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3.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 68(Supplement): S11-S13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141567

ABSTRACT

The need for food and nutrition assistance has increased due to the frequent occurrence of disasters and pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, after a disaster, food and nutrition are insufficient in terms of quantity and quality. In the case of the Great East Japan earthquake, the improvement factors for food and nutrition at emergency shelters included 1) emergency shelter size and equipment, 2) provision and content of meals, 3) collaboration among professionals, and 4) cooperation between shelters. However, there were hygiene and oral health problems, and dispatched dietitians had problems with nutrition assistance. The hygiene problems included 1) food, 2) cooking environment, 3) water supply and discharge, and 4) living space. In addition, oral health problems included 1) difficulty swallowing, 2) difficulty chewing, 3) environmental degradation, and 4) degradation of the oral condition. The problematic points of dispatched dietitians included the support provided not necessarily being consistent with needs, operational deficiencies at both the dispatching and receiving sides, and the short period of support. "Enthusiasm" can be a source of encouragement and a burden. To solve these problems, a training system for disaster dietitians and certification systems for disaster food have been established in Japan. Since the Great East Japan earthquake, various kinds of evidence and actions have been taken, and nutritional problems after disasters have gradually improved. Therefore, it seems that advanced actions and standards should be set not only in Japan but also globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Earthquakes , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Meals
6.
Health Secur ; 20(S1): S49-S53, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097252

ABSTRACT

Maintaining a public health emergency response for a sustained period of time requires availability of resources, physical and information technology infrastructure, and human capital. What perhaps is unprecedented is a medical center experiencing multiple disasters simultaneously. In this case study, the authors describe 2 separate disaster events experienced during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic: (1) a cyberattack at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha, Nebraska, and (2) civil unrest following the murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Although these settings were very different, the following common themes can inform future disaster planning: the benefit of an already active incident command system, the prescient need for continuity of operations, and the anticipation of workforce fatigue. These dual-disaster experiences provide an opportunity to identify lessons learned that will drive improvements in emergency management through preparedness and mitigation measures and response innovations for future simultaneous disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
7.
Health Secur ; 20(S1): S71-S84, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097250

ABSTRACT

In fall 2020, COVID-19 infections accelerated across the United States. For many states, a surge in COVID-19 cases meant planning for the allocation of scarce resources. Crisis standards of care planning focuses on maintaining high-quality clinical care amid extreme operating conditions. One of the primary goals of crisis standards of care planning is to use all preventive measures available to avoid reaching crisis conditions and the complex triage decisionmaking involved therein. Strategies to stay out of crisis must respond to the actual experience of people on the frontlines, or the "ground truth," to ensure efforts to increase critical care bed numbers and augment staff, equipment, supplies, and medications to provide an effective response to a public health emergency. Successful management of a surge event where healthcare needs exceed capacity requires coordinated strategies for scarce resource allocation. In this article, we examine the ground truth challenges encountered in response efforts during the fall surge of 2020 for 2 states-Nebraska and California-and the strategies each state used to enable healthcare facilities to stay out of crisis standards of care. Through these 2 cases, we identify key tools deployed to reduce surge and barriers to coordinated statewide support of the healthcare infrastructure. Finally, we offer considerations for operationalizing key tools to alleviate surge and recommendations for stronger statewide coordination in future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Resource Allocation , Surge Capacity , Triage , United States
10.
Nature ; 610(7933): S33, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093440
11.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1585-1586, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084336

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint discusses 3 areas in need of progress regarding societal approaches to pandemics and other health threats: a renaissance in public health; robustness of primary health care; and resilience of individuals and communities, with higher levels of trust in government and society.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Pandemics , Public Health , Quality Improvement , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Quality Improvement/standards , Disaster Planning/methods , Disaster Planning/standards
13.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 57(10): 602-615, 2022 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077147

ABSTRACT

Hospitals play a crucial role in the management of large-scale emergencies or disasters. This has been clearly demonstrated by the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and currently by the Ukraine war. In order to cope with extraordinary situations and large-scale emergencies, such as mass casualty incidents, hospitals need to be prepared in detail - by preparing and implementing a hospital contingency plan. The article presented here describes in hospital preparation for a mass casualty incident.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Mass Casualty Incidents , Terrorism , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063191

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of volunteers is one of the approaches to capacity building, preparedness and the response of the health system in disasters. Appropriate management of volunteers during disasters and emergencies is essential. This study aimed to explain the challenges of volunteer management in the Pandemic COVID-19 in Iran. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Qualitative research was conducted using the content analysis based on the Graneheim method. The participants' selection was done based on purposeful sampling and theoretical sampling until data saturation. Direct field observation and 26 interviews were applied to collect data. FINDINGS: Four categories and 15 sub-categories emerged to describe the challenges of volunteer management during the COVID-19 crisis including policymaking barriers (including legal barriers, insurance and support coverage and risk governance), managerial barriers (including planning, coordinating and organizing, training and awareness, command and leadership and information management and documentation), socio-cultural barriers (personal safety attitude and culture, attitudes and expectations of the community and perspectives on volunteers) and executive-operational barriers (monitoring and evaluation, cost and needs assessment). ORIGINALITY/VALUE: It is essential to increase managers', officials' and volunteers' perceptions of COVID19 risk through education and information. Preparing a database for volunteers' information, including non-governmental organization and governmental organization volunteers, planning for needs assessment, establishing a mechanism for recruiting volunteers and using their capacities and appropriate organizing, tracking and monitoring of volunteers can be among effective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Volunteers
16.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(10): 536-541, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate nurse leader confidence in emergency management and disaster preparedness. BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of evidence in the literature regarding the preparation of nurse leaders to manage emergencies and disasters. Research suggests significant gaps in nurse leader confidence across roles and in structured education that prepares nurse leaders across the spectrum of experience to manage in a crisis. METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional survey included a sample of 432 RNs who are members of the Northwest Organization for Nurse Leaders. RESULTS: Results indicate significant variance in nurse leader confidence across roles, experience, and previous disaster-related education. Positive associations regarding nurse leaders' confidence in managing disasters exist with more advanced positions, advanced education, and structured training. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing leaders lack consistent education that prepares them for emergency and disaster management. Nurse leaders across all levels would benefit from formal education in these areas.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Disasters , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergency nurses serve a vital role in disaster situations. Understanding their disaster preparedness and willingness to respond to a disaster is important in maintaining appropriate disaster management. The purpose of this study was to explore emergency nurses' disaster preparedness and willingness to respond based on demographic and disaster-related characteristics, and their willingness to respond based on specific disaster situations. METHODS: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, the Disaster Preparedness Questionnaire for Nurses and willingness to report to duty by type of event were used to collect data from 158 nurses working in four regional emergency medical centers from 1 December 2019 to 30 April 2020 in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Emergency nurses with personal disaster experience as a victim or witness (t = 3.65, p < 0.001), professional disaster experience (i.e., working as a nurse) (t = 3.58, p < 0.001), who were current members of Korean Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (t = 6.26, p < 0.001), and who received disaster-related training within a year (t = 5.84, p < 0.001) showed a high level of perceived disaster preparedness. Emergency nurses who have professional disaster experience (i.e., working as a nurse) (t = 2.42, p = 0.017), are on a current disaster team (t = 2.39, p = 0.018), and have received disaster training (t = 2.73, p = 0.007) showed a high level of willingness to respond. Our study showed a high willingness to respond to natural disasters and low willingness to respond to technological disasters. DISCUSSION: To promote the engagement of emergency nurses in disaster response, disaster education programs should be expanded. Enhancing the safety of disaster response environments through supplementing medical personnel, distributing available resources, and providing sufficient compensation for emergency nurses is also essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032951

ABSTRACT

The likelihood of a mega-earthquake, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the threat of other disasters in the Tokyo Metropolitan area have necessitated collective responsibilities to take all possible actions to reduce their impacts. The experiences from past disasters have, however, highlighted the plight of foreign residents in coping with disasters and have reinvigorated calls for rigorous counteractions. As the population of foreign residents continues to increase in the metropolis, this research examines their awareness of risks and the obstacles that hinder disaster preparedness in the wake of future disasters. An Extended Parallel Process Model is utilized to analyze both secondary and primary data sources, and the results reveal that 65% perceive the severity of disaster as a threat and believe in a likelihood of occurrence in the city; however, the confidence to undertake some recommended countermeasures are lacking (with low efficacy of 70%). This is causing many to control their fear by not actively seeking further risk information or participating in disaster prevention activities. In consideration of these instances, the study recommends a collective approach built upon the merits of stakeholder engagements to provide vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and mastery experiences to boost the response capacities of foreign residents for disaster preparedness. This will be relevant for city authorities to enhance risk communication and foster foreigner-Japanese community integration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tokyo
19.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(5): 674-686, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028611

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent disasters emphasize the need for disaster risk mitigation in the health sector. A lack of standardized tools to assess hospital disaster preparedness hinders the improvement of emergency/disaster preparedness in hospitals. There is very limited research on evaluation of hospital disaster preparedness tools. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the presence and availability of hospital preparedness tools across the world, and to identify the important components of those study instruments. METHOD: A systematic review was performed using three databases, namely Ovid Medline, Embase, and CINAHL, as well as available grey literature sourced by Google, relevant websites, and also from the reference lists of selected articles. The studies published on hospital disaster preparedness across the world from 2011-2020, written in English language, were selected by two independent reviewers. The global distribution of studies was analyzed according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) six geographical regions, and also according to the four categories of the United Nations Human Development Index (UNHDI). The preparedness themes were identified and categorized according to the 4S conceptual framework: space, stuff, staff, and systems. RESULT: From a total of 1,568 articles, 53 met inclusion criteria and were selected for data extraction and synthesis. Few published studies had used a study instrument to assess hospital disaster preparedness. The Eastern Mediterranean region recorded the highest number of such publications. The countries with a low UNHDI were found to have a smaller number of publications. Developing countries had more focus on preparedness for natural disasters and less focus on chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Infrastructure, logistics, capacity building, and communication were the priority themes under the space, stuff, staff, and system domains of the 4S framework, respectively. The majority of studies had neglected some crucial aspects of hospital disaster preparedness, such as transport, back-up power, morgue facilities and dead body handling, vaccination, rewards/incentive, and volunteers. CONCLUSION: Important preparedness themes were identified under each domain of the 4S framework. The neglected aspects should be properly addressed in order to ensure adequate preparedness of hospitals. The results of this review can be used for planning a comprehensive disaster preparedness tool.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Communication , Hospitals , Humans
20.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(5): 712-714, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028609
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