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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e047753, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of peritraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), perceived threat, social support and factors contributing to clinically significant PTSS among frontline COVID-19 healthcare workers (HCWs) in China. DESIGN AND SETTING: An online survey through self-administered questionnaires was conducted from 18 February to 4 March 2020, during the outbreak of COVID-19. OUTCOMES MEASURES: PTSS was assessed using the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) self-rating scale. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, self-reported health, physical/psychological symptoms, perceived threat from frontline work and perceived social support were investigated. Multivariable line regression analysis distinguished factors associated with HCWs' PTSS scores. RESULTS: A total of 676 (58.1%) HCWs have shown clinically significant high levels of PTSS. Only 441 (37.9%) self-reported good health. Most had physical symptom(s) (915 (78.7%)), psychological symptom(s) (906 (77.9%)), inability to vent emotions (284 (24.4%)), emotional exhaustion (666 (57.3%)) and 1037 (89.2%) needed professional respect. Moreover, social support received was less than expected, and the receipt of psychological services/help scored the lowest (3.11±1.73). Combined psychological and physical symptoms, difficulty in releasing tension and venting emotions timely, fear of infection, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are significantly associated with PTSS scores among frontline HCWs. Working ≥8 hours, having the senior professional title, self-reported health, enjoying perfect protection and control measures, economic subsidy and control policy on reducing discriminatory practices are negatively correlated with PTSS scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak of COVID-19, frontline HCWs experienced clinically significant high levels of PTSS and heavy workload, and the emergency resulted in their inadequate psychosocial support. If this is left unchecked, HCWs have a higher risk of developing PTSD. Early detection, identification and person-directed, targeted multidisciplinary interventions should be undertaken to address various influencing factors. Comprehensive measures, including setting up emotional release channels, as well as providing psychological and social support intervention for HCWs globally, are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
2.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(6): 689-694, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influenced symptoms in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) and to characterize their quality of life (QoL), anxiety and global health. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, international study conducted between April and July 2020 at six different referral centers. Children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2019 and February 2020 were enrolled and prospectively interviewed at 4 months of follow-up during the first pandemic phase (Quarantine group). Patients were asked to complete PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and PROMIS Anxiety and Global Health questionnaires. A cohort of children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2018 and February 2019 was used as a Control group. RESULTS: Three-hundred-fifty-six children were enrolled of whom 180 (mean age at diagnosis: 14 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Quarantine group and 176 (mean age at diagnosis: 13 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Control group. At 4 months of follow-up, we observed a significant reduction of children reporting >5 episodes of abdominal pain per month when compared to baseline, in both groups (Quarantine group: 63.9% vs 42.2%, P < 0.001; Control group: 83.5% vs 50%, P < 0.001). The Quarantine group had median QoL values of 84.8 with 16.6% of children showing high anxiety values and 55% having decreased global health score. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated symptoms' improvement at 4 months of follow-up in both cohorts. During the first months of the COVID-19 quarantine children with FAPDs showed satisfactory QoL and anxiety scores, suggesting positive effects of school closure and increased parental attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576994

ABSTRACT

The debate continues as to which governance structure is most appropriate for collaborative disaster response, particularly between centralization and decentralization. This article aims to contribute to this debate by analyzing the structural characteristics of a multisectoral network that emerged and evolved under strong state control during the 2015 outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS) in South Korea. This study particularly focuses on the evolution of intra- and inter-sectoral collaboration ties in the network. The data for the study were collected through a content analysis of government documents and news articles. Using social network analysis, the authors found that the network evolved into a centralized structure around a small number of governmental organizations at the central level, organizing the ties between participating organizations rather hierarchically. The network displayed a preponderance of internal ties both among health and non-health organizations and among public and nonpublic health organizations, but under different influences of structural characteristics. This tendency was intensified during the peak period. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that the centralization of disaster management may not or only marginally be conducive to cross-sector collaboration during public health disasters, calling for a careful design of governance structures for disaster response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disasters , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613509

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCruise ships provide an ideal setting for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, given the socially dense exposure environment.AimTo provide a comprehensive review of COVID-19 outbreaks on cruise ships.MethodsPubMed was searched for COVID-19 cases associated with cruise ships between January and October 2020. A list of cruise ships with COVID-19 was cross-referenced with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's list of cruise ships associated with a COVID-19 case within 14 days of disembarkation. News articles were also searched for epidemiological information. Narratives of COVID-19 outbreaks on ships with over 100 cases are presented.ResultsSeventy-nine ships and 104 unique voyages were associated with COVID-19 cases before 1 October 2020. Nineteen ships had more than one voyage with a case of COVID-19. The median number of cases per ship was three (interquartile range (IQR): 1-17.8), with two notable outliers: the Diamond Princess and the Ruby Princess, which had 712 and 907 cases, respectively. The median attack rate for COVID-19 was 0.2% (IQR: 0.03-1.5), although this distribution was right-skewed with a mean attack rate of 3.7%; 25.9% (27/104) of voyages had at least one COVID-19-associated death. Outbreaks involving only crew occurred later than outbreaks involving guests and crew.ConclusionsIn the absence of mitigation measures, COVID-19 can spread easily on cruise ships in a susceptible population because of the confined space and high-density contact networks. This environment can create superspreader events and facilitate international spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ships , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 8, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611360
6.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2872-2879, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605779

ABSTRACT

We study the transition of an epidemic from growth phase to decay of the active infections in a population when lockdown health measures are introduced to reduce the probability of disease transmission. Although in the case of uniform lockdown, a simple compartmental model would indicate instantaneous transition to decay of the epidemic, this is not the case when partially isolated active clusters remain with the potential to create a series of small outbreaks. We model this using the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm based on a connected set of stochastic susceptible-infected-removed/recovered networks representing the locked-down majority population (in which the reproduction number is less than 1) weakly coupled to a large set of small clusters in which the infection may propagate. We find that the presence of such active clusters can lead to slower than expected decay of the epidemic and significantly delayed onset of the decay phase. We study the relative contributions of these changes, caused by the active clusters within the population, to the additional total infected population. We also demonstrate that limiting the size of the inevitable active clusters can be efficient in reducing their impact on the overall size of the epidemic outbreak. The deceleration of the decay phase becomes apparent when the active clusters form at least 5% of the population.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Epidemics , Algorithms , Computer Simulation , Humans , Probability
7.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 661-671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603045

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Three outbreaks of fatal diarrhoea occurred in bush dog (Speothos venaticus) groups at two zoological collections in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2017. In all cases, the predominant clinical signs were diarrhoea, anorexia and severe loss of condition. Despite supportive treatment, a number of fatalities occurred during each outbreak. Common gross post mortem findings were emaciation, with erythema, mucosal haemorrhage, and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathological features included villus blunting and fusion, crypt epithelial loss and lymphoid depletion, supporting a viral aetiology and canine coronavirus was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of serology (rising antibody titres) and the detection of viral nucleic acid using polymerase chain reaction. The canine coronavirus was subtyped as type 2a, which is known to cause systemic fatal disease in immature domestic dogs. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases of fatal diarrhoea associated with canine coronavirus type 2a in bush dogs. These outbreaks suggest that adult bush dogs are highly susceptible to canine coronavirus infection and may succumb to viral enteritis.


Subject(s)
Canidae , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , United Kingdom
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 780039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608013

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the increased emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the impact on schools and preschools remains a matter of debate. To ensure that schools and preschools are kept open safely, the identification of factors influencing the extent of outbreaks is of importance. Aim: To monitor dynamics of COVID-19 infections in schools and preschools and identify factors influencing the extent of outbreaks. Methods: In this prospective observational study we analyzed routine surveillance data of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, from calendar week (CW) 32, 2020 to CW19, 2021 regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection events in schools and preschools considering changes in infection control measures over time. A multivariate linear regression model was fitted to evaluate factors influencing the number of students, teachers and staff tested positive following index cases in schools and preschools. Due to an existing multicollinearity in the common multivariate regression model between the variables "face mask obligation for children" and "face mask obligation for adults", two further separate regression models were set up (Multivariate Model Adults and Multivariate Model Children). Results: We observed a significant increase in secondary cases in preschools in the first quarter of 2021 (CW8 to CW15, 2021), and simultaneously a decrease in secondary cases in schools. In multivariate regression analysis, the strongest predictor of the extent of the outbreaks was the teacher/ caregiver mask obligation (B = -1.9; 95% CI: -2.9 to -1.0; p < 0.001). Furthermore, adult index cases (adult only or child+adult combinations) increased the likelihood of secondary cases (B = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.8; p < 0.001). The face mask obligation for children also showed a significant reduction in the number of secondary cases (B = -0.6; 95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2; p = 0.004. Conclusion: The present study indicates that outbreak events at schools and preschools are effectively contained by an obligation for adults and children to wear face masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Schools , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Masks , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Acta Virol ; 65(4): 350-364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607905

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic transmission of highly pathogenic viruses, are a cause of deadly epidemics around the globe. These are of particular concern as evident from the recent global pandemic due to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The genus Ebolavirus belongs to the Filoviridae family and its members are known to cause the Ebola virus disease (EVD), a highly contagious disease with a mortality rate of approximately 90%. The similarity of the clinical symptoms to those of various tropical ailments poses a high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnostic strategies currently utilized include real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, amongst others. No specific treatment exists at present, and the management of patients is aimed at the treatment of complications augmented with supportive clinical care. The recent outbreak of EVD in West Africa, which began in 2014, led to accelerated development of vaccines and treatment. In this review, we contemplate the origin of the ebolaviruses, discuss the clinical aspects and treatment of the disease, depict the current diagnostic strategies of the virus, as well discuss its pathogenesis. Keywords: Ebolavirus; viral origin; treatment; pathogenicity of Ebola; Ebola virus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Disease Outbreaks , Ebolavirus/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 773850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607729

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Until today, the role of children in the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of the COVID-19 pandemic seems to be dynamic and is not finally resolved. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in child day care centers and connected households as well as transmission-related indicators and clinical symptoms among children and adults. Methods and Analysis: COALA ("Corona outbreak-related examinations in day care centers") is a day care center- and household-based study with a case-ascertained study design. Based on day care centers with at least one reported case of SARS-CoV-2, we include one- to six-year-old children and staff of the affected group in the day care center as well as their respective households. We visit each child's and adult's household. During the home visit we take from each household member a combined mouth and nose swab as well as a saliva sample for analysis of SARS-CoV-2-RNA by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and a capillary blood sample for a retrospective assessment of an earlier SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, information on health status, socio-demographics and COVID-19 protective measures are collected via a short telephone interview in the subsequent days. In the following 12 days, household members (or parents for their children) self-collect the same respiratory samples as described above every 3 days and a stool sample for children once. COVID-19 symptoms are documented daily in a symptom diary. Approximately 35 days after testing the index case, every participant who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the study is re-visited at home for another capillary blood sample and a standardized interview. The analysis includes secondary attack rates, by age of primary case, both in the day care center and in households, as well as viral shedding dynamics, including the beginning of shedding relative to symptom onset and viral clearance. Discussion: The results contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiological and virological transmission-related indicators of SARS-CoV-2 among young children, as compared to adults and the interplay between day care and households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Day Care, Medical , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 60-69, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a Utah meat-processing facility and surrounding community. DESIGN/SETTING: During March-June 2020, 502 workers at a Utah meat-processing facility (facility A) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using merged data from the state disease surveillance system and facility A, we analyzed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and worker demographics, work section, and geospatial data on worker residence. We analyzed worker survey responses to questions regarding COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors at work and home. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Facility A workers (n = 1373) with specimen collection dates and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results; (2) residential addresses of all persons (workers and nonworkers) with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (n = 1036), living within the 3 counties included in the health department catchment area; and (3) facility A workers (n = 64) who agreed to participate in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases over time, COVID-19 attack rates, worker characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 test results, geospatially clustered cases, space-time proximity of cases among workers and nonworkers; frequency of quantitative responses, crude prevalence ratios, and counts and frequency of coded responses to open-ended questions from the COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in race (P = .01), linguistic group (P < .001), and work section (P < .001) were found between workers with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Geographically, only 6% of cases were within statistically significant spatiotemporal case clusters. Workers reported using handwashing (57%) and social distancing (21%) as mitigation strategies outside work but reported apprehension with taking COVID-19-associated sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks among workers in congregate settings requires a multifaceted public health response that is tailored to the workforce. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Tailored, multifaceted mitigation strategies are crucial for reducing COVID-19-associated health disparities among disproportionately affected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Meat , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah/epidemiology
12.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(6): 1079-1090, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This research examines social distancing changes over time, and by region of the United States after the COVID-19 pandemic began. METHODS: We utilized information on social distancing from the Google Community Mobility Reports. We performed one-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) to examine the overall changes in the 6 types of social distancing from baseline to the 12-week follow-up (March 1 to May 24, 2020). We applied a 2-way RM-ANOVA to evaluate the effects of time and 4 regions on social distancing. RESULTS: According to one-way RM-ANOVA results, social distancing tended to increase until Time 3 (March 30 to April 12) and 4 (April 13 to April 26), before decreasing again, regardless of the area. The 2-way RM-ANOVA results revealed that the social distancing variations in the 6 area types over time were statistically significant in each region, along with the interaction of regions and time. Compared to other regions, social distancing was the highest in the Northeast area, except in park areas. CONCLUSIONS: We found that social distancing can be influenced not only by contagion changes, but also by regional differences. Understanding the features of social distancing can play a significant role in helping society build a promising COVID-19 prevention model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053638, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare global health, mental health impact of work stressors and psychosocial perception of healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-HCWs in a hospital after the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in France. METHODS: A validated version of the SATIN (Santé Au Travail Inrs université Nancy 2)questionnaire with adapted scoring was used to collect data on health and impact of work stressors. This questionnaire was sent to all workers at a hospital in July 2020 and was self-administered online. In a multinomial regression model, we included HCW status, age, gender and front-line worker status as covariates. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1405 participants were included. We found that being an HCW, male and front-line worker was a risk factor for negative perception of work demand (OR 7.35, 95% CI 4.2 to 11.47; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.89; OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.06). Being an HCW was a predictive factor for stress (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.08), poor global health (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.55) and negative perception of work activity environment (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.8). CONCLUSION: We have shown that all HCWs suffered from some health impact shortly after the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak. We underline some stressors with high impact, including work demand, work abilities and organisational context, and emphasise the need for risk management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 724362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604952

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked an intense debate about the hidden factors underlying the dynamics of the outbreak. Several computational models have been proposed to inform effective social and healthcare strategies. Crucially, the predictive validity of these models often depends upon incorporating behavioral and social responses to infection. Among these tools, the analytic framework known as "dynamic causal modeling" (DCM) has been applied to the COVID-19 pandemic, shedding new light on the factors underlying the dynamics of the outbreak. We have applied DCM to data from northern Italian regions, the first areas in Europe to contend with the outbreak, and analyzed the predictive validity of the model and also its suitability in highlighting the hidden factors governing the pandemic diffusion. By taking into account data from the beginning of the pandemic, the model could faithfully predict the dynamics of outbreak diffusion varying from region to region. The DCM appears to be a reliable tool to investigate the mechanisms governing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 to identify the containment and control strategies that could efficiently be used to counteract further waves of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Neuromodulation ; 24(3): 441-447, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Due to the impact of COVID-19 epidemic, face-to-face follow-up treatments for patients with chronic pain and implanted spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices are forced to be delayed or stopped. This has led to more follow ups being done remotely. Meanwhile, with the development of 4G/5G networks, smartphones, and novel devices, remote programming has become possible. Here, we investigated the demand and utility of remote follow-ups including remote programming for SCS for patients with chronic pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire including questions on demographic characteristics, pain history, postimplantation life quality, standard follow-up experience, remote follow-up, and remote programming experience was sent to patients diagnosed as chronic intractable pain and treated with SCS during January 2019 to January 2020. RESULTS: A total of 64 participants completed the questionnaire. About 70% of participants expressed demands for remote follow-ups due to the inconvenience, high costs, and time consumption of traditional follow-up visits. Nearly 97% of participants have attempted remote follow-ups, and about 81% of participants have further tried remote programming. Approximately, 96% of them recognized the benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The remote programming was in high demand among participants. Most of the participants have tried remote follow-ups or even remote programming. The remote programming appeared to be more efficient, economic and were widely recognized among participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Pain/therapy , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Implantable Neurostimulators , Remote Sensing Technology/methods , Spinal Cord Stimulation/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement/methods
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a global mental health crisis has affected everyone, including students. The present study aimed to determine and investigate the relationship between health locus of control and perceived stress in students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran) during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study examined 250 students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. We performed simple random sampling and utilized the demographic information form, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLCS) by Wallston, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen to collect data. We analyzed data using the SPSS, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression model with an error level of 5%. RESULTS: The mean perceived stress was 30.74 ± 8.09, and 92.4% of the students had moderate and high stress levels. Among the components of the health locus of control, the internal health locus of control (IHLC) had the highest mean in students (27.55 ± 3.81). Furthermore, the internal health locus of control (R = - 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant inverse relationship, with perceived stress and the chance health locus of control (CHLC) (R = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant direct relationship. In the final regression model, the health locus of control and all the variables predicted 22.7% of the perceived stress variation in students during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the internal health locus of control was associated with a reduction of perceived stress, and the powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) was related to its increase in students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the uncertain future, in the present work, universities are suggested to design web-based educational interventions alongside the curriculum to further strengthen the internal health locus of control and thus help reduce their perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internal-External Control , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities
17.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(6): 978-992, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study uses the unique setting created by the coronavirus crisis in China during the peak period of the pandemic to examine the behavioral factors affecting the decision of the Chinese people to adopt the precautionary actions recommended by the government. METHODS: Using the social app WeChat, we conducted a cross sectional study of the Chinese people in mid-February 2020. RESULTS: Our results show that higher levels of dispositional optimism and support for the government's actions for managing the epidemic were positively correlated with the compliance level. In addition, women and married participants were more likely to comply with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism and support for government actions should be considered when promoting policies related to health behavior such as social distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211067496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594491

ABSTRACT

A total of 95 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the orthopedics department within half a year of the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected between January 23, 2020 and July 23, 2020. Data such as patients' demographics, type of injury, location, side of lesions, mechanism of injury, injury site, and surgical management were collected and subsequently analyzed. On the one hand, the total number of emergency visits due to hand injury during the COVID-19 outbreak decreased by 37%, compared to the same period in the previous year. On the other hand, work resumption injuries increased by 40%. Injuries within the resumption period occurred predominantly at work (64.7%) and were significantly higher than the same period in 2019 (37.3%) (P < .001). Machine-related injuries were the most frequent injuries seen in our hospital (58.8%). The majority of cases were from cut injuries (82.4%), with fingers being the most common site of these injuries. Simple fractures and dislocations were also reported during the study. Most injuries were classified as either minor or moderate (90%) during the outbreak. However, during the resumption of work, major injuries were more prevalent (40%). The proportion of major injuries this year's work resumption stage (40%) has almost doubled compared to the previous year (21.8%, P = .006). The resumption of work following the COVID-19 outbreak is a time of high-risk for hand injuries. The overall number of patients with hand injuries admitted into our department has decreased compared to the corresponding period last year. However, workplace injuries, particularly machine-related ones, considerably increased during the first six months after the COVID-19 outbreak. As a result, the proportion of major injuries drastically increased. Emergency and surgical health care providers should be aware of this pattern of hand injuries during this untypical time in order to effectively prepare and plan services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Injuries , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hand Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(Supplement_4): S88-S95, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593724

ABSTRACT

Hospital outbreak investigations are high-stakes epidemiology. Contacts between staff and patients are numerous; environmental and community exposures are plentiful; and patients are highly vulnerable. Having the best data is paramount to understanding an outbreak in order to stop ongoing transmission and prevent future outbreaks. In the past 5 years, the high-resolution view of transmission offered by analyzing pathogen whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly part of hospital outbreak investigations. Concerns over speed and actionability, assay validation, liability, cost, and payment models lead to further opportunities for work in this area. Now accelerated by funding for COVID-19, the use of genomics in hospital outbreak investigations has firmly moved from the academic literature to more quotidian operations, with associated concerns involving regulatory affairs, data integration, and clinical interpretation. This review details past uses of WGS data in hospital-acquired infection outbreaks as well as future opportunities to increase its utility and growth in hospital infection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genomics , Hospitals , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Euro Surveill ; 26(50)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591908

ABSTRACT

In late November 2021, an outbreak of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 following a Christmas party with 117 attendees was detected in Oslo, Norway. We observed an attack rate of 74% and most cases developed symptoms. As at 13 December, none have been hospitalised. Most participants were 30-50 years old. Ninety-six percent of them were fully vaccinated. These findings corroborate reports that the Omicron variant may be more transmissible, and that vaccination may be less effective in preventing infection compared with Delta.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology
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