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1.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(6): 648-660, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614087

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop an emerging infectious disease (COVID-19) simulation module for nursing students and verify its effectiveness. METHODS: A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted with 78 under-graduate nursing students. A simulation module was developed based on the Jeffries simulation model. It consisted of pre-simulation lectures on disaster nursing including infectious disease pandemics, practice, and debriefings with serial tests. The scenarios contained pre-hospital settings, home visits, arrival to the emergency department, and follow-up home visits for rehabilitation. RESULTS: Disaster preparedness showed a statistically significant improvement, as did competencies in disaster nursing. Confidence in disaster nursing increased, as did willingness to participate in disaster response. However, critical thinking did not show significant differences between time points, and neither did triage scores. CONCLUSION: The developed simulation program targeting an infectious disease disaster positively impacts disaster preparedness, disaster nursing competency, and confidence in disaster nursing, among nursing students. Further studies are required to develop a high-fidelity module for nursing students and medical personnel. Based on the current pandemic, we suggest developing more scenarios with virtual reality simulations, as disaster simulation nursing education is required now more than ever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Disasters , Students, Nursing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576994

ABSTRACT

The debate continues as to which governance structure is most appropriate for collaborative disaster response, particularly between centralization and decentralization. This article aims to contribute to this debate by analyzing the structural characteristics of a multisectoral network that emerged and evolved under strong state control during the 2015 outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS) in South Korea. This study particularly focuses on the evolution of intra- and inter-sectoral collaboration ties in the network. The data for the study were collected through a content analysis of government documents and news articles. Using social network analysis, the authors found that the network evolved into a centralized structure around a small number of governmental organizations at the central level, organizing the ties between participating organizations rather hierarchically. The network displayed a preponderance of internal ties both among health and non-health organizations and among public and nonpublic health organizations, but under different influences of structural characteristics. This tendency was intensified during the peak period. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that the centralization of disaster management may not or only marginally be conducive to cross-sector collaboration during public health disasters, calling for a careful design of governance structures for disaster response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disasters , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598583

ABSTRACT

Henan province, located in central China, suffered a heavy rainstorm and an outbreak of COVID-19 from the middle of July to the middle of August. We review and investigate the emergency response to these two events. The influence of the compound disaster on provincial economic operations, fixed assets, consumer goods, the logistics industry, high-tech manufacturing, and strategic emerging industries is analyzed in detail. Since the province's economic situation has been positive for a long time, the influence of the compound disaster was short-term. The countermeasures to the pandemic were efficient since they had previously been in practice at various times in 2020. However, in the face of unusual disasters such as the rainstorm, the gap between early warning and emergency response needs to be bridged, and the sources of relief funds should be diversified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259253, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593920

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the association between personality traits and food stockpiling for disasters in predicted high-risk areas of food shortages due to the Nankai Trough Earthquake. This survey was conducted between December 18 and 20, 2019, using a web-based questionnaire. The participants were 1,200 individuals registered with an online survey company. This study analyzed the association between the Big Five personality traits and food stockpiling status (n = 1192). The Big Five personality traits assess five basic dimensions of personality (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness). To measure theses personality traits, we used the Japanese version of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J). The Mann-Whitney test and a multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the Big Five personality traits were significantly associated with having or not having stockpile food. However, interestingly, considering the stages of behavior change regarding stockpiling, high extraversion was significantly positively related to initiating stockpiling. Moreover, high neuroticism was significantly positively related to interrupted stockpiling. Therefore, it is crucial to focus on personality traits (especially low extraversion and high neuroticism) to promote food stockpiling for disasters.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Food , Personality , Adult , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580861

ABSTRACT

Although evidence suggests that successive climate disasters are on the rise, few studies have documented the disproportionate impacts on communities of color. Through the unique lens of successive disaster events (Hurricane Harvey and Winter Storm Uri) coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic, we assessed disaster exposure in minority communities in Harris County, Texas. A mixed methods approach employing qualitative and quantitative designs was used to examine the relationships between successive disasters (and the role of climate change), population geography, race, and health disparities-related outcomes. This study identified four communities in the greater Houston area with predominantly non-Hispanic African American residents. We used data chronicling the local community and environment to build base maps and conducted spatial analyses using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping. We complemented these data with focus groups to assess participants' experiences in disaster planning and recovery, as well as community resilience. Thematic analysis was used to identify key patterns. Across all four communities, we observed significant Hurricane Harvey flooding and significantly greater exposure to 10 of the 11 COVID-19 risk factors examined, compared to the rest of the county. Spatial analyses reveal higher disease burden, greater social vulnerability, and significantly higher community-level risk factors for both pandemics and disaster events in the four communities, compared to all other communities in Harris County. Two themes emerged from thematic data analysis: (1) Prior disaster exposure prepared minority populations in Harris County to better handle subsequent disaster suggesting enhanced disaster resilience, and (2) social connectedness was key to disaster resiliency. Long-standing disparities make people of color at greater risk for social vulnerability. Addressing climate change offers the potential to alleviate these health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclonic Storms , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Vulnerability , Texas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing a drug addiction and overdose crisis, made worse by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relative to other types of health services, addiction treatment and overdose prevention services are particularly vulnerable to disaster-related disruptions for multiple reasons including fragmentation from the general medical system and stigma, which may lead decisionmakers and providers to de-prioritize these services during disasters. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. states implemented multiple policies designed to mitigate disruptions to addiction treatment and overdose prevention services, for example policies expanding access to addiction treatment delivered via telehealth and policies designed to support continuity of naloxone distribution programs. There is limited evidence on the effects of these policies on addiction treatment and overdose. This evidence is needed to inform state policy design in future disasters, as well as to inform decisions regarding whether to sustain these policies post-pandemic. METHODS: The overall study uses a concurrent-embedded design. Aims 1-2 use difference-in-differences analyses of large-scale observational databases to examine how state policies designed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on health services delivery influenced addiction treatment delivery and overdose during the pandemic. Aim 3 uses a qualitative embedded multiple case study approach, in which we characterize local implementation of the state policies of interest; most public health disaster policies are enacted at the state level but implemented at the local level by healthcare systems and local public health authorities. DISCUSSION: Triangulation of results across methods will yield robust understanding of whether and how state disaster-response policies influenced drug addiction treatment and overdose during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results will inform policy enactment and implementation in future public health disasters. Results will also inform decisions about whether to sustain COVID-19 pandemic-related changes to policies governing delivery addiction and overdose prevention services long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Disasters , Drug Overdose/mortality , Health Policy , Health Services , Humans , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , United States
8.
Am J Disaster Med ; 16(3): 207-213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many hospital units, including obstetric (OB) units, were unprepared when the novel coronavirus began sweeping through communities. National and international bodies, including the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control Prevention, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, directed enormous efforts to present the latest evidence-based practices to healthcare institutions and communities. The first hospitals that were affected in China and the United States (US) did heroic work in assisting their colleagues with best practices they had acquired. Despite these resources, many US hospitals struggled with how to best incorporate and implement this new information into disaster plans, and many protocol changes had to be established de novo. In general, disaster planning for OB units lagged behind other disaster planning performed by specialties such as emergency medicine, trauma, and pediatrics. PARTICIPANTS: Fortunately, two pre-existing collaborative disaster groups, the OB Disaster Planning Workgroup and the Western Regional Alliance for Pediatric Emergency Management, were able to rapidly deploy during the pandemic due to their pre-established networks and shared goals. MAIN OUTCOME: These groups were able to share best practices, identify and address knowledge gaps, and disseminate information on a broad scale. The case will be made that the OB community needs to establish more such regional and national disaster committees that meet year-round. This will ensure that in times of urgency, these groups can increase the cadence of their meetings, and thus rapidly disperse time-sensitive policies and procedures for OB units nationwide. CONCLUSION: Given the unique patient population, it is imperative that OB units establish regional coalitions to facilitate a coordinated response to local and national disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Obstetrics , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059959, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571558

ABSTRACT

The critical role of the health workforce in the function of the health care system is undeniable. In times of disaster and public health emergency, the importance of this valuable resource for the organization multiplies. This scoping review was conducted to identify, analyze, and categorize interventions to improve willingness to work in times of disaster as well as the existing knowledge gaps in the topic. For this purpose, four databases were searched. These included Scopus, PubMed, WOS, and World Health Organization observatory, and they were searched for papers published from July 2000 to September 2020. Studies of the English language that described strategies to improve human resources for health willingness to work during times of disaster/public health emergency were included. Full-text papers were screened by authors and data extraction was done according to self-designed form. Framework analysis identified key interventions based on human resources for health action framework. From 6246 search results, 52 articles were included, a great portion of which was published in 2020 probably due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Northern America was the region with most studies. From 52 included studies, 21 papers have reported the interventions to improve willingness to work and 31 papers have explored factors that affected a willingness to work. The interventions used in the studies were categorized into five themes as Leadership, Partnership, Financing, Education, and Organizational policies. The most and least interventions were financial and partnership respectively. The review identified a wide range of feasible strategies and interventions to improve human resources for health's willingness to work at times of disaster that are expected to be effective. Organizations should let the staff know these decisions and as a necessary step in every organizational intervention remember to evaluate the impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1748-1754, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527995

ABSTRACT

Articles comprising this special issue on parenting and family dynamics during the COVID-19 pandemic document the profound disruptions to family life posed by a cascading multisystem catastrophe as well as the capacity of families for resilience. Results of these studies during the first year of the pandemic align well with theory and past evidence on developmental risk, vulnerability, and resilience in families contending with large-scale complex disasters, while also illustrating methodological advances, such as technologies for remote data collection. The scope and duration of the global pandemic pose extraordinary, cumulative, and variable challenges to family life, highlighting the importance of preexisting as well as unfolding adaptive capabilities embedded in multiple interacting systems. Findings illustrate the importance of relationships, the vulnerability of families already at risk, and the protective role of social support for parenting. This issue represents an exciting harbinger of knowledge to come on risk and resilience processes from multisystem, multidisciplinary, and multicultural studies of the pandemic and its effects. There are critical gaps to fill and many questions yet to answer when so many systems critical to human well-being and development are disrupted, and knowledge is needed to prepare and respond more effectively to inevitable disasters of the future. It will be essential to include more diverse and representative samples, methods amenable to dynamic modeling of change and systematic aggregation of findings across studies, and long-term assessments. This special issue reflects the progress, complexities, and promise of family-focused research on risk and resilience in the time of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 684-690, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526022

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Different disaster activities should be performed smoothly. In relation to this, human resources for disaster activities must be secured. To achieve a stable supply of human resources, it is essential to improve the intentions of individuals responding to each type of disaster. However, the current intention of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members has not yet been assessed. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To facilitate a smooth disaster response, this survey aimed to assess the intention to engage in each type of disaster activity among DMAT members. METHODS: An anonymous web questionnaire survey was conducted. Japanese DMAT members in the nuclear disaster-affected area (Group A; n = 79) and the non-affected area (Group N; n = 99) were included in the analysis. The outcome was the answer to the following question: "Will you actively engage in activities during natural, human-made, and chemical (C), biological (B), radiological/nuclear (R/N), and explosive (E) (CBRNE) disasters?" Then, questionnaire responses were compared according to disaster type. RESULTS: The intention to engage in C (50), B (47), R/N (58), and E (52) disasters was significantly lower than that in natural (82) and human-made (82) disasters (P <.001). The intention to engage in CBRNE disasters among younger participants (age ≤39 years) was significantly higher in Group A than in Group N. By contrast, the intention to engage in R/N disasters alone among older participants (age ≥40 years) was higher in Group A than in Group N. However, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of intention to engage in C, B, and E disasters. Moreover, the intention to engage in all disasters between younger and older participants in Group A did not differ. In Group N, older participants had a significantly higher intention to engage in B and R/N disasters. CONCLUSION: Experience with a specific type of calamity at a young age may improve intention to engage in not only disasters encountered, but also other types. In addition, the intention to engage in CBRNE disasters improved with age in the non-experienced population. To respond smoothly to specific disasters in the future, measures must be taken to improve the intention to engage in CBRNE disasters among DMAT members.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Disasters , Adult , Humans , Intention , Medical Assistance , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workforce
13.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(12): 80, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525618

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the empirical literature on exposures to disaster or terrorism and their impacts on the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families since the last published update in 2017. We also review the literature on studies examining the mental health and functioning of children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Few studies have examined the effects of disaster or terrorism on children with disabilities. Research shows that children with disabilities and their families have higher levels of disaster exposure, lower levels of disaster preparedness, and less recovery support due to longstanding discriminatory practices. Similarly, many reports of the COVID-19 pandemic have documented its negative and disproportionate impacts on children with disabilities and their families. In the setting of climate change, environmental disasters are expected to increase in frequency and severity. Future studies identifying mitigating factors to disasters, including COVID-19; increasing preparedness on an individual, community, and global level; and evaluating post-disaster trauma-informed treatment practices are imperative to support the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Terrorism , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512306

ABSTRACT

To ensure human resource availability for a smooth response during various types of disasters, there is a need to improve the intent of those involved in responding to each hazard type. However, Disaster Medical Assistance Team personnel's intent to engage with specific hazards has yet to be clarified. This study therefore aimed to clarify the factors affecting Disaster Medical Assistance Team members' (n = 178) intent to engage with each type of hazard through an anonymous web questionnaire survey containing 20 questions. Our results show that the intent to engage in disaster response activities was significantly lower for chemical (50), biological (47), radiological/nuclear (58), and explosive (52) incidents compared with natural (82) and man-made hazards (82) (p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that incentives were the most common factor affecting responders' intent to engage with all hazard types, followed by self-confidence. Thus, creating a system that provides generous incentives could effectively improve disaster responders' intent to engage with specific hazards. Another approach could be education and training to increase disaster responders' confidence. We believe that the successful implementation of these measures would improve the intent of responders to engage with hazards and promote the recruitment of sufficient human resources.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Disasters , Humans , Intention , Medical Assistance , Motivation
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512291

ABSTRACT

There is a need for trained health professionals who can swiftly respond to disasters occurring worldwide. Little is known about whether the currently available programmes in disaster management are in line with the recommendations of expert researchers. Our objective was to qualitatively review the characteristics of European educational programmes in health emergency and disaster management and to provide guidance to help improve their curricula. We carried out an integrative review to extract the main characteristics of the 2020/21 programmes available. We identified 34 programmes, the majority located in Spain, the UK or France. The primary qualification types awarded were master's degrees, half of them lasting one year, and the most common teaching method was in person. Almost all of the programmes used a virtual university classroom, a third offered multidisciplinary disaster management content and teachers, and half of them employed situational simulations. The quality of European educational programmes in health emergency and disaster management has improved, especially in terms of using more practical and interactive teaching methodologies and in the inclusion of relevant topics such as communication, psychological approaches and evaluation of the interventions. However, generally, the educational programmes in disaster management have not yet incorporated the skills related to the intercultural and interprofessional awareness aspects.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Curriculum , Educational Status , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv31-iv35, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506315

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster that has impacted lives globally. The purpose of this paper is to understand the linkage between COVID-19 and its impact on mental health. To reach this aim, we reviewed the literature on COVID-19 and mental conditions. Based on the literature, we identified COVID-19 as an unexpected, large-scale event that disrupted communities and caused death, destruction and trauma which upended normal existence. For mental conditions, effects of the pandemic are likely to manifest in different ways: development of symptoms in previously healthy individuals, new episodes in those with predisposition to mental disorders and development of symptoms that do not meet diagnostic criteria. The level of mental health problems varies depending on the stage of the pandemic, country, population groups and types of conditions. This also applies to the level of suicide, although suicides do not seem to have increased during the pandemic. Yet, we identified a net of factors contributing to mental conditions, in general. These factors include demographic factors (e.g. female gender, younger and older age), social factors (e.g. economically disadvantaged), mental factors (e.g. pre-existing mental conditions) and relationship factors (e.g. stressful relationship, lack of relationships). Additionally, we identified COVID-19-specific factors such as threat to own life and threat to life of loved ones, containment measures and interruption of services and social life. We further explored potentially additional suicide-related risk factors. Regardless of differences, health care and psychosocial systems were in many countries not prepared to respond to a viral disaster. Viral disaster requires that responses not only include direct care but also responses to populations that may need support due to known determinants of mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Suicide , Aged , Female , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv27-iv30, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505840

ABSTRACT

Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to its grave complications and negative outcomes if infected by COVID-19. Furthermore, mandatory isolation and cancellations of routine healthcare services led to the disruption of the screening and management plans for chronic diseases. Fear of attending health services as well as disruptions to public transport are other factors increasing health risks among persons with chronic conditions during the pandemic. Ensuring access to universal healthcare services, increasing use of digital services, targeted interventions to risk groups are examples of measures that need to be taken when reviewing health systems preparedness for future pandemics and other disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 19-37, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497654

ABSTRACT

The following article addresses the complexities of responding to the Magna, Utah earthquake under conditions of the global corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The article begins with a brief mention of the literature on complex disasters along with the research methods employed for the study. Contextual information about COVID-19 and the Magna earthquake are then provided along with general issues that had to be addressed in the public health emergency and after the seismic hazard occurred. The following two sections identify how COVID-19 benefited the response to the earthquake as well as how the virus complicated operations after the tremor. The article then discusses major lessons of this research and provides recommendations for future study and practice. Overall, this research reveals that the responses to these two simultaneous events witnessed successes as well as significant challenges. The appearance of COVID-19 may have limited injuries or the loss of life during the Magna earthquake, and it also enabled an early activation of the emergency operations center (EOC). However, COVID-19 presented unique challenges for evacuation, sheltering, and damage assessment functions. The pandemic also altered the nature of EOC operations, created the need for a virtual response, and had distinct implications for financial accounting and personnel workload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Earthquakes , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah
19.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 9-18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497648

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created new workforce considerations for emergency management community in addressing cumulative and cascading disasters. This research identifies how emergency management planning for both the changing dynamics of COVID-19 and the upcoming hurricane season may change under a compound threat. Many jurisdictions have faced challenges in providing adequate staffing of shelters before the pandemic. Now, fatigue among staff further exacerbates these challenges as resources are stretched thin. Six workshops, involving 265 national, state, and local leaders, staff, experts, and advocates from 22 states, and a range of disciplines (disaster planning, public health, social services, academia, and healthcare), were convened to identify concerns and potential strategies to address staffing, training, logistics, and support. Strategies proposed to increase the number and skill set of staff available involve increased reliance upon volunteers and nonprofit organizations. Mental health resources, personal protective equipment, sanitation supplies, and defining roles within emergency shelters were recommended to reduce fatigue and redistribute responsibilities. Findings illuminate additional research avenues regarding assessing the underlying stressors contributing to the planning process and effective means of implementing these interventions to bolster emergency management shelter operations during a prolonged pandemic and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclonic Storms , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
20.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 165-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497645

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to explore people's perception on using social media for crowdsourcing both information and support as part of COVID-19 response. Also, the study tried to find the possibility of social media contributions to disaster management activities. A systematic research survey has been conducted using a quantitative research approach with a sample of 437 respondents. The results indicated that social media played an important role in crowdsourcing information and support during the COVID-19 pandemic. People regularly depended on social media platforms to get updated information and to contribute to different disaster management response activities. According to the findings, social media can greatly contribute to all the phases of disaster management. Use of social media can be more comprehensive for managing disasters in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Social Media , Bangladesh , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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