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1.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 35(1): 1-11, 20220125.
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2202511

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da pandemia COVID-19 em doenças de notificação compulsória no Norte do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo realizado com dados das bases Sinan (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) e SIH/SUS (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS) sobre meningite bacteriana e viral, dengue, febre hemorrágica da dengue, arboviroses, sífilis, tuberculose, hanseníase e hepatites virais. Utilizou-se estatística descritiva para avaliação da variação nos números absolutos das notificações e internações do período de 2015 a 2020 e suas variações médias. Resultados: As notificações e internações de meningite, arboviroses não-dengue, hanseníase, leptospirose e hepatites virais, em geral, demonstraram redução de 50 até 80% em relação a períodos anteriores. Houve variabilidade regional com dengue e febre hemorrágica da dengue, com aumentos e reduções independentes. As sífilis adquirida, gestacional e congênita demonstraram queda de até 60% nas notificações e nas internações, exceto sífilis congênita, que se manteve em estabilidade. As notificações e as internações de tuberculose se mantiveram estáveis em toda a região. Conclusão: Houve redução geral de mais da metade das notificações e das internações hospitalares, apresentando um impacto variável, dependendo do Estado e do processo de endemia de cada sub-região.


Objective: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on notifiable diseases in Northern Brazil. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação ­ Sinan) and SUS Hospital Information System (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS ­ SIH/SUS) on bacterial and viral meningitis, dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever, arboviruses, syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, and viral hepatitis. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the variation in absolute numbers of notifications and hospitalizations from 2015 to 2020 and their average variations. Results: Notifications and hospitalizations for meningitis, non-dengue arboviruses, leprosy, leptospirosis, and viral hepatitis exhibited a general decrease of 50 to 80% compared to previous years. There was regional variation in dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, with independent increases and decreases. Acquired, gestational and congenital syphilis presented a 60% decrease in notifications and hospitalizations, except for congenital syphilis, which remained stable. Tuberculosis notifications and hospitalizations remained stable in the entire region. Conclusion: There was an overall decrease of more than a half of notifications and hospitalizations, representing a variable impact depending on the state and the endemic process of each subregion.


Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la pandemia de la COVID-19 en las enfermedades de notificación compulsoria del Norte de Brasil. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado con datos de las bases SINAN (Sistema de Información de Agravios de Notificación) y SIH/SUS (Sistema de Informaciones Hospitalarias del SUS) sobre la meningitis bacteriana y viral, el dengue, la fiebre hemorrágica del dengue, las arbovirosis, la sífilis, la tuberculosis, la lepra y las hepatitis virales. Se utilizó de la estadística descriptiva para la evaluación de la variación de los números absolutos de las notificaciones y los ingresos del periodo entre 2015 y 2020 y sus variaciones medias. Resultados: Las notificaciones y los ingresos de meningitis, arbovirosis no-dengue,la lepra, la leptospirosis y las hepatitis virales, en general, han demostrado una disminución del 50 hasta el 80% respecto los periodos anteriores. Hubo variabilidad por región respecto el dengue y fiebre hemorrágica del dengue con subidas y bajadas independientes. Las sífilis adquirida, gestacional y congénita han demostrado caída hasta el 60% de las notificaciones e ingresos excepto la sífilis congénita que se mantuvo estable. Las notificaciones y los ingresos por tuberculosis se mantuvieron estables em toda la región. Conclusión: Hubo una disminución general de más de la mitad de las notificaciones y los ingresos hospitalarios, presentando un impacto variable, a depender del Estado y del proceso de endemia de cada sub-región.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology, Descriptive , Disease Notification , Health Information Systems , COVID-19
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114135

ABSTRACT

Introduction: in 2018-2019 Chegutu District had one notification form Tally 1 (T1) that was completed instead of seven for detected notifiable diseases. Different figures of cholera were reported through weekly rapid disease notification system with 106 patients and Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) with 111 patients, causing data discrepancy. We evaluated the NDSS to determine reasons for underperformance and data discrepancy. Methods: we conducted descriptive cross-sectional study using updated centres for disease control and prevention guidelines for surveillance system evaluation. We recruited forty-six health workers. Interviewer-administered questionnaires and checklists were used to collect data on reasons for underperformance, reasons for data discrepancy, knowledge of NDSS, surveillance system attributes and usefulness. Epi InfoTM7 generated frequencies, proportions, and means. Likert scale was used to assess health worker knowledge. Results: of the forty-six health workers, 34 (78%) had fair knowledge of NDSS. The reason for system underperformance was lack of training in NDSS 42 (91%). Data discrepancy was attributed to typographical mistakes made during data entry on WhatsApp platform 32 (70%). Eighty per cent (37) were willing to complete T1 forms. Six participants who were timed took ten minutes to complete T1 forms. Among 17 health facilities, only three had fifteen T1 forms that were adequate to notify first five cases in an outbreak. Notifiable diseases surveillance system data was used for planning health education 28 (68%). Conclusion: the NDSS was unstable due to health workers' inadequate knowledge and unavailability of T1 forms. Notifiable diseases surveillance system was found to be simple, acceptable, and useful. We recommended NDSS training of health workers.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Humans , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
3.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 67S-75S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098160

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Toward common methods for system monitoring and evaluation, we proposed a key performance indicator framework and discussed lessons learned while implementing a statewide exposure notification (EN) system in California during the COVID-19 epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: California deployed the Google Apple Exposure Notification framework, branded CA Notify, on December 10, 2020, to supplement traditional COVID-19 contact tracing programs. For system evaluation, we defined 6 key performance indicators: adoption, retention, sharing of unique codes, identification of potential contacts, behavior change, and impact. We aggregated and analyzed data from December 10, 2020, to July 1, 2021, in compliance with the CA Notify privacy policy. RESULTS: We estimated CA Notify adoption at nearly 11 million smartphone activations during the study period. Among 1 654 201 CA Notify users who received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, 446 634 (27%) shared their unique code, leading to ENs for other CA Notify users who were in close proximity to the SARS-CoV-2-positive individual. We identified at least 122 970 CA Notify users as contacts through this process. Contact identification occurred a median of 4 days after symptom onset or specimen collection date of the user who received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Smartphone-based EN systems are promising new tools to supplement traditional contact tracing and public health interventions, particularly when efficient scaling is not feasible for other approaches. Methods to collect and interpret appropriate measures of system performance must be refined while maintaining trust and privacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Notification , Contact Tracing/methods , California/epidemiology
4.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 90S-95S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a survey to understand how people's willingness to share information with contact tracers, quarantine after a COVID-19 exposure, or activate and use a smartphone exposure notification (EN) application (app) differed by the person or organization making the request or recommendation. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey with hypothetical scenarios asking participants (N = 2157) to engage in a public health action by health care providers, public health departments, employers, and others. We used Likert scales and ordered logistic regression to compare willingness to take action based on which person or organization made the request, and we summarized findings by race and ethnicity. RESULTS: The highest levels of willingness to engage in contact tracing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.55-1.96), quarantine (aOR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.69-2.15), download/activate an EN app (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16-1.46), and notify other EN users (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.27-1.60) were reported when the request came from the participant's personal health care provider rather than from federal public health authorities. When compared with non-Hispanic White participants, non-Hispanic Black participants reported significantly higher levels of willingness to engage in contact tracing (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.48), quarantine (aOR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37-1.63), download/activate an EN app (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI, 2.01-2.38), and notify other EN users (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.49-1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Partnering with individuals and organizations perceived as trustworthy may help influence people expressing a lower level of willingness to engage in each activity, while those expressing a higher level of willingness to engage in each activity may benefit from targeted communications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Notification , Sexual Partners
5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(12): 2050-2056, 2022 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Digital exposure notifications (DEN) systems were an emergency response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, harnessing smartphone-based technology to enhance conventional pandemic response strategies such as contact tracing. We identify and describe performance measurement constructs relevant to the implementation of DEN tools: (1) reach (number of users enrolled in the intervention); (2) engagement (utilization of the intervention); and (3) effectiveness in preventing transmissions of COVID-19 (impact of the intervention). We also describe WA State's experience utilizing these constructs to design data-driven evaluation approaches. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of DEN documentation and relevant publications. Participation in multidisciplinary collaborative environments facilitated shared learning. Compilation of available data sources and their relevance to implementation and operation workflows were synthesized to develop implementation evaluation constructs. RESULTS: We identified 8 useful performance indicators within reach, engagement, and effectiveness constructs. DISCUSSION: We use implementation science to frame the evaluation of DEN tools by linking the theoretical constructs with the metrics available in the underlying disparate, deidentified, and aggregate data infrastructure. Our challenges in developing meaningful metrics include limited data science competencies in public health, validation of analytic methodologies in the complex and evolving pandemic environment, and the lack of integration with the public health infrastructure. CONCLUSION: Continued collaboration and multidisciplinary consensus activities can improve the utility of DEN tools for future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Privacy , Public Health , Disease Notification , Washington , Pandemics/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods
7.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 83S-89S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Exposure notification (EN) supplements traditional contact tracing by using proximity sensors in smartphones to record close contact between persons. This ledger is used to alert persons of potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure, so they can quarantine until their infection status is determined. We describe a model that estimates the impact of EN implementation on reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and on the workload of public health officials, in combination with other key public health interventions such as traditional contact tracing, face mask wearing, and testing. METHODS: We created an agent-based model, Simulated Automated Exposure Notification (SimAEN), to explore the effectiveness of EN to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We varied selected simulation variables, such as population adoption of EN and EN detector sensitivity configurations, to illustrate the potential effects of EN. We executed 20 simulations with SimAEN for each scenario and derived results for each simulation. RESULTS: When more sensitive versus more specific EN configurations were compared, the effective reproductive number, RE, was minimally affected (a decrease <0.03). For scenarios with increasing levels of EN adoption, an increasing number of additional infected persons were identified through EN, and total infection counts in the simulated population decreased; RE values for this scenario decreased with increasing EN adoption (a decrease of 0.1 to 0.2 depending on the scenario). CONCLUSIONS: Estimates from SimAEN can help public health officials determine which levels of EN adoption in combination with other public health interventions can maximize prevention of COVID-19 while minimizing unnecessary quarantine in their jurisdiction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Disease Notification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Quarantine , Decision Making
8.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994942

ABSTRACT

Nationwide surveillance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other human prion diseases is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry (ANCJDR). National surveillance encompasses the period since 1 January 1970, with prospective surveillance occurring from 1 October 1993. Over this prospective surveillance period, considerable developments have occurred in pre-mortem diagnostics; in the delineation of new disease subtypes; and in a heightened awareness of prion diseases in healthcare settings. Surveillance practices of the ANCJDR have evolved and adapted accordingly. This report summarises the activities of the ANCJDR during 2021. Since the ANCJDR began offering diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein testing in Australia in September 1997, the annual number of referrals has steadily increased. In 2021, a total of 548 domestic CSF specimens were referred for 14-3-3 protein testing; 73 persons with suspected human prion disease were formally added to the national register. As of 31 December 2021, just over half of the 73 suspect case notifications (37/73) remain classified as 'incomplete'; 17 cases were classified as 'definite' and 13 as 'probable' prion disease; six cases were excluded through either detailed clinical follow-up (two cases) or neuropathological examination (four cases). For 2021, sixty-four percent of all suspected human-prion-disease-related deaths in Australia underwent neuropathological examination. No cases of variant or iatrogenic CJD were identified. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic did not affect prion disease surveillance outcomes in Australia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome , Prion Diseases , 14-3-3 Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/diagnosis , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/epidemiology , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/pathology , Disease Notification , Humans , Prion Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 96S-100S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Smartphone-based digital exposure notification (EN) tools were introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic to supplement strained case investigation and contact tracing efforts. We examined the influence of an EN tool implemented in Washington State, WA Notify, on user engagement in behaviors that protect against COVID-19 transmission. METHODS: From January 25 through June 30, 2021, we administered 2 surveys to WA Notify users who received notification of a possible COVID-19 exposure. The initial survey, sent when users received a notification, focused on intent to engage in protective behaviors. The follow-up survey captured data on self-reported actual engagement in protective behaviors and contact by a public health contact tracer. RESULTS: Of 1507 WA Notify users who completed the initial survey, 40.1% (n = 604) reported intending to seek COVID-19 testing and 67.1% (n = 1011) intended to watch for COVID-19 symptoms. Of 407 respondents to the follow-up survey, 57.5% (n = 234) reported getting tested and 84.3% (n = 343) reported watching for COVID-19 symptoms. Approximately 84% (n = 1266) of respondents to the initial survey received a notification from WA Notify before being reached by public health contact tracers; on follow-up, 42.5% (n = 173) of respondents reported never being contacted by public health. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that WA Notify users may initiate protective behaviors earlier than nonusers who will not know of an exposure until notified by public health or by a known contact. Digital EN tools may be a valuable addition to existing public health outbreak investigation and response activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Notification , Washington/epidemiology
10.
Risk Anal ; 42(1): 162-176, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961875

ABSTRACT

Most early Bluetooth-based exposure notification apps use three binary classifications to recommend quarantine following SARS-CoV-2 exposure: a window of infectiousness in the transmitter, ≥15 minutes duration, and Bluetooth attenuation below a threshold. However, Bluetooth attenuation is not a reliable measure of distance, and infection risk is not a binary function of distance, nor duration, nor timing. We model uncertainty in the shape and orientation of an exhaled virus-containing plume and in inhalation parameters, and measure uncertainty in distance as a function of Bluetooth attenuation. We calculate expected dose by combining this with estimated infectiousness based on timing relative to symptom onset. We calibrate an exponential dose-response curve based on infection probabilities of household contacts. The probability of current or future infectiousness, conditioned on how long postexposure an exposed individual has been symptom-free, decreases during quarantine, with shape determined by incubation periods, proportion of asymptomatic cases, and asymptomatic shedding durations. It can be adjusted for negative test results using Bayes' theorem. We capture a 10-fold range of risk using six infectiousness values, 11-fold range using three Bluetooth attenuation bins, ∼sixfold range from exposure duration given the 30 minute duration cap imposed by the Google/Apple v1.1, and ∼11-fold between the beginning and end of 14 day quarantine. Public health authorities can either set a threshold on initial infection risk to determine 14-day quarantine onset, or on the conditional probability of current and future infectiousness conditions to determine both quarantine and duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Notification/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine , Bayes Theorem , Humans , United States/epidemiology
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bluetooth-enabled smartphone apps have been developed and implemented in different sites globally to help overcome capacity limitations of traditional interview-based COVID-19 contact tracing. Two apps are currently available in Canada: ABTraceTogether exclusively in Alberta and COVID Alert in nine other provinces and territories. This study aims to examine factors associated with downloading of these apps to inform targeted promotion and marketing to increase app uptake. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey with adult participants (≥18 years old) from an online national panel. Participants were asked if they had downloaded an app and, if applicable, reasons for not downloading. Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors and trusted information sources associated with downloading and reasons for not downloading. RESULTS: Of the included 4,503 respondents (36% response rate), 1,394 (31%) had downloaded an app. Demographic and socioeconomic factors positively associated with app download were: 1) being female, 2) higher household income, 3) higher education level attained, and 4) more liberal political views. The odds of downloading an app were higher for participants who trusted health-related information sources, and lower for those who trusted internet searches, family and friend, or Facebook. The most cited reasons for not downloading were related to data security concerns and perceived lack of benefit from the apps. INTERPRETATION: These findings identify sociodemographic segments with the lowest app uptake, reasons for not downloading and trusted information sources to inform targeted promotion and marketing strategies to improve uptake of apps to facilitate contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Adolescent , Adult , Alberta , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Female , Humans , Male
12.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 115-123, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887517

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases still register significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance through a mandatory notification system allows the continuous analysis of the situation even at a local level and its importance has been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to outline the importance of the mandatory notification system as a Public Health tool in the continuous monitoring of infectious diseases. To this aim, we carried out a cross-sectional study examining the notifications reported in the Italian territory of Messina, Sicily, in the period 2001-2020. The institutional websites were examined and the notification data were used to obtain the incidences. Overall, a significant reduction of the incidence notification trend was observed. Chickenpox was by far the most notified infectious disease, followed by scabies, pediculosis, and brucellosis. Outbreaks of brucellosis, measles and hepatitis A occurred. All the diseases decreased over time, except syphilis, for which a significant increase was observed. Surveillance of infectious diseases through a mandatory notification system remains a bulwark of public health despite underreporting. Our study reflects the situation of a typical high-income area, although some unexpected criticisms are highlighted. Continuous information about correct behaviors through education campaigns are crucial in order to improve the situation. Keywords: mandatory notifications, infectious diseases, surveillance, public health Corresponding author: Alessio Facciolà, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. Email: afacciola@unime.it.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Humans , Pandemics , Population Surveillance/methods , Sicily
13.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 23S-28S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883402

ABSTRACT

The swift global spread of COVID-19 prompted public health authorities to explore digital technologies to aid in contact tracing for infection control. Exposure notification, a mobile device-based technology that notifies individuals of potential exposure to COVID-19 without requiring personally identifiable information, has been broadly favored because of its relative ease of use, scalability, and protection of personal privacy. Although several exposure notification protocols were developed, a partnership between Google and Apple led to the development of the most widely implemented exposure notification protocol in the world, including in the United States. In this article, we first describe the development of the Google Apple Exposure Notification (GAEN) protocol, noting the value of the discourse among software developers and public health authorities concerning the protocol's design and features. We track states' deployment of GAEN mobile applications (apps) and population-level adoption rates, finding the nationwide rollout of GAEN apps to be more fragmented than anticipated. We then discuss how the limited data collected from these apps make assessments of their effectiveness challenging. Finally, we consider the importance of the federal government playing a greater role in GAEN's early development, emphasize the power of public-private partnerships, and highlight the overriding importance of public messaging over technological details.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Disease Notification , Contact Tracing/methods
14.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(1): e2021303, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833849

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe compulsorily notifiable diseases, health conditions and public health events (DAEs as per the Brazilian acronym) registered by the National Hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVEH as per the Brazilian acronym), before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a descriptive ecological study using records held on the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System (SINAN as per the Brazilian acronym) between Epidemiological Week (EW) 1 of 2017 (January 1st, 2017) and 52 of 2020 (December 26, 2020). RESULTS: Between 2017 and 2020, RENAVEH notified 1,258,455 DAE form records, with only 225,081 (17.9%) notifications in 2020, representing a decrease of 146,340 records compared to 2019. The temporal analysis showed a decrease per EW of more than 1,000 notified records with effect from EW 12. CONCLUSION: There was a decrease in compulsorily notifiable DAEs registered by RENAVEH in Brazil taking the period analyzed as a whole, in particular in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e35653, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital proximity tracing (DPT) aims to complement manual contact tracing (MCT) in identifying exposed contacts and preventing further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the population. Although several DPT apps, including SwissCovid, have shown to have promising effects on mitigating the pandemic, several challenges have impeded them from fully achieving the desired results. A key question now relates to how the effectiveness of DPT can be improved, which requires a better understanding of factors influencing its processes. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to provide a detailed examination of the exposure notification (EN) cascade and to evaluate potential contextual influences for successful receipt of an EN and subsequent actions taken by cases and contacts in different exposure settings. METHODS: We used data from 285 pairs of SARS-CoV-2-infected cases and their contacts within an observational cohort study of cases and contacts identified by MCT and enrolled between August 6, 2020, and January 17, 2021, in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. We surveyed participants with electronic questionnaires. Data were summarized descriptively and stratified by exposure setting. RESULTS: We found that only 79 (58.5%) of 135 contacts using the SwissCovid app whose corresponding cases reported to have triggered the EN also received one. Of these, 18 (22.8%) received the EN before MCT. Compared to those receiving an EN after MCT (61/79, 77.2%), we observed that a higher proportion of contacts receiving an EN before MCT were exposed in nonhousehold settings (11/18, 61.1%, vs 34/61, 55.7%) and their corresponding cases had more frequently reported mild-to-moderate symptoms (14/18, 77.8%, vs 42/61, 68.9%). Of the 18 contacts receiving an EN before MCT, 14 (77.8%) took recommended measures: 12 (66.7%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 7 (38.9%) called the SwissCovid Infoline. In nonhousehold settings, the proportion of contacts taking preventive actions after receiving an EN was higher compared to same-household settings (82%, vs 67%). In addition, 1 (9%) of 11 ENs received in the nonhousehold setting before MCT led to the identification of a SARS-CoV-2-infected case by prompting the contact to get tested. This corresponds to 1 in 85 exposures of a contact to a case in a nonhousehold setting, in which both were app users and the case triggered the EN. CONCLUSIONS: Our descriptive evaluation of the DPT notification cascade provides further evidence that DPT is an important complementary tool in pandemic mitigation, especially in nonhousehold exposure settings. However, the effect of DPT apps can only be exerted if code generation processes are efficient and exposed contacts are willing to undertake preventive actions. This highlights the need to focus efforts on keeping barriers to efficient code generation as low as possible and promoting not only app adoption but also compliance with the recommended measures upon an EN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry 14990068; https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN14990068.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Notification/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 56, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736418

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) responses such as social distancing practices can decrease health care access and tuberculosis (TB) notification, particularly among individuals aged 60 years or older. Conversely, they can increase TB notification among younger individuals. These results may be attributable to household transmission and the similarity of TB respiratory symptoms to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Young Adult
17.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 140(2): 305-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningitis , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Humans , Meningitis/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2627, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692539

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of wireless emergency alerts (WEAs) on social distancing policy. The Republic of Korea has been providing information to the public through WEAs using mobile phones. This study used five data sets: WEA messages, news articles including the keyword "COVID-19," the number of confirmed COVID-19 patients, public foot traffic data, and the government's social distancing level. The WEAs were classified into two topics-"warning" and "guidance"-using a random forest model. The results of the correlation analysis and further detailed analysis confirmed that the "warning" WEA topic and number of news articles significantly affected public foot traffic. However, the "guidance" topic was not significantly associated with public foot traffic. In general, the Korean government's WEAs were effective at encouraging the public to follow social distance recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the "warning" WEA topic, by providing information about the relative risk directly concerning the recipients, was significantly more effective than the "guidance" topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone , Disease Notification/methods , Physical Distancing , Humans , Mass Media , Public Health Practice , Republic of Korea
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010064, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the many collaterals of the COVID-19 pandemic is the disruption of health services and vital clinical research. COVID-19 has magnified the challenges faced in research and threatens to slow research for urgently needed therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and diseases affecting the most vulnerable populations. Here we explore the impact of the pandemic on a clinical trial for plague therapeutics and strategies that have been considered to ensure research efforts continue. METHODS: To understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the trial accrual rate, we documented changes in patterns of all-cause consultations that took place before and during the pandemic at health centres in two districts of the Amoron'I Mania region of Madagascar where the trial is underway. We also considered trends in plague reporting and other external factors that may have contributed to slow recruitment. RESULTS: During the pandemic, we found a 27% decrease in consultations at the referral hospital, compared to an 11% increase at peripheral health centres, as well as an overall drop during the months of lockdown. We also found a nation-wide trend towards reduced number of reported plague cases. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 outbreaks are unlikely to dissipate in the near future. Declining NTD case numbers recorded during the pandemic period should not be viewed in isolation or taken as a marker of things to come. It is vitally important that researchers are prepared for a rebound in cases and, most importantly, that research continues to avoid NTDs becoming even more neglected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Impact Assessment , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Plague/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research , Tropical Medicine/trends , Disease Notification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Madagascar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Selection , Plague/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/trends
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