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Front Public Health ; 10: 769898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775977


Background: In Africa, rabies causes an estimated 24,000 human deaths annually. Mass dog vaccinations coupled with timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for dog-bite patients are the main interventions to eliminate human rabies deaths. A well-informed healthcare workforce and the availability and accessibility of rabies biologicals at health facilities are critical in reducing rabies deaths. We assessed awareness and knowledge regarding rabies and the management of rabies among healthcare workers, and PEP availability in rural eastern Kenya. Methodology: We interviewed 73 healthcare workers from 42 healthcare units in 13 wards in Makueni and Kibwezi West sub-counties, Makueni County, Kenya in November 2018. Data on demographics, years of work experience, knowledge of rabies, management of bite and rabies patients, and availability of rabies biologicals were collected and analyzed. Results: Rabies PEP vaccines were available in only 5 (12%) of 42 health facilities. None of the health facilities had rabies immunoglobulins in stock at the time of the study. PEP was primarily administered intramuscularly, with only 11% (n = 8) of the healthcare workers and 17% (7/42) healthcare facilities aware of the dose-sparing intradermal route. Less than a quarter of the healthcare workers were aware of the World Health Organization categorization of bite wounds that guides the use of PEP. Eighteen percent (n = 13) of healthcare workers reported they would administer PEP for category I exposures even though PEP is not recommended for this category of exposure. Only one of six respondents with acute encephalitis consultation considered rabies as a differential diagnosis highlighting the low index of suspicion for rabies. Conclusion: The availability and use of PEP for rabies was sub-optimal. We identified two urgent needs to support rabies elimination programmes: improving availability and access to PEP; and targeted training of the healthcare workers to improve awareness on bite wound management, judicious use of PEP including appropriate risk assessment following bites and the use of the dose-sparing intradermal route in facilities seeing multiple bite patients. Global and domestic funding plan that address these gaps in the human health sector is needed for efficient rabies elimination in Africa.

Disease Eradication , Health Services Needs and Demand , Rabies , Rural Health , Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/supply & distribution , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009595, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416859


BACKGROUND: Sustainability within neglected tropical disease (NTD) programs is a complex and challenging issue. The need for a shared understanding about what sustainability means for NTD programs is more important than ever as stakeholders are currently realigning for the next decade of NTD programming with the launch of WHO's new NTD roadmap for 2012-2030. The aim of this paper is to assess different perspectives to generate a working definition of sustainability for NTD programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study surveyed affiliates of the NTD NGO Network (NNN) about their definitions of sustainability and then analyzed the data using an inductive and deductive process. The research team drafted a sustainability statement based on the survey findings and then solicited and incorporated feedback on the statement from a diverse group of expert reviewers. The final statement includes a working definition of sustainability for NTD programs that highlights three key essential components to sustainability: domestic commitment, responsive resource mobilization, and accountability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research resulted in a sustainability statement, based on a survey and extensive consultation with stakeholders, that represents a starting point for shared understanding around the concept of sustainability for NTD programs. Future collaborative work should build off this definition and seek to incorporate indicators for sustainability into programmatic decision-making.

Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Global Health , Humans , Social Responsibility , World Health Organization
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341555


Resumen Este artículo describe el inicio de las preocupaciones sanitarias vinculadas a las epidemias ocurridas durante el siglo XX en La Pampa, provincia argentina. Las epidemias, como las de la viruela, fueron un estímulo para estas políticas que frecuentemente tuvieron origen en Buenos Aires, la capital del país. El contagio de muchas epidemias dependía de carencias de infraestructura: agua, desagüe y desecho adecuado de basuras, de la ausencia de un número suficiente de trabajadores de salud, de la presencia de vectores transmisores de enfermedades como los mosquitos y, en última instancia, de la pobreza. La experiencia histórica descrita en este texto resalta la importancia de analizar el impacto del SARS-CoV-2 más allá de las grandes ciudades.

Abstract This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , History, 20th Century , Smallpox/history , Epidemics/history , COVID-19/history , Argentina/epidemiology , Poverty/history , Sewage , Water Supply/history , Smallpox/prevention & control , Smallpox/epidemiology , Indians, South American/history , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Refuse Disposal/history , Vaccination/history , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Cities/history , Cities/epidemiology , Health Personnel/history , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Disease Eradication/history , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy/history , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Insect Vectors , Military Personnel/history
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(4): 280-286, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167259


By 2040, deaths from chronic viral hepatitis worldwide are projected to exceed those from human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis and malaria combined. The burden of this disease is predominantly carried by low-resource countries in Africa and Asia. In resource-rich countries, the epidemiological spread of viral hepatitis is partially driven by migrant movements from areas of high endemicity. In the last decade, Member States of the European Union and the European Economic Area have experienced an unprecedented influx of migrants, which has resulted in the polarization of political views about migration. In addition, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has worsened the economic and health conditions of migrants and contributed to hostility to ensuring their health rights. Moreover, the implementation of hostile laws in some host nations has increased the vulnerability of marginalized migrant subgroups, such as asylum seekers and undocumented individuals. These developments have complicated the historical challenge of identifying high-risk migrant groups for screening and treatment. However, if European countries can apply the simplified assessment tools and diagnostic tests for viral hepatitis that have been used for decentralized screening and monitoring in resource-poor countries, the uptake of care by migrants could be dramatically increased. Given the global calls for the elimination of viral hepatitis, European nations should recognize the importance of treating this vulnerable migrant population. Political and health strategies need to be adapted to meet this challenge and help eliminate viral hepatitis globally.

D'ici 2040, les décès causés par l'hépatite virale chronique dans le monde devraient dépasser ceux dus à trois grandes maladies réunies: l'infection au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine, la tuberculose et la malaria. Le fardeau que représente cette affection repose surtout sur les pays disposant de ressources limitées en Afrique et en Asie. Dans les pays riches en ressources, la propagation épidémiologique de l'hépatite virale est en partie liée aux mouvements migratoires depuis les zones à endémicité élevée. Au cours de la dernière décennie, les États membres de l'Union européenne et l'Espace économique européen ont connu un afflux de migrants sans précédent qui a polarisé les opinions politiques concernant la migration. En outre, la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 a aggravé la situation économique et sanitaire des migrants, contribuant à l'animosité ambiante à l'égard du respect de leurs droits en matière de santé. L'adoption de lois hostiles dans certains pays d'accueil a également accru la vulnérabilité des sous-groupes de migrants marginalisés, tels que les demandeurs d'asile et les sans-papiers. Des conditions qui compliquent la tâche d'identification des groupes de migrants à haut risque pour le dépistage et le traitement. Néanmoins, si les pays européens pouvaient appliquer les outils d'évaluation simplifiés et les tests de diagnostic de l'hépatite virale, qui ont été employés pour la surveillance et le dépistage décentralisé dans les pays disposant de ressources limitées, la prise en charge des migrants pourrait nettement s'améliorer. Compte tenu des nombreux appels internationaux à éliminer l'hépatite virale, les nations européennes devraient reconnaître l'importance de soigner ces populations de migrants vulnérables. Les stratégies politiques et sanitaires doivent être adaptées afin de relever ce défi et de contribuer à éradiquer l'hépatite virale dans le monde.

Para 2040, se prevé que las muertes por hepatitis vírica crónica en todo el mundo superen a las causadas por la infección del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, la tuberculosis y la malaria juntas. La carga de esta enfermedad recae sobre todo en los países con recursos limitados de África y Asia. En los países ricos en recursos, la propagación epidemiológica de las hepatitis víricas se debe en parte a los movimientos migratorios desde las zonas altamente endémicas. En la última década, los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea y del Espacio Económico Europeo han experimentado una afluencia de inmigrantes sin precedentes, lo que ha polarizado las opiniones políticas sobre la inmigración. Además, la pandemia de la enfermedad del coronavirus de 2019 ha empeorado las condiciones económicas y sanitarias de los inmigrantes y ha contribuido a la hostilidad para garantizar sus derechos sanitarios. Además, la aplicación de leyes hostiles en algunas naciones de acogida ha aumentado la vulnerabilidad de subgrupos de inmigrantes marginados, como los solicitantes de asilo y los indocumentados. Estos acontecimientos han complicado el reto histórico de identificar a los grupos de inmigrantes de alto riesgo para su detección y tratamiento. Sin embargo, si los países europeos pueden aplicar las herramientas de evaluación y las pruebas de diagnóstico simplificadas para la hepatitis vírica que se han utilizado para el cribado y el seguimiento descentralizados en los países con pocos recursos, la aceptación de la atención por parte de los inmigrantes podría aumentar drásticamente. Dados los llamamientos mundiales para la eliminación de la hepatitis vírica, las naciones europeas deberían reconocer la importancia de tratar a esta población inmigrante vulnerable. Es necesario adaptar las estrategias políticas y sanitarias para hacer frente a este reto y ayudar a eliminar la hepatitis vírica a nivel mundial.

Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/ethnology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Politics , SARS-CoV-2
Adv Ther ; 38(3): 1397-1403, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085619


The availability of pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) has provided an opportunity to simplify patient pathways. Recent clinical practice guidelines have recognised the need for simplification to ensure that elimination of HCV as a public health concern remains a priority. Despite the move towards simplified treatment algorithms, there remains some complexity in the recommendations for the management of genotype 3 patients with compensated cirrhosis. In an era where additional clinical trial data are not anticipated, clinical guidance should consider experience gained in real-world settings. Although more experience is required for some pangenotypic therapeutic options, on the basis of published real-world data, there is already sufficient evidence to consider a simplified approach for genotype 3 patients with compensated cirrhosis. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need to minimise the need for complex patient pathways and clinical practice guidelines need to continue to evolve in order to ensure that patient outcomes remain optimised.

COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Critical Pathways , Disease Eradication , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/standards , Critical Pathways/trends , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Global Health/trends , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/therapy , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
Int Health ; 13(Supplement_1): S55-S59, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990726


Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) in 2000, more than 910 million people have received preventive chemotherapy for lymphatic filariasis (LF) and many thousands have received care for chronic manifestations of the disease. To achieve this, millions of community drug distributors (CDDs), community members and health personnel have worked together each year to ensure that at-risk communities receive preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). The successes of 20 y of partnership with communities is celebrated, including the application of community-directed treatment, the use of CDDs and integration with other platforms to improve community access to healthcare. Important challenges facing the GPELF moving forward towards 2030 relate to global demographic, financing and programmatic changes. New innovations in research and practice present opportunities to encourage further community partnership to achieve the elimination of LF as a public health problem. We stress the critical need for community ownership in the current Covid-19 pandemic, to counter concerns in relaunching MDA programmes for LF.

Community Participation , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control , Global Health , Disease Eradication/trends , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Filaricides/therapeutic use , Forecasting , Humans , Mass Drug Administration
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 446-448, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955245


Poliomyelitis, a crippling viral disease, has been affecting many children in Pakistan despite the numerous efforts that have been taken to curb its spread. The COVID-19 pandemic has halted mass polio vaccination campaigns globally, including Pakistan, resulting in a resurgence of new cases. Pakistan managed to flatten the COVID-19 curve from July to October that made three immunization drives possible, but the COVID-19 cases are on the rise again which can again complicate the polio situation in the country if left unmonitored. The efforts of Pakistan have been effective with no significant rise in polio cases in 2020 as compared with 2019. We discuss the numerous challenges faced by the polio eradication program in Pakistan. To help eliminate polio, Pakistan needs to enhance its efforts in the struggle against polio with the same zeal and stringency used to flatten the curve of COVID-19 in these challenging times.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/standards , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Child , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/standards , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , World Health Organization
Rev Med Virol ; 31(4): e2190, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917104


The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted immunization programs around the globe, potentially increasing life-threatening vaccine-preventable diseases. Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries, which are still struggling to eradicate wild poliovirus. All vaccination campaigns in Pakistan were suspended in April due to the COVID-19 outbreak, leading 40 million children to miss out on polio vaccination. Like the climate crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic could be regarded as a child-rights crisis because it could have life-threatening impact over children, who need immunization, now and in the long-term. Delays in polio vaccination programs might not have immediate impact but, in the long-term, the increase in polio cases in Pakistan could result in the global export of infections. Therefore, healthcare authorities must intensify their efforts to track and vaccinate unvaccinated children in countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan. Polio vaccination campaigns need to resume immediately, so we suggest applying social distancing measures along with standard operating procedure to flatten the transmission curve of COVID-19. Furthermore, the concurrent emergence of cVDPV2 means that tOPV should temporarily be used for primary immunization. In the current review, we have discussed delays in polio vaccination, surveillance of polio viruses, reported cases in Pakistan along with recommendations to overcome interrupted immunization.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/therapeutic use , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology