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2.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 68(Supplement): S11-S13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141567

ABSTRACT

The need for food and nutrition assistance has increased due to the frequent occurrence of disasters and pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, after a disaster, food and nutrition are insufficient in terms of quantity and quality. In the case of the Great East Japan earthquake, the improvement factors for food and nutrition at emergency shelters included 1) emergency shelter size and equipment, 2) provision and content of meals, 3) collaboration among professionals, and 4) cooperation between shelters. However, there were hygiene and oral health problems, and dispatched dietitians had problems with nutrition assistance. The hygiene problems included 1) food, 2) cooking environment, 3) water supply and discharge, and 4) living space. In addition, oral health problems included 1) difficulty swallowing, 2) difficulty chewing, 3) environmental degradation, and 4) degradation of the oral condition. The problematic points of dispatched dietitians included the support provided not necessarily being consistent with needs, operational deficiencies at both the dispatching and receiving sides, and the short period of support. "Enthusiasm" can be a source of encouragement and a burden. To solve these problems, a training system for disaster dietitians and certification systems for disaster food have been established in Japan. Since the Great East Japan earthquake, various kinds of evidence and actions have been taken, and nutritional problems after disasters have gradually improved. Therefore, it seems that advanced actions and standards should be set not only in Japan but also globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Earthquakes , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Meals
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1034196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119693

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted societies, influencing countries' Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (H-EDRM) systems. By taking Italy as a case study, this research aimed to investigate the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the changes made to the existing H-EDRM system, with an emphasis on human resources, health service delivery, and logistics and the forward-looking strategies for the next health emergencies and disasters. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational case study using qualitative methodology. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed considering the World Health Organization (WHO) H-EDRM framework. Multiple interviewees were selected to obtain a holistic perspective on the Italian response to COVID-19. Stakeholders from five different sectors (policy-making, hospital, primary care, third sector, lay community) from three of the most impacted Italian regions (Piemonte, Lombardia, and Veneto) were interviewed, for a total of 15 respondents. Results: Results on human resources revolved around the following main themes: personnel, training, occupational health, and multidisciplinary work; results on health service delivery encompassed the following main themes: public health, hospital, and primary care systems; results on logistics dealt with the following themes: infrastructures, supplies, transports, and communication channels. Lessons learned stressed on the importance of considering pragmatic disaster preparedness strategies and the need for cultural and structural reforms. Stakeholders mentioned several implications for the post-pandemic H-EDRM system in Italy. Conclusions: Findings highlight that the interconnection of sectors is key in overcoming pandemic-related challenges and for future disaster preparedness. The implications for the Italian H-EDRM system can inform advancements in disaster management in Italy and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Management , Italy/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116047

ABSTRACT

For more than 20 years, disaster dynamic monitoring and early warning have achieved orderly and sustainable development in China, forming a systematic academic research system and top-down policy design, which are inseparable from the research of China's scientific community and the promotion of government departments. In the past, most of the research on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning focused on specific research in a certain field, scene, and discipline, while a few studies focused on research review or policy analysis, and few studies combined macro and meso research reviews in academia with national policy analysis for comparative analysis. It is necessary and urgent to explore the interaction between scholars' research and policy deployment, which can bring theoretical contributions and policy references to the top-down design, implementation promotion, and academic research of China's dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. Based on 608 international research articles on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning published by Chinese scholars from 2000-2021 and 187 national policy documents published during this period, this paper conducts a comparative analysis between the knowledge maps of international research hotspots and the co-occurrence maps of policy keywords on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. The research shows that in the stage of initial development (2000-2007), international research articles are few and focused, and research hotspots are somewhat alienated from policy keywords. In the stage of rising development (2008-2015), after the Wenchuan earthquake, research hotspots are closely related to policy keywords, mainly in the fields of geology, engineering disasters, meteorological disasters, natural disasters, etc. Meanwhile, research hotspots also focus on cutting-edge technologies and theories, while national-level policy keywords focus more on overall governance and macro promotion, but the two are gradually closely integrated. In the stage of rapid development (2016-2021), with the continuous attention and policy promotion of the national government, the establishment of the Ministry of Emergency Management, and the gradual establishment and improvement of the disaster early warning and monitoring system, research hotspots and policy keywords are integrated and overlapped with each other, realizing the organic linkage and mutual promotion between academic research and political deployment. The motivation, innovation, integration, and transformation of dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning are promoted by both policy and academic research. The institutions that issue policies at the national level include the State Council and relevant departments, the Ministry of Emergency Management, the Ministry of Water Resources, and other national ministries and commissions. The leading affiliated institutions of scholars' international research include China University of Mining and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, Shandong University of Science and Technology, and other institutions. The disciplines involved are mainly multidisciplinary geosciences, environmental sciences, electrical and electronic engineering, remote sensing, etc. It is worth noting that in the past two to three years, research and policies focusing on COVID-19, public health, epidemic prevention, environmental governance, and emergency management have gradually increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Disasters/prevention & control , China
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115464, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114307

ABSTRACT

The consequences of environmental disasters and other ecologic and communal crises are frequently worst in racially/ethnically minoritized and low-income populations relative to other groups. This disproportionality may create or deepen patterns of governmental distrust and stoke health promotion disengagement in these groups. To date, there has been limited contextualization of how historically disenfranchised populations utilize government-administered or facilitated resources following such disasters. Focusing on the water crisis in Flint, Michigan, we examine and theorize on the usage of neo public assistance, free risk reduction resources that are provided to disaster survivors as a liminal means of redressing ills created and/or insufficiently mitigated by the state. We surveyed 331 Flint residents, evaluating their usage of four neo public assistance resources following the FWC, finding low to moderate uptake: 131 residents (39.6%) indicated that they obtained blood lead level (BLL) screenings, 216 (65.3%) had their tap water tested for lead (Pb) and other contaminants, 137 (41.4%) had their home water infrastructure replaced, and 293 (88.5%) had acquired bottled water at community distribution sites. Unemployment, receiving public benefits, and lacking reliable transportation and stable housing were associated with lower uptake of some resources. Compared to White and "Other" race individuals, Black residents were generally more likely to acquire/utilize these resources, suggesting heightened concerns and health promotion proclivities even in the face of observed macro and individual-level challenges. Potential reasons and implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Lead , Humans , Public Assistance , Risk Reduction Behavior , Water
6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): 934-941, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent did health care workers experience the pandemic as a severe stress event. METHODS: This cross-sectional evaluation of 8299 health care workers, representing a 22% response rate, utilized machine learning to predict high levels of escalating stress based on demographics and known predictors for adverse psychological outcomes after trauma. RESULTS: A third of health care workers experienced the pandemic as a potentially traumatic stress event; a greater proportion of health care workers experienced high levels of escalating stress. Predictive factors included sense of control, ability to manage work-life demands, guilt or shame, age, and level of education. Gender was no longer predictive after controlling for other factors. Escalating stress was especially high among nonclinical academics and clinical private practitioners. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest adverse effects on total worker health, care quality, professionalism, retention, and acute and chronic mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self-Assessment , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology
7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(12): 890-900, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106223

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected certain groups, such as older people (ie, >65 years), minority ethnic populations, and people with specific chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and some respiratory diseases. There is now evidence of not only direct but also indirect adverse effects of COVID-19 in people with diabetes. Recurrent lockdowns and public health measures throughout the pandemic have restricted access to routine diabetes care, limiting new diagnoses, and affecting self-management, routine follow-ups, and access to medications, as well as affecting lifestyle behaviours and emotional wellbeing globally. Pre-pandemic studies have shown that short-term delays in delivery of routine care, even by 12 months, are associated with adverse effects on risk factor control and worse microvascular, macrovascular, and mortality outcomes in people with diabetes. Disruptions within the short-to-medium term due to natural disasters also result in worse diabetes outcomes. However, the true magnitude of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on long-term outcomes and mortality in people with diabetes is still unclear. Disasters tend to exacerbate existing health disparities; as we recover ambulatory diabetes services in the aftermath of the pandemic, there is an opportunity to prioritise those with the greatest need, and to target resources and interventions aimed at improving outcomes and reducing inequality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Disasters , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 25-31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100748

ABSTRACT

Deep emotional traumas in societies overwhelmed by large-scale human disasters, like, global pandemic diseases, natural disasters, man-made tragedies, war conflicts, social crises, etc., can cause massive stress-related disorders. Motivated by the ongoing global coronavirus pandemic, the article provides an overview of scientific evidence regarding adverse impact of diverse human disasters on mental health in afflicted groups and societies. Following this broader context, psychosocial impact of COVID-19 as a specific global human disaster is presented, with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. Limited resources of mental health services in a number of countries around the world are illustrated, which will be further stretched by the forthcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health challenges are particularly important for the Republic of Croatia in the current situation, due to disturbing stress of the 2020 Zagreb earthquake and the high pre-pandemic prevalence of chronic Homeland-War-related posttraumatic stress disorders. Comprehensive approach based on digital psychiatry is proposed to address the lack of access to psychiatric services, which includes artificial intelligence, telepsychiatry and an array of new technologies, like internet-based computer-aided mental health tools and services. These tools and means should be utilized as an important part of the whole package of measures to mitigate negative mental health effects of the global coronavirus pandemic. Our scientific and engineering experiences in the design and development of digital tools and means in mitigation of stress-related disorders and assessment of stress resilience are presented. Croatian initiative on enhancement of interdisciplinary research of psychiatrists, psychologists and computer scientists on the national and EU level is important in addressing pressing mental health concerns related to the ongoing pandemic and similar human disasters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Disasters , Mental Health Services , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Croatia , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Psychiatry/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/trends , User-Computer Interface
9.
Health Secur ; 20(S1): S49-S53, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097252

ABSTRACT

Maintaining a public health emergency response for a sustained period of time requires availability of resources, physical and information technology infrastructure, and human capital. What perhaps is unprecedented is a medical center experiencing multiple disasters simultaneously. In this case study, the authors describe 2 separate disaster events experienced during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic: (1) a cyberattack at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha, Nebraska, and (2) civil unrest following the murder of George Floyd in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Although these settings were very different, the following common themes can inform future disaster planning: the benefit of an already active incident command system, the prescient need for continuity of operations, and the anticipation of workforce fatigue. These dual-disaster experiences provide an opportunity to identify lessons learned that will drive improvements in emergency management through preparedness and mitigation measures and response innovations for future simultaneous disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 664, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) has been at the forefront throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. While workplace-based support programs have been developed in hospitals globally, few systematically collected data. While critical to their success, information on these programs and the experience of mental healthcare providers (MHP) who support colleagues is limited. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of MHP caring for HCW colleagues within a novel workplace-based mental health support program during the COVID-19 pandemic, to provide insights on facilitators, areas for improvement and barriers to program sustainability. METHODS: This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews conducted by videoconference between September 2020 to October 2021. UHN CARES (University Health Network Coping and Resilience for Employees and Staff) Program was developed during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. It supports over 21,000 staff members within the UHN, Canada's largest academic health research institution, in Toronto, Canada. Purposive sampling was used to select 10 of the 22 MHP in the UHN CARES Program (n = 10). Using a critical realism framework, key components required to sustain a successful workplace-based mental health support program for HCWs and balance the needs of MHP were determined. RESULTS: Six psychiatrists and four psychologists (n = 10) with varying roles at UHN participated in 17 interviews, including seven repeat interviews exploring changes over time within the pandemic and program. Components which facilitated the success of the program included flexibility in scheduling, confidential health record storage, comprehensive administrative support, availability of resources and adaptive quality improvement approach. Recommendations for improvement included opportunities for peer supervision, triaging of cases, and managing HCW expectations. MHP found caring for HCWs to be meaningful and they utilized existing clinical skills during sessions. Challenges included working in a virtual setting, navigating boundaries when caring for colleagues, and managing the range of service users and their needs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest how support programs can be structured for HCWs, how to provide support, and how to sustain this support, allowing health systems to balance the needs of HCWs and MHPs in preparation for future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Emergencies , Health Personnel/psychology
11.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(11): 574-576, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087910

ABSTRACT

Nurses play an important role in pandemic and disaster response, often at a personal cost to their overall well-being. Interviews with 19 frontline COVID-19 nurses helped illuminate priority focus areas involving nurses in the planning process, providing clear communication and offering mental health services. These recommendations align with and reinforce conclusions and recommendations from The Future of Nursing 2020-2030 Report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Nurses , Humans , Pandemics , Communication
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media addiction, a recently emerged term in medical science, has attracted the attention of researchers because of its significant physical and psychological effects on its users. The issue has attracted more attention during the COVID era because negative emotions (e.g., anxiety and fear) generated from the COVID pandemic may have increased social media addiction. Therefore, the present study investigates the role of negative emotions and social media addiction (SMA) on health problems during and after the COVID lockdown. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 2926 participants aged between 25 and 45 years from all eight divisions of Bangladesh. The data collection period was between 2nd September- 13th October, 2020. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was conducted for data analysis by controlling the respondents' working time, leisure time, gender, education, and age. RESULTS: Our study showed that social media addiction and time spent on social media impact health. Interestingly, while anxiety about COVID increased social media addition, fear about COIVD reduced social media addition. Among all considered factors, long working hours contributed most to people's health issues, and its impact on social media addiction and hours was much higher than negative emotions. Furthermore, females were less addicted to social media and faced less health challenges than males. CONCLUSION: The impacts of negative emotions generated by the COVID disaster on social media addiction and health issues should be reconsidered. Government and employers control people's working time, and stress should be a priority to solve people's social media addiction-related issues.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Internet Addiction Disorder , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Lancet ; 400(10360): 1287-1289, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076869

Subject(s)
Disasters , Floods , Humans , Pakistan
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1900, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067717
17.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 33(8): 677-681, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664012

ABSTRACT

Disasters invariably result in a surge in demand for mental health services, and this surge quickly exceeds available mental health resources. The pursuit of alternative sources of psychological support for communities adversely affected by disasters has therefore been necessitated. This paper describes the application of an awarding-winner, empirically validated, model for psychological support and its applicability for enhancing community disaster mental health resources that are consistent with United Nations' recommendations for a "whole society" approach to disaster mental health. The model utilises the concept of peer-based psychological support. Peer psychological support is defined as the utilisation of individuals specially trained in the provision of acute psychological crisis interventions and psychological first aid, but who do not possess professional-level training or licensure in one of the mental health disciplines. These peer-based crisis intervention services may be delivered telephonically, via the internet, or face-to-face. This model, referred to as Reciprocal Peer Support (RPS), is the peer support activity provided at Rutgers University Behavioural HealthCare (UBHC) National Center for Peer Support in a variety of peer programs. More than 20 years of peer support interventions have been reviewed and assessed to clarify the lessons learned for the application of RPS as a prime exemplar for the utilization of peer support during and after a disaster. The Cop 2 Cop, NJ Vet 2 Vet, and several other UBHC peer support programs, which conform to best practices criteria, have been created, sustained, and expanded based on the RSP principles discussed in this article. RPS and derivative applications for human-made disasters such as the terrorist events of 9/11/2001 as well as natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina or the COVID- 19 pandemic represent platforms for the implementation of peer psychological support and the establishment of a peer-based continuum of psychological connection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Mental Health Services , Peer Group , Psychosocial Support Systems , Humans , Mental Health
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066057

ABSTRACT

Although disaster research has acknowledged the role of social media in crisis communication, the interplay of new (e.g., mobile apps) and traditional media (e.g., TV, radio) in public warnings has received less attention, particularly from the recipients' perspective. Therefore, we examined sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of different types of media use (i.e., traditional, new, mixed) for receiving public warning messages in a population survey (N = 613, 63% female; Mage = 31.56 years). More than two-thirds (68%) reported mixed media use, with 20% relying on new media and 12% on traditional media. Traditional media users were older and reported lower levels of education, while new media users were significantly younger and reported lower trust toward traditional media (i.e., TV). Migrants were more likely to use new but not mixed media. In sum, most participants utilized a mixture of traditional and new media for warning purposes, which has implications for crisis communication. Though, vulnerable populations (e.g., older and less educated participants) mainly rely on traditional media, stressing the need for continued support. Thus, it is paramount to increasingly use mixed methods designs and concurrently examine multiple channels to reflect real-world warning practices and generate ecologically valid results.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Social Media , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Media , Trust
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065974

ABSTRACT

Climate change has been recognised as a multiplier of risk factors affecting public health. Disruptions caused by natural disasters and other climate-driven impacts are placing increasing demands on healthcare systems. These, in turn, impact the wellness and performance of healthcare workers (HCWs) and hinder the accessibility, functionality and safety of healthcare systems. This study explored factors influencing HCWs' disaster management capabilities with the aim of improving their resilience and adaptive capacity in the face of climate change. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen HCWs who dealt with disasters within two hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Analysis of the results identified two significant themes, HCWs' disaster education and HCWs' wellness and needs. The latter comprised five subthemes: HCWs' fear and vulnerability, doubts and uncertainty, competing priorities, resilience and adaptation, and needs assessment. This study developed an 'HCWs Resilience Toolkit', which encourages mindfulness amongst leaders, managers and policymakers about supporting four priority HCWs' needs: 'Wellness', 'Education', 'Resources' and 'Communication'. The authors focused on the 'Education' component to detail recommended training for each of the pre-disaster, mid-disaster and post-disaster phases. The authors conclude the significance of the toolkit, which provides a timely contribution to the healthcare sector amidst ongoing adversity.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Disasters , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Public Health
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065951

ABSTRACT

The long-term mortality risk of natural disasters is a key threat to disaster resilience improvement, yet an authoritative certification and a reliable surveillance system are, unfortunately, yet to be established in many countries. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of post-disaster indirect deaths in Japan, to improve the existing disaster recovery evaluation system and support decision making in public policy. This study first investigated the definition of indirect deaths via a literature review before examining the observed number of indirect deaths via case study, census data from the Population Demographic and Household Surveys, other social surveys, and reports in the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which severely damaged northeastern Japan, especially the three prefectures, which are the target areas in this context (i.e., Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi). It was found that the reported number of indirect deaths was significantly underestimated. In total, 4657 indirect deaths were estimated to have occurred in the target prefectures. This was higher than the reported number, which was 3784. The overall statistics established via collaboration between local administrations and governments can be improved to provide better reference for researchers and policymakers to investigate the long-term effects of natural disaster.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Earthquakes , Natural Disasters , Japan/epidemiology , Tsunamis
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