behaviour, and all were conducted in disadvantaged, rural communities. Positive outcomes were consistently revealed by studies of initiatives that focused on promotion and awareness of healthy foods and included co-design to generate community ownership and branding. CONCLUSION: Initiatives aimed at improving rural food retail environments were effective and, when implemented in different rural settings, may encourage improvements in population diets. The paucity of studies over the past 20 years in Australia shows a need for more research into effective food retail environment initiatives, modelled on examples from overseas, with studies needed across all levels of remoteness in Australia. Several retail initiatives that were undertaken in rural North America could be replicated in rural Australia and could underpin future research. CHAPTER 2: WHICH INTERVENTIONS BEST SUPPORT THE HEALTH AND WELLBEING NEEDS OF RURAL POPULATIONS EXPERIENCING NATURAL DISASTERS?: Objective: To explore and evaluate health and social care interventions delivered to rural and remote communities experiencing natural disasters in Australia and other high income countries. STUDY DESIGN: We used systematic rapid review methods. First we identified a test set of citations and generated a frequency table of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to index articles. Then we used combinations of MeSH terms and keywords to search the MEDLINE (Ovid) database, and screened the titles and abstracts of the retrieved references. DATA SOURCES: We identified 1438 articles via database searches, and a further 62 articles via hand searching of key journals and reference lists. We also found four relevant grey literature resources. After removing duplicates and undertaking two stages of screening, we included 28 studies in a synthesis of qualitative evidence. DATA SYNTHESIS: Four of us read and assessed the full text articles. We then conducted a thematic analysis using the three phases of the natural disaster response cycle. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of robust evaluation of programs and interventions supporting the health and wellbeing of people in rural communities affected by natural disasters. To address the cumulative and long term impacts, evidence suggests that continuous support of people's health and wellbeing is needed. By using a lens of rural adversity, the complexity of the lived experience of natural disasters by rural residents can be better understood and can inform development of new models of community-based and integrated care services. CHAPTER 3: THE IMPACT OF BUSHFIRE ON THE WELLBEING OF CHILDREN LIVING IN RURAL AND REMOTE AUSTRALIA: Objective: To investigate the impact of bushfire events on the wellbeing of children living in rural and remote Australia. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review completed using rapid realist review methods, and taking into consideration the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement for systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: We sourced data from six databases: EBSCOhost (Education), EBSCOhost (Health), EBSCOhost (Psychology), Informit, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We developed search terms to identify articles that could address the research question based on the inclusion criteria of peer reviewed full text journal articles published in English between 1983 and 2020. We initially identified 60 studies and, following closer review, extracted data from eight studies that met the inclusion criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS: Children exposed to bushfires may be at increased risk of poorer wellbeing outcomes. Findings suggest that the impact of bushfire exposure may not be apparent in the short term but may become more pronounced later in life. Children particularly at risk are those from more vulnerable backgrounds who may have compounding factors that limit their ability to overcome bushfire trauma. CONCLUSION: We identified the short, medium and long term impacts of bushfire exposure on the wellbeing of children in Australia. We did not identify any evidence-based interventions for supporting outcomes for this population. Given the likely increase in bushfire events in Australia, research into effective interventions should be a priority. CHAPTER 4: THE ROLE OF NATIONAL POLICIES TO ADDRESS RURAL ALLIED HEALTH, NURSING AND DENTISTRY WORKFORCE MALDISTRIBUTION: Objective: Maldistribution of the health workforce between rural, remote and metropolitan communities contributes to longstanding health inequalities. Many developed countries have implemented policies to encourage health care professionals to work in rural and remote communities. This scoping review is an international synthesis of those policies, examining their effectiveness at recruiting and retaining nursing, dental and allied health professionals in rural communities. STUDY DESIGN: Using scoping review methods, we included primary research - published between 1 September 2009 and 30 June 2020 - that reported an evaluation of existing policy initiatives to address workforce maldistribution in high income countries with a land mass greater than 100 000 km2 . DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Emcare, Informit, Scopus, and Web of Science. We screened 5169 articles for inclusion by title and abstract, of which we included 297 for full text screening. We then extracted data on 51 studies that had been conducted in Australia, the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Norway. DATA SYNTHESIS: We grouped the studies based on World Health Organization recommendations on recruitment and retention of health care workers: education strategies (n = 27), regulatory change (n = 11), financial incentives (n = 6), personal and professional support (n = 4), and approaches with multiple components (n = 3). CONCLUSION: Considerable work has occurred to address workforce maldistribution at a local level, underpinned by good practice guidelines, but rarely at scale or with explicit links to coherent overarching policy. To achieve policy aspirations, multiple synergistic evidence-based initiatives are needed, and implementation must be accompanied by well designed longitudinal evaluations that assess the effectiveness of policy objectives. CHAPTER 5: AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLICLY AVAILABLE HEALTH WORKFORCE DATA SOURCES IN AUSTRALIA: Objective: Many data sources are used in Australia to inform health workforce planning, but their characteristics in terms of relevance, accessibility and accuracy are uncertain. We aimed to identify and appraise publicly available data sources used to describe the Australian health workforce. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a scoping review in which we searched bibliographic databases, websites and grey literature. Two reviewers independently undertook title and abstract screening and full text screening using Covidence software. We then assessed the relevance, accessibility and accuracy of data sources using a customised appraisal tool. DATA SOURCES: We searched for potential workforce data sources in nine databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Emcare, Scopus, Web of Science, Informit, the JBI Evidence-based Practice Database, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library) and the grey literature, and examined several pre-defined websites. DATA SYNTHESIS: During the screening process we identified 6955 abstracts and examined 48 websites, from which we identified 12 publicly available data sources - eight primary and four secondary data sources. The primary data sources were generally of modest quality, with low scores in terms of reference period, accessibility and missing data. No single primary data source scored well across all domains of the appraisal tool. CONCLUSION: We identified several limitations of data sources used to describe the Australian health workforce. Establishment of a high quality, longitudinal, linked database that can inform all aspects of health workforce development is urgently needed, particularly for rural health workforce and services planning. CHAPTER 6: RAPID REALIST REVIEW OF OPIOID TAPERING IN THE CONTEXT OF LONG TERM OPIOID USE FOR NON-CANCER PAIN IN RURAL AREAS: Objective: To describe interventions, barriers and enablers associated with opioid tapering for patients with chronic non-cancer pain in rural primary care settings. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid realist review registered on the international register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) and conducted in accordance with RAMESES standards. DATA SOURCES: English language, peer-reviewed articles reporting qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies, published between January 2016 and July 2020, and accessed via MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, Informit or the Cochrane Library during June and July 2020. Grey literature relating to prescribing,deprescribing or tapering of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain, published between January 2016 and July 2020, was identified by searching national and international government, health service and peek organisation websites using Google Scholar. DATA SYNTHESIS: Our analysis of reported approaches to tapering conducted across rural and non-rural contexts showed that tapering opioids is complex and challenging, and identified several barriers and enablers. Successful outcomes in rural areas appear likely through therapeutic relationships, coordination and support, by using modalities and models of care that are appropriate in rural settings and by paying attention to harm minimisation. CONCLUSION: Rural primary care providers do not have access to resources available in metropolitan centres for dealing with patients who have chronic non-cancer pain and are taking opioid medications. They often operate alone or in small group practices, without peer support and access to multidisciplinary and specialist teams. Opioid tapering approaches described in the literature include regulation, multimodal and multidisciplinary approaches, primary care provider support, guidelines, and patient-centred strategies. There is little research to inform tapering in rural contexts. Our review provides a synthesis of the current evidence in the form of a conceptual model. This preliminary model could inform the development of a model of care for use in implementation research, which could test a variety of mechanisms for supporting decision making, reducing primary care providers' concerns about potential harms arising from opioid tapering, and improving patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Health Services Research , Regional Medical Programs , Rural Health Services , Allied Health Personnel/supply & distribution , Australia , Dentists/supply & distribution , Diet, Healthy , Disaster Medicine , Food Supply , Humans , Natural Disasters , Nurses/supply & distribution
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378227

ABSTRACT

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 placed human health at the centre of disaster risk reduction, calling for the global community to enhance local and national health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM). The Health EDRM Framework, published in 2019, describes the functions required for comprehensive disaster risk management across prevention, preparedness, readiness, response, and recovery to improve the resilience and health security of communities, countries, and health systems. Evidence-based Health EDRM workforce development is vital. However, there are still significant gaps in the evidence identifying common competencies for training and education programmes, and the clarification of strategies for workforce retention, motivation, deployment, and coordination. Initiated in June 2020, this project includes literature reviews, case studies, and an expert consensus (modified Delphi) study. Literature reviews in English, Japanese, and Chinese aim to identify research gaps and explore core competencies for Health EDRM workforce training. Thirteen Health EDRM related case studies from six WHO regions will illustrate best practices (and pitfalls) and inform the consensus study. Consensus will be sought from global experts in emergency and disaster medicine, nursing, public health and related disciplines. Recommendations for developing effective health workforce strategies for low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries will then be disseminated.


Subject(s)
Disaster Medicine , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Emergencies , Health Workforce , Humans
7.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(2): 142-151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132659

ABSTRACT

Whether natural or human-induced, disasters are a global issue that impact health care systems' operations, especially in the acute care setting. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a recent illustration of how health care systems and providers, especially nurses, respond to a rapidly evolving crisis. Nurse leaders in the acute care setting are pivotal in responding to the multifactorial challenges caused by a disaster. A quality improvement project was developed to increase nurse leaders' knowledge and confidence in disaster management during the COVID-19 pandemic at 2 Magnet-designated acute care hospitals within the John Muir Health system in Northern California. A total of 50 nurse leaders initially participated in this project, with 33 participants completing the postintervention survey. Results indicated significant improvement in perceived knowledge and confidence in disaster management after the intervention. Qualitative responses from project participants highlighted the need to annualize educational opportunities to sustain knowledge and consistently review emergency management operations plans. This quality improvement project provided an approach to educating nurse leaders in disaster management to promote resilience, support of employees, and optimal patient outcomes during disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Disaster Medicine/education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Leadership , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disaster Medicine/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff, Hospital/education , Pandemics , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(2): 142-151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080947

ABSTRACT

Whether natural or human-induced, disasters are a global issue that impact health care systems' operations, especially in the acute care setting. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a recent illustration of how health care systems and providers, especially nurses, respond to a rapidly evolving crisis. Nurse leaders in the acute care setting are pivotal in responding to the multifactorial challenges caused by a disaster. A quality improvement project was developed to increase nurse leaders' knowledge and confidence in disaster management during the COVID-19 pandemic at 2 Magnet-designated acute care hospitals within the John Muir Health system in Northern California. A total of 50 nurse leaders initially participated in this project, with 33 participants completing the postintervention survey. Results indicated significant improvement in perceived knowledge and confidence in disaster management after the intervention. Qualitative responses from project participants highlighted the need to annualize educational opportunities to sustain knowledge and consistently review emergency management operations plans. This quality improvement project provided an approach to educating nurse leaders in disaster management to promote resilience, support of employees, and optimal patient outcomes during disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Disaster Medicine/education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Leadership , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disaster Medicine/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff, Hospital/education , Pandemics , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(6): 599-603, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine published guidelines for implementation of Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) at the state level in the United States (US). Based in part on the then concern for H1N1 pandemic, there was a recognized need for additional planning at the state level to maintain health system preparedness and conventional care standards when available resources become scarce. Despite the availability of this framework, in the years since and despite repeated large-scale domestic events, implementation remains mixed. PROBLEM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rejuvenates concern for how health systems can maintain quality care when faced with unrelenting burden. This study seeks to outline which states in the US have developed CSC and which areas of care have thus far been addressed. METHODS: An online search was conducted for all 50 states in 2015 and again in 2020. For states without CSC plans online, state officials were contacted by email and phone. Public protocols were reviewed to assess for operational implementation capabilities, specifically highlighting guidance on ventilator use, burn management, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, pediatric standards, and reliance on influenza planning. RESULTS: Thirty-six states in the US were actively developing (17) or had already developed (19) official CSC guidance. Fourteen states had no publicly acknowledged effort. Eleven of the 17 public plans had updated within five years, with a majority addressing ventilator usage (16/17), influenza planning (14/17), and pediatric care (15/17), but substantially fewer addressing care for burn patients (9/17). CONCLUSION: Many states lacked publicly available guidance on maintaining standards of care during disasters, and many states with specific care guidelines had not sufficiently addressed the full spectrum of hazard to which their health care systems remain vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Disaster Medicine/standards , Disaster Planning/standards , Health Planning Councils , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , State Government , United States/epidemiology
12.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 21: e47, 2020 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892026

ABSTRACT

AIM: Family physicians are role models for their societies in disaster management and have an important place in it. This study was carried out during the specialty training of the residents, who are currently family physicians fighting against COVID-19 in the field, and was aimed to identify the awareness levels of residents regarding the roles and duties of family physicians before, during, and after disasters and to increase their awareness of disaster medicine and management. BACKGROUND: The duties and responsibilities of a family physician in disasters should be a part of their specialty training. This study has contributed to the limited literature, increased awareness, and opened a new avenue of research for studies to be conducted with family physicians by demonstrating the current situation of family physicians in disaster management. METHODS: This is an observational and descriptive study. The knowledge, experience, opinions, willingness, attitudes of the residents, and the awareness levels of the residents regarding their roles and duties in a disaster were evaluated along with their sociodemographic information. The surveys were applied in the family medicine clinics of the all residents by the interview method (n = 233). FINDINGS: Only 9.2% of the residents stated that they had received training on disaster medicine where they currently work. The knowledge level of the residents on this subject was found as 'Unsure'. In total, 80% of the residents stated that family physicians should have a role in disasters. It was found that 83.3% of the residents had never joined a disaster drill, 94.3% had never participated in making or applying a disaster plan, and 97.7% had never worked in any disaster. CONCLUSION: The residents participating in the study lacked not only information on disaster management but also experience. The residents' willingness to receive training, work voluntarily, significantly question the curriculum, and specialize in disaster medicine were a positive outcome.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Disaster Medicine/methods , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Physician's Role , Physicians, Family/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Turkey , Young Adult
13.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(5): 17-19, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888081

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about renewed conversation about equality and equity in the distribution of medical resources. Much of the recent conversation has focused on creating and implementing policies in times of crisis when resources are exhausted. Depending on how the pandemic develops, some communities may implement crisis measures, but many health care facilities are currently experiencing shortages of staff and materials even if the facilities have not implemented crisis standards. There is a need for shared conversation about equality and equity in these times of contingency between conventional and crisis medicine. To respond well to these challenges, I recommend that institutions rely on policy, professional education, and ethics consultation. As is the case with crisis policies, creating contingency policies requires that health care professionals decide on how, specifically, to achieve equity. A policy is only as effective as its implementation; therefore, institutions should invest in context-specific education on contingency policies. Finally, ethics consultation should be available for questions that contingency policies cannot address.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disaster Medicine , Health Care Rationing , Health Equity , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disaster Medicine/ethics , Disaster Medicine/standards , Ethics Consultation , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(3): 289-292, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740168

ABSTRACT

Women have historically faced gendered patterns of disadvantage during times of emergency. Evidence demonstrates differences in gendered exposures and inequities during acute crises such as natural disasters and pandemics, including Covid-19, and longer-term emergencies such as climate change. These patterns, without intervention, may be perpetuated in future crises. Threats to women's health in times of emergency can arise from restricted access to health care, economic disadvantages, and harmful social norms. During crises, women face additional barriers to accessing maternal, contraceptive, and abortion care, likely exacerbating existing inequities in reproductive health outcomes. Gendered inequalities in financial and economic stability can become even more stark. Globally, women perform the majority of health care and unpaid caregiving work, but face barriers to affording costs of living and obtaining health insurance due to over-representation in low-wage jobs. Finally, gendered expectations of social roles contribute to increased vulnerabilities, such as displacement and poverty. Violence against women rises in times of emergency and pathways to escaping trauma can be limited. In addition to directly addressing women's unique barriers and providing support in times of emergency through bolstering health care access, economic, and social support systems, thoughtful solutions such as trauma-informed care, increasing the number of women in leadership roles, educational initiatives, and advocacy from health professionals are needed to protect and advance women's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Medicine , Emergencies , Reproductive Health Services , Women's Health , Climate Change , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Norms , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1148): 368-379, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify pandemic and disaster medicine-themed training programmes aimed at medical students and to assess whether these interventions had an effect on objective measures of disaster preparedness and clinical outcomes. To suggest a training approach that can be used to train medical students for the current COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 23 studies met inclusion criteria assessing knowledge (n=18, 78.3%), attitude (n=14, 60.9%) or skill (n=10, 43.5%) following medical student disaster training. No studies assessed clinical improvement. The length of studies ranged from 1 day to 28 days, and the median length of training was 2 days (IQR=1-14). Overall, medical student disaster training programmes improved student disaster and pandemic preparedness and resulted in improved attitude, knowledge and skills. 18 studies used pretest and post-test measures which demonstrated an improvement in all outcomes from all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing disaster training programmes for medical students improves preparedness, knowledge and skills that are important for medical students during times of pandemic. If medical students are recruited to assist in the COVID-19 pandemic, there needs to be a specific training programme for them. This review demonstrates that medical students undergoing appropriate training could play an essential role in pandemic management and suggests a course and assessment structure for medical student COVID-19 training. REGISTRATION: The search strategy was not registered on PROSPERO-the international prospective register of systematic reviews-to prevent unnecessary delay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disaster Medicine/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Curriculum , Humans
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233831, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436894

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the world, the mental health conditions of health care workers are of great importance to ensure the efficiency of rescue operations. The current study examined the effect of social support on mental health of health care workers and its underlying mechanisms regarding the mediating role of resilience and moderating role of age during the epidemic. METHODS: Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administrated among 1472 health care workers from Jiangsu Province, China during the peak period of COVID-19 outbreak. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the mediation effect of resilience on the relation between social support and mental health, whereas moderated mediation analysis was performed by Hayes PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The findings showed that resilience could partially mediate the effect of social support on mental health among health care workers. Age group moderated the indirect relationship between social support and mental health via resilience. Specifically, compared with younger health care workers, the association between resilience and mental health would be attenuated in the middle-aged workers. CONCLUSIONS: The results add knowledge to previous literature by uncovering the underlying mechanisms between social support and mental health. The present study has profound implications for mental health services for health care workers during the peak period of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disaster Medicine , Humans , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Resilience, Psychological , Social Support
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(5): 670-676, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427372

ABSTRACT

Research from financial stress, disasters, pandemics, and other extreme events, suggests that behavioral health will suffer, including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, these symptoms are likely to exacerbate alcohol or drug use, especially for those vulnerable to relapse. The nature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and vast reach of the virus, leave many unknows for the repercussions on behavioral health, yet existing research suggests that behavioral health concerns should take a primary role in response to the pandemic. We propose a 4-step services system designed for implementation with a variety of different groups and reserves limited clinical services for the most extreme reactions. While we can expect symptoms to remit overtime, many will also have longer-term or more severe concerns. Behavioral health interventions will likely need to change overtime and different types of interventions should be considered for different target groups, such as for those who recover from COVID-19, health-care professionals, and essential personnel; and the general public either due to loss of loved ones or significant life disruption. The important thing is to have a systematic plan to support behavioral health and to engage citizens in prevention and doing their part in recovery by staying home and protecting others.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Medicine/methods , COVID-19/complications , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Behavioral Medicine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Depression/physiopathology , Disaster Medicine/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
20.
Air Med J ; 39(4): 251-256, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197711

ABSTRACT

Recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) events have presented challenges to health care systems worldwide. Air medical movement of individuals with potential infectious disease poses unique challenges and threats to crews and receiving personnel. The US Department of Health and Human Services air medical evacuation teams of the National Disaster Medical System directly supported 39 flights, moving over 2,000 individuals. Infection control precautions focused on source and engineering controls, personal protective equipment, safe work practices to limit contamination, and containment of the area of potential contamination. Source control to limit transmission distance was used by requiring all passengers to wear masks (surgical masks for persons under investigation and N95 for known positives). Engineering controls used plastic sheeting to segregate and treat patients who developed symptoms while airborne. Crews used Tyvek (Dupont Richmond, VA) suits with booties and a hood, a double layer of gloves, and either a powered air-purifying respirator or an N95 mask with a face shield. For those outside the 6-ft range, an N95 mask and gloves were worn. Safe work practices were used, which included mandatory aircraft surface decontamination, airflow exchanges, and designated lavatories. Although most patients transported were stable, to the best of our knowledge, this represents the largest repatriation of potentially contagious patients in history without infection of any transporting US Department of Health and Human Services air medical evacuation crews.


Subject(s)
Aerospace Medicine , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Transportation of Patients/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disaster Medicine , Disinfection , Equipment and Supplies , Federal Government , Health Personnel , Humans , Medical Waste Disposal , Patient Isolation/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships , United States , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services
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