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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 776850, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775980

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the impact of environmental information disclosure on the health of middle-aged and old residents and investigate whether such disclosure can improve the health of middle-aged and old residents. Methods: This study matches the data of the Pollution Information Transparency Index (PITI) and China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2018 and uses the ordered logistic regression model to assess the impact of environmental information disclosure on the health of middle-aged and old residents. Furthermore, stepwise regression, ordinary least square, and ordered probit regression models are used for robustness tests. The IV-Ordered probit regression model solves the endogenous problem. Results: Environmental information disclosure has a significant positive correlation with the health level of middle-aged and old residents. After the robustness test and endogenous problem handling, this conclusion still holds. Estimation results show that when PITI increases by 1 unit, the probability of improving the self-reported health level and actual health level of middle-aged and old residents increases by 1 and 0.87%, respectively. The impact of environmental information disclosure on the health of middle-aged and old residents also has significant regional heterogeneity. Specifically, the impact is mainly reflected in the central region of China. Conclusion: Environmental information disclosure can improve the health of middle-aged and old residents. To improve the health of middle-aged and old residents, it is necessary to implement and enhance the environmental information disclosure system continuously. The anti-driving effect of environmental information disclosure on the treatment of environmental pollution must be intensified further, particularly focusing on the central region of China, where is more polluted and more concentrated than other regions.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , Environmental Pollution , Health Status , Aged , China , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e30619, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770890

ABSTRACT

Clinical epidemiology and patient-oriented health care research that incorporates neighborhood-level data is becoming increasingly common. A key step in conducting this research is converting patient address data to longitude and latitude data, a process known as geocoding. Several commonly used approaches to geocoding (eg, ggmap or the tidygeocoder R package) send patient addresses over the internet to web-based third-party geocoding services. Here, we describe how these approaches to geocoding disclose patients' personally identifiable information (PII) and how the subsequent publication of the research findings discloses the same patients' protected health information (PHI). We explain how these disclosures can occur and recommend strategies to maintain patient privacy when studying neighborhood effects on patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , Personally Identifiable Information , Confidentiality , Geographic Mapping , Humans
3.
Healthc Policy ; 17(3): 28-33, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761266

ABSTRACT

Declining public trust in government and expert advice is a public health priority, given its impact on vaccination uptake, adherence to guidelines and social cohesion. In the context of the COVID-19 Vaccine Task Force, conflicts of interest that can threaten public trust are handled primarily through disclosures. However, this places the onus on the public to discern the relevance, severity and impact of these conflicts and does little to address whose interests guide decision making. Alternatively, expert advisory committees should adopt more trustworthy strategies, including promoting independence from commercial and political interests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Conflict of Interest , Disclosure , Humans , Social Responsibility
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760274

ABSTRACT

There is limited research on adolescent boys and young men (ABYM)'s initial and onward HIV seropositive status disclosure, coping strategies and treatment adherence journeys especially in Zimbabwe. This qualitative exploratory study employed in-depth individual interviews at Chiredzi General Hospital in Zimbabwe to explore the dynamics of disclosure, coping and treatment adherence among ABYM. Twenty-one HIV positive ABYM with ages ranging from 14 to 21 were recruited from their scheduled visit to collect medication at the hospital. Findings indicate that ABYM disclosure journeys began with shock, confusion or misunderstanding and ended in a positive life outlook. Treatment adherence among ABYM was very poor due to poverty, erratic food supply, feeling sick after taking medication, forgetfulness and the public nature of medication collection centers. The study concluded that ABYM maintained secrecy in order to be accepted by their peers but also to protect themselves from stigma and isolation.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Disclosure , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Zimbabwe
5.
J Affect Disord ; 306: 1-8, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that family factors play an important role in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Parent-child communication has attracted particular attention. However, it remains unclear whether parent-child communication affects PTSD and PTG via unique or shared underlying mechanisms. The study aim was to examine the effect of parent-child communication on PTSD and PTG via self-compassion and self-disclosure. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 683 adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Open parent-child communication was positively associated with PTG and negatively associated with PTSD via two 1-step indirect paths of self-compassion and self-disclosure, and by one 2-step indirect path of self-compassion to self-disclosure. Problematic parent-child communication was negatively associated with PTG and positively associated with PTSD via two 1-step indirect paths of self-compassion and self-disclosure. LIMITATIONS: First, pandemics differ from other disasters, generalizing these findings to other traumatized populations must be cautious. Then, this was a cross-sectional study, so longitudinal effects could not be examined and causal relationships cannot be confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of parent-child communication have different influencing mechanisms on PTSD and PTG. Therefore, distinct intervention strategies are needed targeted to these two psychological reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disclosure , Humans , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
6.
J Cancer Surviv ; 16(1): 165-182, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734051

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given the training and experience of lawyers, we assumed that a study of lawyers' willingness to disclose disability in the workplace would provide an example of the actions of a group knowledgeable about disability law. The current study accounts for the effect of visibility of disability, onset and type of disability, and whether the lawyer has made an accommodation request. We also investigate the role of other individual characteristics, such as sexual orientation, gender identity, race/ethnicity, age, and job-related characteristics, in willingness to disclose. METHODS: We use data from the first phase of a longitudinal national survey of lawyers in the USA to estimate the odds of disclosing disability to co-workers, management, and clients using proportional odds models. RESULTS: Lawyers with less visible disabilities, those with mental health disabilities, and those who work for smaller organizations have lower odds of disclosing to co-workers, management, and clients as compared to their counterparts. Attorneys who have requested accommodations are more willing to disclose as compared to those who have not, but only to co-workers and management. Women are less likely than men to disclose to management and clients. However, gender is not a significant determinant of disclosure to co-workers. Older attorneys are more likely to disclose to clients, whereas attorneys with children are less likely to disclose to co-workers. Lastly, lower perceived prejudice and the presence of co-workers with disabilities are associated with higher disclosure scores, but not for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who acquired a disability at a relatively early point in life and those with more visible disabilities are more likely to disclose. However, such willingness is affected by the intersection of disability with other individual and firm-level characteristics. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The findings imply that those with less visible disabilities and with health conditions acquired later in life are less likely to disclose. The relevance of the findings is heightened by the altered work conditions and demands imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic for cancer survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Neoplasms , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Child , Cultural Diversity , Disclosure , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Lawyers , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 415, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only when people feel they have received timely disclosure will they have sufficient incentive to implement community prevention and control measures. The timely and standardized information published by authorities as a response to the crisis can better inform the public and enable better preparations for the pandemic during the low transmission period of COVID-19; however, there is limited evidence of whether people consent that information is disclosed timely and influencing factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from 4 to 26 February 2021. Convenient sampling strategy was adopted to recruit participators. Participants were asked to filled out the questions that assessed questionnaire on the residents' attitudes to information disclosure timely. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting the residents' attitudes. RESULTS: A total of 2361 residents filled out the questionnaire. 1704 (72.17%) consented COVID-19 information has been disclosed timely. Furthermore, age (OR = 0.093, 95%CI = 0.043 ~ 0.201), gender (OR = 1.396, 95%CI = 1.085 ~ 1.797), place of residence (OR = 0.650, 95%CI = 0.525 ~ 0.804), employed status (OR = 2.757, 95%CI = 1.598 ~ 4.756), highest educational level (OR = 0.394, 95%CI = 0.176 ~ 0.880), region (OR = 0.561, 95%CI = 0.437 ~ 0.720) and impact on life by the COVID-19 (OR = 0.482, 95%CI = 0.270 ~ 0.861) were mainly factors associated with residents' attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the residents attitudes to information disclosure timely during the low transmission period in China and to provide a scientific basis for effective information communication in future public health crises. Timely and effective efforts to disclose information need to been made during the low transmission period. Continued improvements to local authority reporting will contribute to more effective public communication and efficient public health research responses. The development of protocols and the standardization of epidemic message templates-as well as the use of uniform operating procedures to provide regular information updates-should be prioritized to ensure a coordinated national response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disclosure , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 15(2): 148-163, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Face COVID-19 pandemic, a need for accurate information on SARS-CoV-2 virus is urgent and scientific reports have been published on a daily basis to enable effective technologies to fight the disease progression. However, at the initial occurrence of Pandemic, no information on the matter was known and technologies to fight the Pandemic were not readily available. However, searches in patent databases, if strategically designed, can offer quick responses to new pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is aiming to provide existing information in patent documents useful for the developmentof technologies addressing COVID-19. Considering the emergency situation the world was facing and the knowledge of COVID-19 available until April, 2020, this work presents an analysis of the main characteristics of the technological information in patent documents worldwide, related to coronaviruses and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Regions of concentration of such technologies, the number of available documents and their technological fields are disclosed in three approaches: 1) a wide search, retrieving technologies on SARS or coronaviruses; 2) a targeted search, retrieving documents additionally referring to Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), which is used by SARS- CoV-2 to enter a cell and 3) a punctual search, which retrieved patents disclosing aspects related to SARS- CoV-2 available at that time. RESULTS: Results show the high-level technology involved in these developments and a monopoly tendency of such technologies, also evidencing that it is possible to find answers to new problems in patent documents. CONCLUSION: This work, then, aims to contribute to scientific and technological development by raising the awareness of what should be considered when searching for technologies developed for other matters that could provide solutions for a new problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disclosure/statistics & numerical data , Patents as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551300

ABSTRACT

Patients often do not disclose domestic violence (DV) to healthcare providers in emergency departments and other healthcare settings. Barriers to disclosure may include fears and misconceptions about whether, and under what circumstances, healthcare providers report DV to law enforcement and immigration authorities. We sought to assess undocumented Latino immigrants (UDLI), Latino legal residents/citizens (LLRC) and non-Latino legal residents/citizens (NLRC) beliefs about disclosure of DV victimization to healthcare providers and healthcare provider reporting of DV to law enforcement and immigration authorities. From 10/2018-2/2020, we conducted this survey study at two urban emergency departments (EDs) in California. Participants, enrolled by convenience sampling, responded to survey questions adapted from a previously published survey instrument that was developed to assess undocumented immigrant fears of accessing ED care. Our primary outcomes were the proportions of UDLI, LLRC and NLRC who knew of someone who had experienced DV in the past year, whether these DV victims were afraid to access ED care, reasons DV victims were afraid to access ED care, and rates of misconceptions (defined according to current California law) about the consequences of disclosing DV to healthcare providers. Of 667 patients approached, 531 (80%) agreed to participate: 32% UDLI, 33% LLRC, and 35% NLRC. Of the 27.5% of respondents who knew someone who experienced DV in the past year, 46% stated that the DV victim was afraid to seek ED care; there was no significant difference in this rate between groups. The most common fears reported as barriers to disclosure were fear the doctor would report DV to police (31%) and fear that the person perpetrating DV would find out about the disclosure (30.3%). Contrary to our hypothesis, UDLI had lower rates of misconceptions about healthcare provider and law enforcement responses to DV disclosure than LLRC and NLRC. Fear of disclosing DV and misconceptions about the consequences of disclosure of DV to healthcare providers were common, indicating a need for provider, patient, and community education and changes that lower barriers to help-seeking.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , Adult , Domestic Violence , Emergency Service, Hospital , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Undocumented Immigrants
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e28700, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given that governmental prevention measures restricted most face-to-face communications, online self-disclosure via smartphones emerged as an alternative coping strategy that aimed at reducing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people's psychological health. Prepandemic research demonstrated that online self-disclosure benefits people's psychological health by establishing meaningful relationships, obtaining social support, and achieving self-acceptance, particularly in times of crisis. However, it is unclear whether these dynamics transition well to lockdown conditions where online self-disclosure must stand almost entirely on its own. Longitudinal investigations are needed to gain insights into the psychological functionalities of online self-disclosure during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the temporal associations between smartphone online self-disclosure (as a communicative behavior) and critical indicators of psychological health (including psychopathological, as well as hedonic and eudaimonic states) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. METHODS: We conducted a representative 2-wave panel survey between late March/April 2020 and May 2020. A total of 416 participants completed both waves (43.1% attrition rate, given n=731 participants who completed the first wave). A partially metric measurement invariant overtime structural equation model was used to determine the temporal associations among online self-disclosure, fear of COVID-19, happiness, and psychological well-being. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that fear of COVID-19 significantly predicted online self-disclosure over time (b=0.24, P=.003) and happiness over time (b=-0.14, P=.04), but not psychological well-being (b=0.03, P=.48), that is, stronger COVID-19 fears at T1 prompted more online self-disclosure and less happiness at T2. Online self-disclosure, on the other hand, significantly predicted happiness (b=0.09, P=.02), but neither fear of COVID-19 (b=-0.01, P=.57) nor psychological well-being (b=-0.01, P=.57) over time. Participants who engaged more strongly in online self-disclosure at T1 felt happier at T2, but they did not differ from less-disclosing participants concerning COVID-19 fears and psychological well-being at T2. Importantly, happiness and psychological well-being were significantly related over time (happiness T1 → psychological well-being T2: b=0.11, P<.001; psychological well-being T1 → happiness T2: b=0.42, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that online self-disclosure might play a pivotal role in coping with pandemic stressors. With restrictions on their options, individuals increasingly turn to their smartphones and social media to disclose their feelings, problems, and concerns during lockdown. While online self-disclosure might not alleviate fears or improve psychological well-being, our results demonstrate that it made people experience more happiness during this crisis. This psychological resource may help them withstand the severe psychological consequences of the COVID-19 crisis over longer timeframes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Communicable Disease Control , Disclosure , Fear , Happiness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 160, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than eight in ten of the world's 1.65 million adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV) live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and poor viral suppression are reported among ALHIV which may in turn compromise the gains achieved so far. The evidence on whether knowing one's own human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and self-disclosure to others benefit adherence to ART or not is inconclusive. This review aims to estimate the association between knowing one's HIV status and self-disclosure on adherence to ART among ALHIV in SSA. METHODS: Comprehensive search strings will be used to identify relevant observational studies published in English up to May 2020 in major databases: Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), PubMed, and Ovid/MEDLINE. To access African studies and also to freely access subscription-based articles, the African Index Medicus (AIM) and the WHO HINARI databases will be searched. The AfroLib database will be searched to access the gray literature of African studies. We will use the COVIDENCE software for title/abstract screening, full-text screening, quality assessment, and data extraction. Two authors will independently screen retrieved articles, and a third author authorized to resolve conflicts will handle disagreements. The Joanna Briggs Institute's (JBI) critical appraisal tools will be used to assess study quality. Appropriate statistical tests will be conducted to quantify the between studies heterogeneity and for the assessment of publication bias. We will check individual study influence analysis and also do subgroup analysis. The STATA version 14.2 will be used for statistical analysis. DISCUSSION: A high-level adherence to ART is required to achieve adequate viral suppression and improve quality of life. Consequently, the evidence on how adherence to ART differs with knowledge of one's own HIV status and self-disclosure may help guide interventions aimed at improving adherence to ART.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Self Disclosure
16.
18.
Health Promot Pract ; 22(6): 761-763, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367662

ABSTRACT

Black/African American populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and there is evidence suggesting that vaccine hesitancy is a concern among this group. As an alternative to the primary prevention method of vaccination, the tertiary method of disclosing one's COVID-19 status after contracting the virus is of utmost importance in reducing the spread of the virus. Recommendations to inform disclosure decisions based on an HIV disclosure model can be applied to COVID-19-positive Black populations in clinical and community settings to reduce the spread of the virus among this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disclosure , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 87, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is a major threat to patients and health care providers around the world. One solution is the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive query of the latest publications on the prevention of viral infections including the recent vaccination program and its side effects. RESULTS: The situation is evolving rapidly and there is no reasonable alternative to population-scale vaccination programs as currently enrolled. CONCLUSION: Therefore, regulatory authorities should consider supplementing their conventional mandate of post-approval pharmacovigilance, which is based on the collection, assessment, and regulatory response to emerging safety findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Informed Consent/standards , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disclosure , Humans
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2115850, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251884

ABSTRACT

Importance: Contact tracing is a multistep process to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Gaps in the process result in missed opportunities to prevent COVID-19. Objective: To quantify proportions of cases and their contacts reached by public health authorities and the amount of time needed to reach them and to compare the risk of a positive COVID-19 test result between contacts and the general public during 4-week assessment periods. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study took place at 13 health departments and 1 Indian Health Service Unit in 11 states and 1 tribal nation. Participants included all individuals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and their named contacts. Local COVID-19 surveillance data were used to determine the numbers of persons reported to have laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were interviewed and named contacts between June and October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: For contacts, the numbers who were identified, notified of their exposure, and agreed to monitoring were calculated. The median time from index case specimen collection to contact notification was calculated, as were numbers of named contacts subsequently notified of their exposure and monitored. The prevalence of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test among named and tested contacts was compared with that jurisdiction's general population during the same 4 weeks. Results: The total number of cases reported was 74 185. Of these, 43 931 (59%) were interviewed, and 24 705 (33%) named any contacts. Among the 74 839 named contacts, 53 314 (71%) were notified of their exposure, and 34 345 (46%) agreed to monitoring. A mean of 0.7 contacts were reached by telephone by public health authorities, and only 0.5 contacts per case were monitored. In general, health departments reporting large case counts during the assessment (≥5000) conducted smaller proportions of case interviews and contact notifications. In 9 locations, the median time from specimen collection to contact notification was 6 days or less. In 6 of 8 locations with population comparison data, positive test prevalence was higher among named contacts than the general population. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US local COVID-19 surveillance data, testing named contacts was a high-yield activity for case finding. However, this assessment suggests that contact tracing had suboptimal impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission, largely because 2 of 3 cases were either not reached for interview or named no contacts when interviewed. These findings are relevant to decisions regarding the allocation of public health resources among the various prevention strategies and for the prioritization of case investigations and contact tracing efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Public Health , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disclosure/statistics & numerical data , Health Services, Indigenous , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , United States/epidemiology
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