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1.
J Hosp Palliat Nurs ; 23(2): 120-127, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183083

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of COVID-19 among nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and other long-term care facilities in the United States have had devastating effects on residents. Restrictions such as banning visitors, sequestering residents, and testing health care staff have been implemented to mitigate the spread of the virus. However, consequences include a decline in mental and physical health, decompensation, and a sense of hopelessness among residents. We present and explore a case study at an assisted living facility addressing the ethical issues in balancing the management of the community versus the resident's right to autonomy and self-determination. A team of palliative care experts was brought into assisted living facilities to manage patients, care for well residents, and provide input in advance care planning and symptom management. The principles of self-determination and autonomy, stewardship, and distributive justice were explored. The use of nursing skills in triage and assessment, principles in public health, and the 8 domains of palliative care provided a comprehensive framework for structuring emergency operations. Palliative interventions and the role of palliative care nurses played an integral part in addressing ethical challenges in the containment of the virus and the deleterious effects of social isolation among the elderly.


Subject(s)
Assisted Living Facilities/ethics , Disease Outbreaks , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing/ethics , Public Health/ethics , Aged , Assisted Living Facilities/organization & administration , Humans , Long-Term Care/ethics , Organizational Case Studies , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Hosp Palliat Nurs ; 23(2): 128-134, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183082

ABSTRACT

Northern New Jersey was inside one of the worst initial coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic epicenters in the United States. At the peak of the pandemic surge in mid-April 2020, New Jersey saw 8045 hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms, of which 2002 were in intensive care unit beds (86.3% of statewide capacity), including 1705 requiring mechanical ventilation. Because of the severity of pulmonary dysfunction/hypoxia, the unprecedented numbers of critically ill patients, the national opioid shortage, and transmission prevention measures for standard palliative care treatment protocols in place for refractory and/or end-of-life dyspnea were found to be ineffective in providing adequate symptom relief. The aim of the following Notes From the Field is to provide concise, pragmatic, and experiential reflection by 3 palliative care advanced practice nurses from 3 different hospital systems within the pandemic epicenter. The novel methods and opioid strategies implemented by their respective palliative care teams to ensure continued effective and appropriate treatment for end-of-life dyspnea are described. These accounts include Lessons Learned in order to assist others who may need to quickly implement changes in the future due to pandemic resurgence or second-wave events.


Subject(s)
/nursing , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea/nursing , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing , /epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , New Jersey/epidemiology
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e78, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180197

ABSTRACT

The molecular epidemiology of the virus and mapping helps understand the epidemics' evolution and apply quick control measures. This study provides genomic evidence of multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) introductions into Sri Lanka and virus evolution during circulation. Whole-genome sequences of four SARS-CoV-2 strains obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive patients reported in Sri Lanka during March 2020 were compared with sequences from Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence of the sample of the first local patient collected on 10 March, who contacted tourists from Italy, was clustered with SARS-CoV-2 strains collected from Italy, Germany, France and Mexico. Subsequently, the sequence of the isolate obtained on 19 March also clustered in the same group with the samples collected in March and April from Belgium, France, India and South Africa. The other two strains of SARS-CoV-2 were segregated from the main cluster, and the sample collected from 16 March clustered with England and the sample collected on 30 March showed the highest genetic divergence to the isolate of Wuhan, China. Here we report the first molecular epidemiological study conducted on circulating SARS-CoV-2 in Sri Lanka. The finding provides the robustness of molecular epidemiological tools and their application in tracing possible exposure in disease transmission during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/genetics , /isolation & purification , Amino Acids/analysis , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genomics/methods , Humans , Sri Lanka
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 578, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Communities with low vaccination rates are at greater risk during outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases. Most Australian parents support vaccines, but some refuse and are often judged harshly by their community, especially during an outbreak. We sought the perspectives of Australian public health experts on the key issues faced when managing a measles outbreak in an area with high anti-vaccination sentiment. METHODS: A measles outbreak scenario formed the basis of a 3-round modified Delphi process to identify key practitioner concerns in relation to parents/carers who don't follow the recommended vaccination schedule. We surveyed a range of professionals in the field: policymakers, infectious disease experts, immunisation program staff, and others involved in delivering childhood vaccinations, to identify key priorities when responding to an outbreak in a community with low vaccination coverage. RESULTS: Findings indicate that responses to measles outbreaks in communities with high anti-vaccination sentiment are motivated by concerns about the potential for a much larger outbreak event. The highest operational priority is to isolate infected children. The two most highly ranked practical issues are mistrust from non-vaccinating members of the local region and combatting misinformation about vaccines. Trying to change minds of such individuals is not a priority during an outbreak, nor is vaccinating their children. Using media and social media to provide information about the outbreak and measures the public can take to limit the spread of the disease was a focus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the challenges faced during an outbreak and priorities for communicating with communities where there is a high level of anti-vaccination sentiment. In the context of a global pandemic, the results of this study also have implications for managing public health responses to community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as COVID-19 vaccines becomes widely available.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Disease Outbreaks , Measles Vaccine , Measles , Public Health , Vaccination , Australia/epidemiology , /prevention & control , Child , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Vaccination/psychology
5.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 9-13, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify similar WHO European countries in COVID-19 incidence and mortality rate during the first 12 peak weeks of pandemic outbreak to find out whether exact coherent parts of Europe were more affected than others, and to set relationship between age and higher COVID-19 mortality rate. METHODS: COVID-19 cases and deaths from 28 February to 21 May 2020 of 37 WHO European countries were aggregated into 12 consecutive weeks. The fuzzy C-means clustering was performed to identify similar countries in COVID-19 incidence and mortality rate. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and log-log linear regression analyses were performed to set up relation between COVID-19 mortality rate and age. Mann-Whitney (Wilcoxon) test was used to explore differences between countries possessing higher mortality rate and age. RESULTS: Based on the highest value of the coefficient of overall separation five clusters of similar countries were identified for incidence rate, mortality rate and in total. Analysis according to weeks offered trends where progress of COVID-19 incidence and mortality rate was visible. Pearson coefficient (0.69) suggested moderately strong connection between mortality rate and age, Mann-Whitney (Wilcoxon) test proved statistically significant differences between countries experiencing higher mortality rate and age vs. countries having both indicators lower (p < 0.001). Log-log linear regression analysis defined every increase in life expectancy at birth in total by 1% meant growth in mortality rate by 22% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Spain, Belgium and Ireland, closely followed by Sweden and Great Britain were identified as the worst countries in terms of incidence and mortality rate in the monitored period. Luxembourg, Belarus and Moldova accompanied the group of the worst countries in terms of incidence rate and Italy, France and the Netherland in terms of mortality rate. Correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney (Wilcoxon) test proved statistically significant positive relationship between mortality rate and age. Log-log linear regression analysis proved that higher age accelerated the growth of mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Europe/epidemiology , France , Humans , Italy , Republic of Belarus , Spain
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 670, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to examine the prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes, both short-term and long-term, among SARS patients, healthcare workers and the general public of SARS-affected regions, and to examine the protective and risk factors associated with these mental health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using databases such as Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science Core Collection, CNKI, the National Central Library Online Catalog and dissertation databases to identify studies in the English or Chinese language published between January 2003 to May 2020 which reported psychological distress and mental health morbidities among SARS patients, healthcare workers, and the general public in regions with major SARS outbreaks. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 6984 titles. Screening resulted in 80 papers for the review, 35 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of post-recovery probable or clinician-diagnosed anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among SARS survivors were 19, 20 and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of these outcomes among studies conducted within and beyond 6 months post-discharge was not significantly different. Certain aspects of mental health-related quality of life measures among SARS survivors remained impaired beyond 6 months post-discharge. The prevalence of probable depressive disorder and PTSD among healthcare workers post-SARS were 12 and 11%, respectively. The general public had increased anxiety levels during SARS, but whether there was a clinically significant population-wide mental health impact remained inconclusive. Narrative synthesis revealed occupational exposure to SARS patients and perceived stigmatisation to be risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers, although causality could not be determined due to the limitations of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The chronicity of psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors should alert us to the potential long-term mental health complications of covid-19 patients. Healthcare workers working in high-risk venues should be given adequate mental health support. Stigmatisation against patients and healthcare workers should be explored and addressed. The significant risk of bias and high degree of heterogeneity among included studies limited the certainty of the body of evidence of the review.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , /epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170357

ABSTRACT

Brazil and many countries are now experiencing a second wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. The objective of this study is to compare results with statistical samples involving millions of people in the two largest neighboring states in Brazil, Amazonas and Pará, which in the first wave were similar but now show significant different results in combating COVID-19. During the first wave, in May 2020, the maximums of the 7-day average daily deaths per population of Amazonas and Pará were similar: 15.7 and 17.1 deaths per day per million people, respectively, which means a ratio 15.7/17.1 = 0.92 ≈ 1. Now, in the second wave of COVID-19 outbreak, Amazonas has entered a serious situation; meanwhile, Pará has presented a much smaller growth in the mortality. The accumulated mortality per population from 11 November 2020 to 15 March 2021 of Amazonas and Pará are 1645 and 296 deaths per million people, respectively. As 1645/296 = 5.55, Amazonas is presenting an accumulated mortality per population more than five times that of Pará. Future in-depth research can provide a grounded answer to explain this significant difference, nonetheless the explicit support of the Pará state government, after 21 May 2020, to early ambulatory treatment may have played some role on this result.


Subject(s)
Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Forecasting , Humans
8.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 180, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the Italian National Health Care system at many different levels, causing a complete reorganization of surgical wards. In this context, our study retrospectively analysed the management strategy for patients with acute cholecystitis. METHODS: We analysed all patients admitted to our Emergency Department for acute cholecystitis between February and April 2020 and we graded each case according to 2018 Tokyo Guidelines. All patients were tested for positivity to SARS-CoV-2 and received an initial conservative treatment. We focused on patients submitted to cholecystostomy during the acute phase of pandemic and their subsequent disease evolution. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were admitted for acute cholecystitis (13 grade I, 16 grade II, 8 grade III). According to Tokyo Guidelines (2018), patients were successfully treated with antibiotic only, bedside percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in 29.7%, 21.6% and 48.7% of cases respectively. Therapeutic strategy of three out of 8 cases, otherwise fit for surgery, submitted to bedside percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (37.5%), were directly modified by COVID-19 pandemic: one due to the SARS-CoV-2 positivity, while two others due to unavailability of operating room and intensive care unit for post-operative monitoring respectively. Overall success rate of percutaneous cholecystostomy was of 87.5%. The mean post-procedural hospitalization length was 9 days, and no related adverse events were observed apart from transient parietal bleeding, conservatively treated. Once discharged, two patients required readmission because of acute biliary symptoms. Median time of drainage removal was 43 days and only 50% patients thereafter underwent cholecystectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous cholecystostomy has shown to be an effective and safe treatment thus acquiring an increased relevance in the first phase of the pandemic. Nowadays, considering we are forced to live with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, PC should be considered as a virtuous, alternative tool for potentially all COVID-19 positive patients and selectively for negative cases unresponsive to conservative therapy and unfit for surgery.


Subject(s)
Cholecystitis, Acute , Disease Outbreaks , /epidemiology , Cholecystitis, Acute/surgery , Cholecystostomy , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 478-482, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168277

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can spread rapidly in prisons and can be introduced by staff members and newly transferred incarcerated persons (1,2). On September 28, 2020, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) contacted CDC to report a COVID-19 outbreak in a state prison (prison A). During October 6-20, a CDC team investigated the outbreak, which began with 12 cases detected from specimens collected during August 17-24 from incarcerated persons housed within the same unit, 10 of whom were transferred together on August 13 and under quarantine following prison intake procedures (intake quarantine). Potentially exposed persons within the unit began a 14-day group quarantine on August 25. However, quarantine was not restarted after quarantined persons were potentially exposed to incarcerated persons with COVID-19 who were moved to the unit. During the subsequent 8 weeks (August 14-October 22), 869 (79.4%) of 1,095 incarcerated persons and 69 (22.6%) of 305 staff members at prison A received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of specimens from 172 cases among incarcerated persons showed that all clustered in the same lineage; this finding, along with others, demonstrated that facility spread originated with the transferred cohort. To effectively implement a cohorted quarantine, which is a harm reduction strategy for correctional settings with limited space, CDC's interim guidance recommendation is to serial test cohorts, restarting the 14-day quarantine period when a new case is identified (3). Implementing more effective intake quarantine procedures and available mitigation measures, including vaccination, among incarcerated persons is important to controlling transmission in prisons. Understanding and addressing the challenges faced by correctional facilities to implement medical isolation and quarantine can help reduce and prevent outbreaks.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , /prevention & control , Humans , Quarantine , Wisconsin/epidemiology
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 473-477, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168276

ABSTRACT

Incarcerated and detained persons are at increased risk for acquiring COVID-19. However, little is known about their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. During September-December 2020, residents in three prisons and 13 jails in four states were surveyed regarding their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination and their reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy or refusal. Among 5,110 participants, 2,294 (44.9%) said they would receive a COVID-19 vaccination, 498 (9.8%) said they would hesitate to receive it, and 2,318 (45.4%) said they would refuse to receive it. Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was lowest among Black/African American (Black) (36.7%; 510 of 1,390) persons, participants aged 18-29 years (38.5%; 583 of 1,516), and those who lived in jails versus prisons (43.7%; 1,850 of 4,232). Common reasons reported for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were waiting for more information (54.8%) and efficacy or safety concerns (31.0%). The most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination refusal was distrust of health care, correctional, or government personnel or institutions (20.1%). Public health interventions to improve vaccine confidence and trust are needed to increase vaccination acceptance by incarcerated or detained persons.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 467-472, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168275

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is common in congregate settings such as correctional and detention facilities (1-3). On September 17, 2020, a Utah correctional facility (facility A) received a report of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dental health care provider (DHCP) who had treated incarcerated persons at facility A on September 14, 2020 while asymptomatic. On September 21, 2020, the roommate of an incarcerated person who had received dental treatment experienced COVID-19-compatible symptoms*; both were housed in block 1 of facility A (one of 16 occupied blocks across eight residential units). Two days later, the roommate received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, becoming the first person with a known-associated case of COVID-19 at facility A. During September 23-24, 2020, screening of 10 incarcerated persons who had received treatment from the DHCP identified another two persons with COVID-19, prompting isolation of all three patients in an unoccupied block at the facility. Within block 1, group activities were stopped to limit interaction among staff members and incarcerated persons and prevent further spread. During September 14-24, 2020, six facility A staff members, one of whom had previous close contact† with one of the patients, also reported symptoms. On September 27, 2020, an outbreak was confirmed after specimens from all remaining incarcerated persons in block 1 were tested; an additional 46 cases of COVID-19 were identified, which were reported to the Salt Lake County Health Department and the Utah Department of Health. On September 30, 2020, CDC, in collaboration with both health departments and the correctional facility, initiated an investigation to identify factors associated with the outbreak and implement control measures. As of January 31, 2021, a total of 1,368 cases among 2,632 incarcerated persons (attack rate = 52%) and 88 cases among 550 staff members (attack rate = 16%) were reported in facility A. Among 33 hospitalized incarcerated persons, 11 died. Quarantine and monitoring of potentially exposed persons and implementation of available prevention measures, including vaccination, are important in preventing introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in correctional facilities and other congregate settings (4).


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Dentists , Disease Outbreaks , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Prisons , /prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections , Humans , Mass Screening , Quarantine , Utah/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167512

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among residents of a Roma settlement in Greece (8 April-4 June 2020). The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures implemented. Data were analyzed from individuals that were tested for SARS-CoV-2 during contact tracing, population screening or hospital visits. RT-PCR was used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples. Risk factors for household secondary attack rates (SAR) and hospitalization with COVID-19 were examined using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses. During the outbreak, 142 cases, 20 hospitalizations and 1 death were recorded, with a total of 2273 individuals tested. The risk of hospitalization was associated with age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and Cycle threshold (Ct) values (OR for a decrease in Ct values by 1: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). Household SAR was estimated at 38.62% (95% CI: 32.50-45.01%). After the designation of an isolation facility for cases, household SAR declined from 74.42% to 31.03%. Household size was associated with the risk of infection (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.00-7.07). The presence of COVID-19 symptoms among index cases was correlated with higher transmission (OR: 23.68, 95% CI 2.21-253.74) in multivariate analysis, while age was found to be associated with SAR only in univariate analysis. Roma communities can be particularly vulnerable to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. In similar settings, symptomatic cases are more important transmitters of SARS-CoV-2. Within these communities, immediate measures should be implemented to mitigate disease spread.


Subject(s)
Rome , Disease Outbreaks , Greece/epidemiology , Humans
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0247272, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167054

ABSTRACT

The distinct ways the COVID-19 pandemic has been unfolding in different countries and regions suggest that local societal and governmental structures play an important role not only for the baseline infection rate, but also for short and long-term reactions to the outbreak. We propose to investigate the question of how societies as a whole, and governments in particular, modulate the dynamics of a novel epidemic using a generalization of the SIR model, the reactive SIR (short-term and long-term reaction) model. We posit that containment measures are equivalent to a feedback between the status of the outbreak and the reproduction factor. Short-term reaction to an outbreak corresponds in this framework to the reaction of governments and individuals to daily cases and fatalities. The reaction to the cumulative number of cases or deaths, and not to daily numbers, is captured in contrast by long-term reaction. We present the exact phase space solution of the controlled SIR model and use it to quantify containment policies for a large number of countries in terms of short and long-term control parameters. We find increased contributions of long-term control for countries and regions in which the outbreak was suppressed substantially together with a strong correlation between the strength of societal and governmental policies and the time needed to contain COVID-19 outbreaks. Furthermore, for numerous countries and regions we identified a predictive relation between the number of fatalities within a fixed period before and after the peak of daily fatality counts, which allows to gauge the cumulative medical load of COVID-19 outbreaks that should be expected after the peak. These results suggest that the proposed model is applicable not only for understanding the outbreak dynamics, but also for predicting future cases and fatalities once the effectiveness of outbreak suppression policies is established with sufficient certainty. Finally, we provide a web app (https://itp.uni-frankfurt.de/covid-19/) with tools for visualising the phase space representation of real-world COVID-19 data and for exporting the preprocessed data for further analysis.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , /mortality , Forecasting , Humans , Quarantine
14.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 30, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recognizes exclusive breastfeeding a safe source of nutrition available for children in most humanitarian emergencies, as in the current pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the Brazilian national guideline protecting breastfeeding practices, there are many concerns about protecting infants from their infected mothers. This study aimed to analyze how the Brazilian hospitals and maternity services promote and support mothers suspected or diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional and multicenter study which collected data from 24 Brazilian hospitals and maternity services between March and July 2020. Representatives of the institutions completed a questionnaire based on acts to promote and support breastfeeding, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, and Brazil's federal law recommendations. RESULTS: The results showed that in delivery rooms, 98.5% of the services prohibited immediate and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their infants and did not support mothers to initiate breastfeeding in the first hour. On the postnatal ward, 98.5% of the services allowed breastfeeding while implementing respiratory hygiene practices to prevent transmission of COVID-19. Companions for mothers were forbidden in 83.3% of the hospitals. Hospital discharge was mostly between 24 and 28 h (79.1%); discharge guidelines were not individualized. Additionally, a lack of support was noticed from the home environment's health community network (83.3%). Hospital and home breast pumping were allowed (87.5%), but breast milk donation was not accepted (95.8%). There was a lack of guidance regarding the use of infant comforting strategies. Guidelines specific for vulnerable populations were not covered in the material evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, hospitals have not followed recommendations to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding during the COVID-19 outbreak. The disagreement between international guidelines has been a major issue. The absence of recommendations on breastfeeding support during the pandemic led to difficulties in developing standards among hospitals in different regions of Brazil and other countries worldwide. The scientific community needs to discuss how to improve maternal and infant care services to protect breastfeeding in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Guideline Adherence , Hygiene , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , /etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Maternal Health Services , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165227

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
18.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E302-E308, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear what the best strategy is for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among residents of homeless shelters and what individual factors are associated with testing positive for the virus. We sought to evaluate factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among residents of homeless shelters and to evaluate positivity rates in shelters where testing was conducted in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks or for surveillance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart audit to obtain repeated cross-sectional data from outreach testing done at homeless shelters between Apr. 1 and July 31, 2020, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate for shelters where testing was conducted because of an outbreak (at least 1 known case) with those tested for surveillance (no known cases). A patient-level analysis evaluated differences in demographic, health and behavioural characteristics of residents who did and did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2 at shelters with at least 2 positive cases. RESULTS: One thousand nasopharyngeal swabs were done on 872 unique residents at 20 shelter locations. Among the 504 tests done in outbreak settings, 69 (14%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 1 (0.2%) was indeterminate. Among the 496 tests done for surveillance, 11 (2%) were positive and none were indeterminate. Shelter residents who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were significantly less likely to have a health insurance card (54% v. 72%, p = 0.03) or to have visited another shelter in the last 14 days (0% v. 18%, p < 0.01). There was no association between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and medical history or symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support testing of asymptomatic shelter residents for SARS-CoV-2 when a positive case is identified at the same shelter. Surveillance testing when there are no known positive cases may detect outbreaks, but further research should identify efficient strategies given scarce testing resources.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , /genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e25698, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the use of technology to deliver health services is increasing rapidly and has further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic, these initiatives may fail if ethical impacts are not fully identified and acted upon by practitioners. Ignoring the ethical impacts of information and communication technology health service delivery creates an unintended risk for patients and can lead to reduced effectiveness, noncompliance, and harm, undermining the best intentions of governments and clinicians. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore how ethical considerations or impacts may be different, greater, or more variable in information and communication technology methods versus face-to-face health care delivery models, and how they may be applied in practice. METHODS: We undertook a systemic literature review to provide a critical overview of existing research into the incorporation of ethical principles into telehealth practice. Six databases were searched between March 2016 to May 2016 and again in December 2020 to provide the benefit of currency. A combination of broad terms ("ethics," "ethical," "health," and "care") with the restrictive terms of "telehealth" and "telemedicine" was used in keyword searches. Thematic analysis and synthesis of each paper was conducted, aligned to the framework developed by Beauchamp and Childress. RESULTS: From the 49 papers reviewed, authors identified or discussed the following ethical principles in relation to telehealth practice: autonomy (69% of authors, 34/49), professional-patient relationship (53% of authors, 26/49), nonmaleficence (41% of authors, 20/49), beneficence (39%, of authors, 19/49), and justice (39% of authors, 19/49). CONCLUSIONS: Although a small number of studies identified ethical issues associated with telehealth practice and discussed their potential impact on service quality and effectiveness, there is limited research on how ethical principles are incorporated into clinical practice. Several studies proposed frameworks, codes of conduct, or guidelines, but there was little discussion or evidence of how these recommendations are being used to improve ethical telehealth practice.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Telemedicine/ethics , Ethics, Medical , Humans
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 308, 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is a disease with high morbidity and mortality among elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF). During an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the LTCF an effective screening tool is essential to identify the patients at risk for severe disease. We explored the role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) as a predictor for severe disease during the outbreak of Covid-19 in one LTCF in Slovakia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of cases of COVID-19, diagnosed during the outbreak in one LTCF in Slovakia between April 11, 2020, and May 5, 2020. Within 24 h after the diagnosis of Covid-19, clinical and laboratory screening was performed in the LTCF to identify patients in need of hospitalization. Patients with oxygen saturation below 90% were immediately referred to the hospital. Patients staying in the LFTC were monitored daily and those that developed hypoxemia were transferred to the hospital. We analyzed the association between the IL-6 at the initial assessment and development of hypoxemia during follow up and determined the cut-off of the IL-6 able to predict the development of hypoxemia requiring oxygen therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (11 men, 42 women) with diagnosed Covid-19 were included in the analysis. 19 (53%) patients developed hypoxemia during the disease. Patients with hypoxemia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase at initial screening. ROC analyses identified IL-6 as the most robust predictor of hypoxemia. The concentration of IL-6 > 24 pg/mL predicted the development of hypoxemia with the sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 88.9%. The positive and negative predictive values were 76.9, and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of IL-6 > 24 pg/mL at initial assessment predicted the development of hypoxemia requiring hospitalization with excellent sensitivity and good specificity. IL-6 appears as a potential predictor for the development of the severe Covid-19 and might serve for early identification of patients in need of hospitalization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the robustness of the use of IL-6 as an effective screening tool for the severe course of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Long-Term Care , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
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