Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 7.799
Filter
3.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2023-07-13.
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-371096
4.
Копенгаген; Всемирная организация здравоохранения. Европейское региональное бюро; 2023. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Vaccines/SAGE/Prioritization/2023.1).
in Russian | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-371051
6.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2023-07-06.
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-370545
9.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2023-06-29.
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-370351
11.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2023-06-22.
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369787
12.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(202): 20230036, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245634

ABSTRACT

Frequent emergence of communicable diseases is a major concern worldwide. Lack of sufficient resources to mitigate the disease burden makes the situation even more challenging for lower-income countries. Hence, strategy development for disease eradication and optimal management of the social and economic burden has garnered a lot of attention in recent years. In this context, we quantify the optimal fraction of resources that can be allocated to two major intervention measures, namely reduction of disease transmission and improvement of healthcare infrastructure. Our results demonstrate that the effectiveness of each of the interventions has a significant impact on the optimal resource allocation in both long-term disease dynamics and outbreak scenarios. The optimal allocation strategy for long-term dynamics exhibits non-monotonic behaviour with respect to the effectiveness of interventions, which differs from the more intuitive strategy recommended in the case of outbreaks. Further, our results indicate that the relationship between investment in interventions and the corresponding increase in patient recovery rate or decrease in disease transmission rate plays a decisive role in determining optimal strategies. Intervention programmes with decreasing returns promote the necessity for resource sharing. Our study provides fundamental insights into determining the best response strategy when controlling epidemics in resource-constrained situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Humans , Epidemics/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Resource Allocation
13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1117539, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245549

ABSTRACT

Background: Two years after the outbreak of the pandemic, several studies look at the consequences for the well-being and mental health of young people. In particular, creativity and resilience are cited in the scientific literature as resources that promote this well-being in adolescents and young adults. Purpose: This mini-literature review was created with the aim of examining how many articles have explored the relationship between creativity and resilience in adolescents and young adults since the onset of the pandemic. Methods: Particular attention was paid to how many of the articles actually related to the consequences of the pandemic, in which country they were published, their target population, and the models, instruments and variables used to analyze them. Results: Only 4 articles emerged from the screening, of which only one was actually related to pandemic consequences. All articles were published in Asian countries with a target group of university students. Three of the articles used mediation models to examine the relationship between resilience as an independent variable and creativity as a dependent variable. All articles used self-assessment instruments for creativity and resilience, both at the individual and group level. Significance: This mini-review offers us the opportunity to reflect on the lack of studies that have addressed the issue of youth resources in the form of creativity and resilience since the beginning of the pandemic. The results show us a still underdeveloped interest in creativity in the scientific literature, in contrast to what the media reports on the promotion of creativity in daily life.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Pandemics , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Asia
14.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244607

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
19.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(2): 303-312, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Delta variant of SARS-COV-2 has replaced previously circulating strains around the world in 2021. Sporadic outbreaks of the Delta variant in China have posed a concern about how to properly respond to the battle against evolving COVID-19. Here, we analyzed the "hierarchical and classified prevention and control (HCPC)" measures strategy deployed during the recent Guangzhou outbreak. METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-pre-symptomatic-infectious-recovered (SEPIR) model was developed and applied to study a range of different scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of policy deployment. We simulated severe different scenarios to understand policy implementation and timing of implementation. Two outcomes were measured: magnitude of transmission and duration of transmission. The outcomes of scenario evaluations were presented relative to the reality case (i.e., 368 cases in 34 days) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Based on our simulation, the outbreak would become out of control with 7 million estimated infections under the assumption of the absence of any interventions than the 153 reported cases in reality in Guangzhou. The simulation on delayed implementation of interventions showed that the total case numbers would also increase by 166.67%-813.07% if the interventions were delayed by 3 days or 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that timely and more precise interventions including mass testing and graded community management are effective measures for Delta variant containment in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 39(5): e00165522, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238884

ABSTRACT

This study aims to report analyses regarding the global distribution of institutions involved in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines throughout February 2022. We retrieved global data from the World Health Organization report on vaccine development. These data allowed us to identify project institutions and plot their geographic coordinates. We produced a georeferenced map using an R programming environment and, based on the geographical location of vaccine developers, we analyzed the subcontinental distribution of clinical trials and the nature of the vaccines. Regionally, South-Southeast Asian countries carried out more clinical trials than any other region, proportionally, although this happened solely for mature technologies. Few trials were under implementation in Latin America and Africa. Our findings confirm previous studies on the regional concentration in the development of technology. However, our contribution lies in showing these phenomena for COVID-19 vaccines in specific subcontinents and technologies, at a country level. Our data underscores which subcontinents perform very few clinical trials for COVID-19 and seem to be ill-prepared for future disease outbreaks, and if these become epidemics or even pandemics and require domestic vaccine development or production. We also consider the case of Brazil, which did not finish the complete cycle of COVID-19 vaccine development in the indicated period; but, with favorable policies, it has potential to engage further in COVID-19 vaccine technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL