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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068512

ABSTRACT

Epidemics represent a threat to human life and economy. Meanwhile, medical and non-medical approaches to fight against them may result in additional economic shocks. In this paper, we examine the economic impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak in China and associated government policies. Although the epidemic caused a substantial economic loss in the short term, the interventions for medical purposes positively impacted the economy of the severely affected regions through the increase in investments such as other fiscal stimuli. There is strong and robust evidence suggesting that the SARS epidemic and its associated countermeasure policies boosted local output by around 4% and industrial production by around 5%. The positive growth was mainly derived from the increase in investment and government activity, especially government expenditure. Besides that, lagged impacts were particularly pronounced to the economic system and lasted for longer even than the epidemic period in a biological sense. We attribute this to the relatively aggressive stance of policymakers in the face of the epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology , Government , Economic Development
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2312-2315, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162882

ABSTRACT

We report 5 clustered acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Utah, USA, that were linked to healthcare employees working at multiple facilities. Four outbreaks were caused by norovirus genotype GIX. We recommend continued norovirus surveillance and genotyping to determine contributions of this genotype to norovirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections , Norovirus , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Utah/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype
4.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(11): e722, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of Human Monkeypox (MPXV) in nonendemic regions of the world is of great concern. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically analyze the current epidemiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes of the Monkeypox virus. METHOD: Systematic literature was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Scopus using predefined MESH terms by using "AND" and "OR." The following search terms were used: Monkeypox [MeSH] OR "Monkeypox virus" [MeSH] OR "POX" OR "Monkeypox" AND "Outbreak" AND "Outcomes" from December 2019 till 14th June 2022 without restrictions of language. RESULTS: A total of 1074 (99.90%) patients tested positive for Monkeypox virus through RT-PCR while 1 (0.09) patient was suspected. There was a gender difference with male predominance (54.23% vs. 45.48%) compared with female patients. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 20.66 ± 16.45 years. The major symptoms were rash (100%), fever (96%), and other important symptoms were upper respiratory symptoms (97%), headache (95%), vomiting (95%), oral ulcers (96%), conjunctivitis (96%) and lymphadenopathy (85%). The average mean duration of treatment was 5 days, while the mean hospitalization duration was 13.3 ± 6.37 days. The outcome of 20 patients was available, 19 of 20 patients recovered fully from monkeypox, however, 1 patient was not able to survive resulting in death. CONCLUSION: The recent monkeypox virus outbreak has shown that the virus could transmit in ways that were not previously expected. Further research is needed to understand the possible outcomes and association with humans and their different organ systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Prognosis
6.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153220

ABSTRACT

ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Yet, little is known about the clinical and biologic correlates of circulating ACE2 levels in humans. We assessed the clinical and proteomic correlates of plasma (soluble) ACE2 protein levels in human heart failure. We measured plasma ACE2 using a modified aptamer assay among PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=2248). We performed an association study of ACE2 against ≈5000 other plasma proteins measured with the SomaScan platform. Plasma ACE2 was not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, worse New York Heart Association class, a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, and higher pro-BNP (pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. Plasma ACE2 exhibited associations with 1011 other plasma proteins. In pathway overrepresentation analyses, top canonical pathways associated with plasma ACE2 included clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mechanisms of viral exit from host cells, EIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) signaling, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. In conclusion, in humans with heart failure, plasma ACE2 is associated with various clinical factors known to be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including older age, male sex, and diabetes mellitus, but is not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 protein levels are prominently associated with multiple cellular pathways involved in cellular endocytosis, exocytosis, and intracellular protein trafficking. Whether these have a causal relationship with ACE2 or are relevant to novel coronavirus-2 infection remains to be assessed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/enzymology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Proteomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , United States
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(6): 897-906, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have investigated the management of COVID-19 cases from the operational perspective of the emergency department (ED), We sought to compare the management and outcome of COVID-19 positive and negative patients who presented to French EDs. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in four EDs. Included in the study were adult patients (≥18 years) between March 6-May 10, 2020, were hospitalized, and whose presenting symptoms were evocative of COVID-19. We compared the clinical features, management, and prognosis of patients according to their confirmed COVID-19 status. RESULTS: Of the 2,686 patients included in this study, 760 (28.3%) were COVID-19 positive. Among them, 364 (48.0%) had hypertension, 228 (30.0%) had chronic cardiac disease, 186 (24.5%) had diabetes, 126 (16.6%) were obese, and 114 (15.0%) had chronic respiratory disease. The proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) was higher among COVID-19 positive patients (185/760, 24.3%) compared to COVID-19 negative patients (206/1,926, 10.7%; P <0.001), and they required mechanical ventilation (89, 11.9% vs 37, 1.9%; P <0.001) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (135, 18.1% vs 41, 2.2%; P < 0.001) more frequently. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among COVID-19 positive patients (139, 18.3% vs 149, 7.7%; P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Emergency departments were on the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic and had to manage potential COVID-19 patients. Understanding what happened in the ED during this first outbreak is crucial to underline the importance of flexible organizations that can quickly adapt the bed capacities to the incoming flow of COVID-19 positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Disease Outbreaks
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(11): 1699-1704, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143855

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal clustering dynamics of COVID-19 in Shanghai in 2022. Methods: The COVID-19 data presented on the official websites of Municipal Health Commissions of Shanghai during March 1, 2022 and May 31, 2022 were collected for a spatial autocorrelation analysis by GeoDa software. A logistic growth model was used to fit the epidemic situation and make a comparison with the actual infection situation. Results: Pudong district had the highest number of symptomatic and asymptomatic infectants, accounting for 29.30% and 35.58% of the total infectants. Differences in cumulative attack rates and infection rates among 16 districts (P<0.001) were significant. The rates were significantly higher in Huangpu district than in other districts. The attack rate of COVID-19 from March 1, 2022 to May 31, 2022 had a global spatial positive correlation (P<0.05). Spatial distribution of COVID-19 attack rate was different at different periods. The global autocorrelation coefficient from March 16 to March 29, April 6 to April 12 and May 18 to May 24 had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Our local autocorrelation analysis showed that 22 high-high clustering areas were detected in eight periods.The high-risk hot-spot areas have experienced a "less-more-less" change process. The growth model fitting results were consistent with the actual infection situation. Conclusion: There was a clear spatiotemporal correlation in the distribution of COVID-19 in Shanghai. The comprehensive prevention and control measures of COVID-19 epidemic in Shanghai have effectively prohibited the growth of the epidemic, not only curbing the spatially spread of high-risk epidemic areas, but also reducing the risk of transmission to other cities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Spatial Analysis
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(11): 1705-1710, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143854

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of two local COVID-19 outbreaks caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant in Guangzhou, such as incubation period, serial interval, basic reproductive number (R0) and the influence of gathering places on R0, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of Omicron variant infection. Methods: The data of daily confirmed cases of Omicron variant infection from April 8 to May 8, 2022 in two COVID-19 outbreaks in Guangzhou were collected for model fitting. Weibull, Gamma and lognormal distribution were used to estimate incubation period and serial interval. Exponential growth method and the maximum likelihood estimation were used to estimate R0. Results: The median of incubation period was 2.94 (95%CI: 2.52-3.38) days and median of serial interval was 3.32 (95%CI: 2.89-3.81) days. The estimated R0 in small-size place was 4.40 (95%CI: 3.95-4.85), while the estimated R0 at airport was 11.35 (95%CI: 11.02-11.67). Conclusion: The incubation period of Omicron variant in two local COVID-19 outbreaks in Guangzhou is significantly shorter than that of delta variant. The higher the gathering degree in a place, the larger the R0. Due to its rapid transmission, COVID-19 epidemic is prone to occur. Therefore, the COVID-19 prevention and control strategy should be dynamically adjusted in time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1020801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142352

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While most governments instituted several interventions to stall the spread of COVID-19, little is known regarding the continued observance of the non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 preventive measures particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigated adherence to these preventive measures during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak in some SSA countries. Methods: Between March and August 2020, the International Citizen Project on COVID-19 consortium (www.icpcovid.com) conducted online surveys in six SSA countries: Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Somalia, and Uganda. A five-point individual adherence score was constituted by scoring respondents' observance of the following measures: mask use, physical distancing, hand hygiene, coughing hygiene, and avoiding to touch one's face. Community behaviors (going to public places, traveling during the pandemic) were also assessed. Data were analyzed in two time periods: Period 1 (March-May) and Period 2 (June-August). Results: Responses from 26,678 respondents were analyzed (mean age: 31.0 ± 11.1 years; 54.1% males). Mean individual adherence score decreased from 3.80 ± 1.37 during Period 1, to 3.57 ± 1.43 during Period 2; p < 0.001. At the community level, public events/places were significantly more attended with increased travels during Period 2 compared to Period 1 (p < 0.001). Using linear mixed models, predictors of increased individual adherence included: higher age (Coef = 0.005; 95% CI: 0.003-0.007), female gender (Coef = 0.071; 95% CI: 0.039-0.104), higher educational level (Coef = 0.999; 95% CI: 0.885-1.113), and working in the healthcare sector (Coef = 0.418; 95% CI: 0.380-0.456). Conclusion: Decreasing adherence to non-pharmaceutical measures over time constitutes a risk for the persistence of COVID-19 in SSA. Younger persons and those with lower education levels constitute target groups for improving adherence to such measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Outbreaks
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 988694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141711

ABSTRACT

Object: This study attempted to explore the effects of vaccination on disease severity and the factors for viral clearance and hospitalization in omicron-infected patients. Methods: The clinical manifestations of 3,265 Omicron-infected patients (BA.2 lineage variant; the Omicron group) were compared with those of 226 Delta-infected patients (the Delta group). A Multi-class logistic regression model was employed to analyze the impacts of vaccination doses and intervals on disease severity; a logistic regression model to evaluate the risk factors for hospitalization; R 4.1.2 data analysis to investigate the factors for time for nucleic acid negativization (NAN). Results: Compared with the Delta group, the Omicron group reported a fast transmission, mild symptoms, and lower severity incidence, and a significant inverse correlation of vaccination dose with clinical severity (OR: 0.803, 95%CI: 0.742-0.868, p<0.001). Of the 7 or 5 categories of vaccination status, the risk of severity significantly decreased only at ≥21 days after three doses (OR: 0.618, 95% CI: 0.475-0.803, p<0.001; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.482-0.815, p<0.001, respectively). The Omicron group also reported underlying illness as an independent factor for hospitalization, sore throat as a protective factor, and much shorter time for NAN [15 (12,19) vs. 16 (12,22), p<0.05]. NAN was associated positively with age, female gender, fever, cough, and disease severity, but negatively with vaccination doses. Conclusion: Booster vaccination should be advocated for COVID-19 pandemic-related control and prevention policies and adequate precautions should be taken for patients with underlying conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Female , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Hospitalization , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141535

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, a clonal outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of novel sequence type ST3875 was detected in three patients who died of bloodstream infections in one hospital. By 25 April 2022, the outbreak included 339 cases from 38 hospitals across Norway. Initial hospital reports indicate Pseudomonas infection as the main contributing cause in seven deaths. In March 2022, the outbreak strain was identified in non-sterile pre-moistened disposable washcloths, used to clean patients, from three lots from the same international manufacturer.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Pseudomonas Infections , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40866, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global transmission from imported cases to domestic cluster infections is often the origin of local community-acquired outbreaks when facing emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop new surveillance metrics for alerting emerging community-acquired outbreaks arising from new strains by monitoring the risk of small domestic cluster infections originating from few imported cases of emerging variants. METHODS: We used Taiwanese COVID-19 weekly data on imported cases, domestic cluster infections, and community-acquired outbreaks. The study period included the D614G strain in February 2020, the Alpha and Delta variants of concern (VOCs) in 2021, and the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 VOCs in April 2022. The number of cases arising from domestic cluster infection caused by imported cases (Dci/Imc) per week was used as the SARS-CoV-2 strain-dependent surveillance metric for alerting local community-acquired outbreaks. Its upper 95% credible interval was used as the alert threshold for guiding the rapid preparedness of containment measures, including nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), testing, and vaccination. The 2 metrics were estimated by using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain method underpinning the directed acyclic graphic diagram constructed by the extra-Poisson (random-effect) regression model. The proposed model was also used to assess the most likely week lag of imported cases prior to the current week of domestic cluster infections. RESULTS: A 1-week lag of imported cases prior to the current week of domestic cluster infections was considered optimal. Both metrics of Dci/Imc and the alert threshold varied with SARS-CoV-2 variants and available containment measures. The estimates were 9.54% and 12.59%, respectively, for D614G and increased to 14.14% and 25.10%, respectively, for the Alpha VOC when only NPIs and testing were available. The corresponding figures were 10.01% and 13.32% for the Delta VOC, but reduced to 4.29% and 5.19% for the Omicron VOC when NPIs, testing, and vaccination were available. The rapid preparedness of containment measures guided by the estimated metrics accounted for the lack of community-acquired outbreaks during the D614G period, the early Alpha VOC period, the Delta VOC period, and the Omicron VOC period between BA.1 and BA.2. In contrast, community-acquired outbreaks of the Alpha VOC in mid-May 2021, Omicron BA.1 VOC in January 2022, and Omicron BA.2 VOC from April 2022 onwards, were indicative of the failure to prepare containment measures guided by the alert threshold. CONCLUSIONS: We developed new surveillance metrics for estimating the risk of domestic cluster infections with increasing imported cases and its alert threshold for community-acquired infections varying with emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains and the availability of containment measures. The use of new surveillance metrics is important in the rapid preparedness of containment measures for averting large-scale community-acquired outbreaks arising from emerging imported SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Markov Chains , Bayes Theorem , Benchmarking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277816, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140665

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic becomes a cause of concern for hospital transmission. Caregivers may play an important role as vectors for nosocomial infections; however, infection control for caregivers often is neglected. A nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak occurred in a 768-bed hospital from March 20, 2020, to April 14, 2020. We conducted a retrospective chart review and epidemiologic investigation on all cases. A total of 54 cases of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in the community-based hospital. They included 26 (48.1%) patients, 21 (38.9%) caregivers, and 7 (13.0%) healthcare workers. These 21 caregivers cared for 18 patients, and of these, 9 were positive for COVID-19, 6 were negative, and 3 died before testing. Of the 6 negative patients, 3 had no exposure because the caregiver began to show symptoms at least 5 days after their discharge. Of the 9 positive patients, 4 cases of transmission took place from patient to caregiver (one patient transmitted COVID-19 to two caregivers), and 6 cases of transmission occurred from caregiver to patient. Of the 54 hospital-acquired cases, 38 occurred in the 8th-floor ward and 8 occurred in the 4th-floor ward. The index case of each ward was a caregiver. Counting the number of cases where transmission occurred only between patients and their own caregivers, 9 patients were suspected of having exposure to COVID-19 from their own caregivers. Six patients (66.7%) were infected by COVID-19-confirmed caregivers, and 3 patients were uninfected. Fewer patients among the infected were able to perform independent activities compared to uninfected patients. Not only patients and healthcare workers but also caregivers groups may be vulnerable to COVID-19 and be transmission sources of nosocomial outbreaks. Therefore, infection control programs for caregivers in addition to patients and healthcare workers can be equally important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, Community
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274024, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140502

ABSTRACT

To limit an infectious outbreak, the public must be informed about the infection risk and be motivated to comply with infection control measures. Perceiving a situation as threatening and seeing benefits to complying may be necessary to motivate for compliance. The current study used a preregistered survey experiment with a 2-by-2 between-subject design to investigate if emphasizing high infection risk and appealing to societal benefits impacted intention to comply with infection control measures. The results from a representative Norwegian sample (N = 2533) show that describing a high (as opposed to low) personal risk scenario had a small main effect on compliance. Further, appealing to public (as opposed to self-interested) benefits also had a small main effect. There was no interaction between risk scenario and motivational emphasis. The results suggest that to maximize compliance, information about disease outbreak should emphasize the individual risk of contracting the disease, and could also underline the public value of limiting infection spread. These findings can inform health authorities about the motives underlying compliance with infection control measures during an infectious disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Infection Control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 114, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is highly transmissible with potential immune escape. Hence, control measures are continuously being optimized to guard against large-scale coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the intensity of control measures in response to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and the degree of outbreak control at city level. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 49 cities with COVID-19 outbreaks between January 2020 and June 2022. Epidemiological data on COVID-19 were extracted from the National Health Commission, People's Republic of China, and the population flow data were sourced from the Baidu migration data provided by the Baidu platform. Outbreak control was quantified by calculating the degree of infection growth and the time-varying reproduction number ([Formula: see text]). The intensity of the outbreak response was quantified by calculating the reduction in population mobility during the outbreak period. Correlation and regression analyses of the intensity of the control measures and the degree of outbreak control for the Omicron variant and non-Omicron mutants were conducted, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 65 outbreaks occurred in 49 cities in China from January 2020 to June 2022. Of them, 66.2% were Omicron outbreaks and 33.8% were non-Omicron outbreaks. The intensity of the control measures was positively correlated with the degree of outbreak control (r = 0.351, P = 0.03). The degree of reduction in population mobility was negatively correlated with the Rt value (r = - 0.612, P < 0.01). Therefore, under the same control measure intensity, the number of new daily Omicron infections was 6.04 times higher than those attributed to non-Omicron variants, and the Rt value of Omicron outbreaks was 2.6 times higher than that of non-Omicron variants. In addition, the duration of non-Omicron variant outbreaks was shorter than that of the outbreaks caused by the Omicron variant (23.0 ± 10.7, 32.9 ± 16.3, t = 2.243, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Greater intensity of control measures was associated with more effective outbreak control. Thus, in response to the Omicron variant, the management to restrict population movement should be used to control its spread quickly, especially in the case of community transmission occurs widely. Faster than is needed for non-Omicron variants, and decisive control measures should be imposed and dynamically adjusted in accordance with the evolving epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cities/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
18.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(4)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the severe hepatitis A outbreak that occurred in Michigan between August 2016 and September 2019, our multihospital health system implemented an electronic medical record (EMR)-based vaccination intervention across its nine emergency departments (EDs). The objectives were to explore the impact of this intervention on increasing vaccination rates among high-risk individuals and to assess the barriers to use of a computerised vaccine reminder system. METHODS: All patients who were 18 years or older were screened using an electronic nursing questionnaire. If a patient was at high risk based on the questionnaire, an electronic best practice advisory (BPA) would trigger and give the physician or advanced practice provider the option to order the hepatitis A vaccine. We explored the vaccination rates in the 24-month preintervention and the 18-month intervention periods. We then administered a survey to physicians, advanced practice providers and nurses evaluating their perceptions and barriers to use of the EMR intervention. RESULTS: During the preintervention period, 49 vaccines were ordered (5.5 per 100 000 patient visits) and 32 were administered (3.6 per 100 000 patient visits). During the intervention period, 574 865 patient visits (74.3%) were screened. 2494 vaccines (322 per 100 000 patient visits) were ordered, and 1205 vaccines (155 per 100 000 patients visits) were administered. Physicians and advanced practice providers were initially compliant with the BPA's use, but compliance declined over time. Surveys revealed that the major barrier to use was lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: EMR screening tools and BPAs can be used in the ED as an effective strategy to vaccinate high-risk individuals. This may be translatable to outbreaks of other vaccine-preventable illnesses like influenza, measles or SARS-CoV-2. Providing ongoing education about the public health initiative and giving feedback to physicians, advanced practice providers and nurses about tool compliance are needed to sustain the improvement over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , Electronic Health Records , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e049689, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the burden of death that COVID-19 contributes relative to the top three causes of death for all countries. DESIGN: We performed uncertainty analyses and created contour plots for COVID-19 mortality to place the number of COVID-19 deaths in context relative to the top three causes of death in each country, across a plausible range of values for two key parameters: case fatality rate and magnitude of under-reporting. SETTING: All countries that have reported COVID-19 cases to the WHO and are included in the Global Burden of Disease Study by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Monthly number of deaths caused by COVID-19 and monthly number of deaths caused by the top three causes of death for every country. RESULTS: For countries that were particularly hard hit during the outbreak in 2020, most combinations of model parameters resulted in COVID-19 ranking within the top three causes of death. For countries not as hard hit on a per-capita basis, such as China and India, COVID-19 did not rank higher than the third leading cause of death at any combination of the model parameters within the given ranges. Up-to-date ranking of COVID-19 deaths relative to the top three causes of death for all countries globally is provided in an interactive online application. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the country-level burden of death that COVID-19 contributes relative to the top three causes of death is feasible through contour graphs, even when the actual number of deaths or cases is unknown. This method can help convey importance by placing the magnitude of COVID-related deaths in context relative to more familiar causes of death by communicating when COVID-related deaths rank among the top three causes of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cause of Death , Causality , Disease Outbreaks , Uncertainty
20.
BMJ ; 379: o2831, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137633
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