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Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112507, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556976


Lectins or clusters of carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin are distributed chiefly in the Plantae. Lectins have potent anti-infectivity properties for several RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2. The primary purpose of this review is to review the ability of lectins mediated potential biotherapeutic and bioprophylactic strategy against coronavirus causing COVID-19. Lectins have binding affinity to the glycans of SARS-COV-2 Spike glycoprotein that has N-glycosylation sites. Apart from this, the complement lectin pathway is a "first line host defense" against the viral infection that is activated by mannose-binding lectins. Mannose-binding lectins deficiency in serum influences innate immunity of the host and facilitates infectious diseases including COVID-19. Our accumulated evidence obtained from scientific databases particularly PubMed and Google Scholar databases indicate that mannose-specific/mannose-binding lectins (MBL) have potent efficacies like anti-infectivity, complement cascade induction, immunoadjuvants, DC-SIGN antagonists, or glycomimetic approach, which can prove useful in the strategy of COVID-19 combat along with the glycobiological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infections and antiviral immunity. For example, plant-derived mannose-specific lectins BanLac, FRIL, Lentil, and GRFT from red algae can inhibit and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, as confirmed with in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico assessments. Furthermore, Bangladesh has a noteworthy resource of antiviral medicinal plants as well as plant lectins. Intensifying research on the antiviral plant lectins, adopting a glyco-biotechnological approach, and with deeper insights into the "glycovirological" aspects may result in the designing of alternative and potent blueprints against the 21st century's biological pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Eradication/methods , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/trends , Humans , Plant Lectins/isolation & purification , Plant Lectins/pharmacology
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(4): 465-481, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099508


OBJECTIVES: As efforts to control COVID-19 continue, we simulate hypothetical emergence of wild poliovirus assuming an immunologically naïve population. This differs from the current global experience with polio and serves as a model for responding to future pandemics. METHODS: Applying an established global model, we assume a fully susceptible global population to polioviruses, independently introduce a virus with properties of each of the three stable wild poliovirus serotypes, and explore the impact of strategies that range from doing nothing to seeking global containment and eradication. RESULTS: We show the dynamics of paralytic cases as the virus spreads globally. We demonstrate the difficulty of eradication unless aggressive efforts begin soon after initial disease detection. Different poliovirus serotypes lead to different trajectories and burdens of disease. In the absence of aggressive measures, the virus would become globally endemic in 2-10 years, and cumulative paralytic cases would exceed 4-40 million depending on serotype, with the burden of disease shifting to younger ages. CONCLUSIONS: The opportunity to eradicate emerging infections represents an important public policy choice. If the world first observed the emergence of wild poliovirus in 2020, adopting aggressive control strategies would have been required to prevent a devastating global pandemic.

Global Health , Health Policy/trends , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliovirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/trends , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Poliomyelitis/immunology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Int Health ; 13(Supplement_1): S55-S59, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990726


Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) in 2000, more than 910 million people have received preventive chemotherapy for lymphatic filariasis (LF) and many thousands have received care for chronic manifestations of the disease. To achieve this, millions of community drug distributors (CDDs), community members and health personnel have worked together each year to ensure that at-risk communities receive preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). The successes of 20 y of partnership with communities is celebrated, including the application of community-directed treatment, the use of CDDs and integration with other platforms to improve community access to healthcare. Important challenges facing the GPELF moving forward towards 2030 relate to global demographic, financing and programmatic changes. New innovations in research and practice present opportunities to encourage further community partnership to achieve the elimination of LF as a public health problem. We stress the critical need for community ownership in the current Covid-19 pandemic, to counter concerns in relaunching MDA programmes for LF.

Community Participation , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control , Global Health , Disease Eradication/trends , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Filaricides/therapeutic use , Forecasting , Humans , Mass Drug Administration