Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.221
Filter
1.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(202): 20230036, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245634

ABSTRACT

Frequent emergence of communicable diseases is a major concern worldwide. Lack of sufficient resources to mitigate the disease burden makes the situation even more challenging for lower-income countries. Hence, strategy development for disease eradication and optimal management of the social and economic burden has garnered a lot of attention in recent years. In this context, we quantify the optimal fraction of resources that can be allocated to two major intervention measures, namely reduction of disease transmission and improvement of healthcare infrastructure. Our results demonstrate that the effectiveness of each of the interventions has a significant impact on the optimal resource allocation in both long-term disease dynamics and outbreak scenarios. The optimal allocation strategy for long-term dynamics exhibits non-monotonic behaviour with respect to the effectiveness of interventions, which differs from the more intuitive strategy recommended in the case of outbreaks. Further, our results indicate that the relationship between investment in interventions and the corresponding increase in patient recovery rate or decrease in disease transmission rate plays a decisive role in determining optimal strategies. Intervention programmes with decreasing returns promote the necessity for resource sharing. Our study provides fundamental insights into determining the best response strategy when controlling epidemics in resource-constrained situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Humans , Epidemics/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Resource Allocation
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e99, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236964

ABSTRACT

Large gatherings of people on cruise ships and warships are often at high risk of COVID-19 infections. To assess the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 on warships and cruise ships and to quantify the effectiveness of the containment measures, the transmission coefficient (ß), basic reproductive number (R0), and time to deploy containment measures were estimated by the Bayesian Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered model. A meta-analysis was conducted to predict vaccine protection with or without non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The analysis showed that implementing NPIs during voyages could reduce the transmission coefficients of SARS-CoV-2 by 50%. Two weeks into the voyage of a cruise that begins with 1 infected passenger out of a total of 3,711 passengers, we estimate there would be 45 (95% CI:25-71), 33 (95% CI:20-52), 18 (95% CI:11-26), 9 (95% CI:6-12), 4 (95% CI:3-5), and 2 (95% CI:2-2) final cases under 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% vaccine protection, respectively, without NPIs. The timeliness of strict NPIs along with implementing strict quarantine and isolation measures is imperative to contain COVID-19 cases in cruise ships. The spread of COVID-19 on ships was predicted to be limited in scenarios corresponding to at least 70% protection from prior vaccination, across all passengers and crew.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ships , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Travel , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Quarantine
7.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 35(3): 380-389, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243856

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategies of nonpolio enterovirus and parechovirus (PeV) infections, and identify research gaps. RECENT FINDINGS: There is currently no approved antiviral agent for enterovirus or PeV infections, although pocapavir may be provided on a compassionate basis. Elucidation of the structure and functional features of enterovirus and PeV may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccine development. SUMMARY: Nonpolio human enterovirus and PeV are common childhood infections that are most severe among neonates and young infants. Although most infections are asymptomatic, severe disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality occurs worldwide and has been associated with local outbreaks. Long-term sequelae are not well understood but have been reported following neonatal infection of the central nervous system. The lack of antiviral treatment and effective vaccines highlight important knowledge gaps. Active surveillance ultimately may inform preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Parechovirus , Picornaviridae Infections , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Child , Parechovirus/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/drug therapy , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1084, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243611

ABSTRACT

By 31 May 2022, original/Alpha, Delta and Omicron strains induced 101 outbreaks of COVID-19 in mainland China. Most outbreaks were cleared by combining non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) with vaccines, but continuous virus variations challenged the dynamic zero-case policy (DZCP), posing questions of what are the prerequisites and threshold levels for success? And what are the independent effects of vaccination in each outbreak? Using a modified classic infectious disease dynamic model and an iterative relationship for new infections per day, the effectiveness of vaccines and NPIs was deduced, from which the independent effectiveness of vaccines was derived. There was a negative correlation between vaccination coverage rates and virus transmission. For the Delta strain, a 61.8% increase in the vaccination rate (VR) reduced the control reproduction number (CRN) by about 27%. For the Omicron strain, a 20.43% increase in VR, including booster shots, reduced the CRN by 42.16%. The implementation speed of NPIs against the original/Alpha strain was faster than the virus's transmission speed, and vaccines significantly accelerated the DZCP against the Delta strain. The CRN ([Formula: see text]) during the exponential growth phase and the peak time and intensity of NPIs were key factors affecting a comprehensive theoretical threshold condition for DZCP success, illustrated by contour diagrams for the CRN under different conditions. The DZCP maintained the [Formula: see text] of 101 outbreaks below the safe threshold level, but the strength of NPIs was close to saturation especially for Omicron, and there was little room for improvement. Only by curbing the rise in the early stage and shortening the exponential growth period could clearing be achieved quickly. Strengthening China's vaccine immune barrier can improve China's ability to prevent and control epidemics and provide greater scope for the selection and adjustment of NPIs. Otherwise, there will be rapid rises in infection rates and an extremely high peak and huge pressure on the healthcare system, and a potential increase in excess mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Policy
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241411

ABSTRACT

In May 2021, there was a COVID-19 outbreak on board a construction support ship traveling from India to Thailand. Controlling the outbreak on this offshore vessel from 11 May to 2 June 2021 was applied. This case report describes the teamwork management of COVID-19 control on the vessel in the Gulf of Thailand. We summarized the COVID-19 outbreak control process on board, including active COVID-19-infected cases (CoIC) and close contacts (CoCC) identification, isolation, quarantine, treatment, and clinical monitoring using telemedicine to report their health measurements twice daily, including emergency conditions if they occurred. Active COVID-19 cases were identified by two rounds of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests in all crew members, in which 7 of 29 (24.1%) showed positive results. Both the CoIC and CoCC were strictly and absolutely isolated and quarantined on the vessel. No serious medical conditions were reported during the monitoring. The third-round RT-PCR tests were conducted, and all tested negative one week later. Teamwork management in proactive COVID-19 case identification, isolation, comprehensive treatment, and close monitoring of health conditions using telemedicine devices is beneficial for controlling the COVID-19 outbreak on board.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods
11.
Science ; 379(6639): 1286, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240613

ABSTRACT

Stricter rules could prevent disease outbreaks, but allowances for fur farming spur concern.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Disease Outbreaks , Wildlife Trade , China , Farms , Wildlife Trade/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
12.
J Med Econ ; 26(1): 793-801, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240022

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the preferences of the Japanese population for government policies expected to address infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics. METHODS: We performed a conjoint analysis based on survey data in December 2022 (registration number: UMIN000049665). The attributes for the conjoint analysis were policies: tests, vaccines, therapeutic drugs, behavior restrictions (e.g. self-restraint or restrictions on the gathering or travel of individuals and the hours of operation or serving of alcoholic beverages in food/beverage establishments), and entry restrictions (from abroad), and monetary attribute: an increase in the consumption tax from the current 10%, to estimate the monetary value of the policies. A logistic regression model was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Data were collected from 2,185 respondents. The accessibility of tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs was preferred regardless of the accessibility level. The value for accessibility of drugs to anyone at any medical facility was estimated at 4.80% of a consumption tax rate, equivalent to JPY 10.5 trillion, which was the highest among the policies evaluated in this study. The values for implementing behavior or entry restrictions were negative or lower than those for tests, vaccines, and drugs. LIMITATIONS: Respondents chosen from an online panel were not necessarily representative of the Japanese population. Because the study was conducted in December 2022, a period during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the results may reflect the situation at that time and potentially be subject to rapid change. CONCLUSIONS: Among the policy options evaluated in this study, the most preferred option was easily accessible therapeutic drugs and their monetary value was substantial. Wider accessibility of tests, vaccines, and drugs was preferred over behavior and entry restrictions. We believe that the results provide information for policymaking to prepare for future infectious disease epidemics and for assessing the response to COVID-19 in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , East Asian People , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Policy , Government , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Int Health ; 14(5): 453-467, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of palliative care provision has been highlighted in previous humanitarian emergencies. This review aimed to examine the breadth and depth of palliative care inclusion within global guidelines for responding to infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: The review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, PsychInfo and grey literature were performed. Inclusion criteria were guidelines (recommendations for clinical practice or public health policy) for responding to infectious disease outbreaks in the general adult population. Results were limited to the English language, between 1 January 2010 and 17 August 2020. Analysis of the included articles involved assessing the breadth (number of palliative care domains covered) and depth (detail with which the domains were addressed) of palliative care inclusion. RESULTS: A total of 584 articles were retrieved and 43 met the inclusion criteria. Two additional articles were identified through handsearching. There was limited inclusion of palliative care in the guidelines examined. CONCLUSIONS: There is an opportunity for the development of guidelines that include information on palliative care implementation in the context of infectious disease outbreaks in order to reduce the suffering of key vulnerable populations worldwide.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Palliative Care , Adult , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Palliative Care/methods
14.
Health Policy ; 133: 104844, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328352

ABSTRACT

The crowded global health landscape has been joined by the European Union Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority (HERA). HERA will assume four broad areas of responsibility: horizon scanning for major health threats; research and development; support for capacity to manufacture drugs, vaccines, and equipment; and procuring and stockpiling key medical countermeasures. In this Health Reform Monitor article, we outline the reform process and describe HERA's structure and responsibilities, explore issues that arise from the creation of this new organisation, and suggest options for collaboration with existing bodies in Europe and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic and other infectious disease outbreaks have shown the need to treat health as a cross-border issue, and there is now a broad consensus that greater direction and coordination at the European level is needed. This ambition has been matched with a considerable increase in EU funding to tackle cross-border health threats, and HERA can be used to deploy this funding in an effective manner. Yet this is contingent upon clearly defining its role and responsibilities vis-à-vis existing agencies to reduce redundancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Care Reform , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Global Health
16.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(5): 385-392, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize recent advances in understanding the origins, drivers and clinical context of zoonotic disease epidemics and pandemics. In addition, we aimed to highlight the role of clinicians in identifying sentinel cases of zoonotic disease outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of emerging infectious disease events over recent decades, including the COVID-19 pandemic, have been caused by zoonotic viruses and bacteria. In particular, coronaviruses, haemorrhagic fever viruses, arboviruses and influenza A viruses have caused significant epidemics globally. There have been recent advances in understanding the origins and drivers of zoonotic epidemics, yet there are gaps in diagnostic capacity and clinical training about zoonoses. SUMMARY: Identifying the origins of zoonotic pathogens, understanding factors influencing disease transmission and improving the diagnostic capacity of clinicians will be crucial to early detection and prevention of further epidemics of zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Nat Aging ; 3(6): 722-733, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322588

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has resulted in excellent protection against fatal disease, including in older adults. However, risk factors for post-vaccination fatal COVID-19 are largely unknown. We comprehensively studied three large nursing home outbreaks (20-35% fatal cases among residents) by combining severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) aerosol monitoring, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis and immunovirological profiling of nasal mucosa by digital nCounter transcriptomics. Phylogenetic investigations indicated that each outbreak stemmed from a single introduction event, although with different variants (Delta, Gamma and Mu). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in aerosol samples up to 52 d after the initial infection. Combining demographic, immune and viral parameters, the best predictive models for mortality comprised IFNB1 or age, viral ORF7a and ACE2 receptor transcripts. Comparison with published pre-vaccine fatal COVID-19 transcriptomic and genomic signatures uncovered a unique IRF3 low/IRF7 high immune signature in post-vaccine fatal COVID-19 outbreaks. A multi-layered strategy, including environmental sampling, immunomonitoring and early antiviral therapy, should be considered to prevent post-vaccination COVID-19 mortality in nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Phylogeny , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Nursing Homes , Vaccination , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
18.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285937, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2022, the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly in Shanghai, China. The city adopted strict non-pharmacological intervention (NPI) measures, including lockdown (implemented on March 28 in Pudong and April 1 in Puxi) and blanket PCR testing (April 4). This study aims to understand the effect of these measures. METHODS: We tabulated daily case counts from official reports and fitted a two-patch stochastic SEIR model to the data for the period of March 19 to April 21. This model considered two regions in Shanghai, namely Pudong and Puxi, as the implementation of control measures in Shanghai was carried out on different dates in these regions. We verified our fitting results using the data from April 22 to June 26. Finally, we applied the point estimate of parameter values to simulate our model while varying the dates of control measure implementation, and studied the effectiveness of the control measures. RESULTS: Our point estimate for the parameter values yields expected case counts that agree well the data for both the periods from March 19 to April 21 and from April 22 to June 26. Lockdown did not significantly reduce the intra-region transmission rates. Only about 21% cases were reported. The underlying basic reproduction number R0 was 1.7, and the control reproduction number with both lockdown and blanket PCR testing was 1.3. If both measures were implemented on March 19, only about 5.9% infections would be prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Through our analysis, we found that NPI measures implemented in Shanghai were not sufficient to reduce the reproduction number to below unity. Thus, earlier intervention only has limited effect on reducing cases. The outbreak dies out because of only 27% of the population were active in disease transmission, possibly due to a combination of vaccination and lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 42, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global connectivity and environmental change pose continuous threats to dengue invasions from worldwide to China. However, the intrinsic relationship on introduction and outbreak risks of dengue driven by the landscape features are still unknown. This study aimed to map the patterns on source-sink relation of dengue cases and assess the driving forces for dengue invasions in China. METHODS: We identified the local and imported cases (2006-2020) and assembled the datasets on environmental conditions. The vector auto-regression model was applied to detect the cross-relations of source-sink patterns. We selected the major environmental drivers via the Boruta algorithm to assess the driving forces in dengue outbreak dynamics by applying generalized additive models. We reconstructed the internal connections among imported cases, local cases, and external environmental drivers using the structural equation modeling. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2020, 81,652 local dengue cases and 12,701 imported dengue cases in China were reported. The hotspots of dengue introductions and outbreaks were in southeast and southwest China, originating from South and Southeast Asia. Oversea-imported dengue cases, as the Granger-cause, were the initial driver of the dengue dynamic; the suitable local bio-socioecological environment is the fundamental factor for dengue epidemics. The Bio8 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67-2.68], Bio9 (OR = 291.62, 95% CI: 125.63-676.89), Bio15 (OR = 4.15, 95% CI: 3.30-5.24), normalized difference vegetation index in March (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.51) and July (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.07), and the imported cases are the major drivers of dengue local transmissions (OR = 4.79, 95% CI: 4.34-5.28). The intermediary effect of an index on population and economic development to local cases via the path of imported cases was detected in the dengue dynamic system. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue outbreaks in China are triggered by introductions of imported cases and boosted by landscape features and connectivity. Our research will contribute to developing nature-based solutions for dengue surveillance, mitigation, and control from a socio-ecological perspective based on invasion ecology theories to control and prevent future dengue invasion and localization.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Epidemics , Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Forecasting
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 926, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) COVID-19 Outbreak Surveillance Team (OST) was established in June 2020 to provide Local Authorities (LAs) in England with surveillance intelligence to aid their response to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Reports were produced using standardised metrics in an automated format. Here we evaluate how the SARS-CoV-2 surveillance reports influenced decision making, how resources evolved and how they could be refined to meet the requirements of stakeholders in the future. METHODS: Public health professionals (n = 2,400) involved in the COVID-19 response from the 316 English LAs were invited to take part in an online survey. The questionnaire covered five themes: (i) report use; (ii) influence of surveillance outputs on local intervention strategies; (iii) timeliness; (iv) current and future data requirements; and (v) content development. RESULTS: Of the 366 respondents to the survey, most worked in public health, data science, epidemiology, or business intelligence. Over 70% of respondents used the LA Report and Regional Situational Awareness Report daily or weekly. The information had been used by 88% to inform decision making within their organisations and 68% considered that intervention strategies had been instituted as a result of these decisions. Examples of changes instigated included targeted communications, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, and the timing of interventions. Most responders considered that the surveillance content had reacted well to evolving demands. The majority (89%) said that their information requirements would be met if the surveillance reports were incorporated into the COVID-19 Situational Awareness Explorer Portal. Additional information suggested by stakeholders included vaccination and hospitalisation data as well as information on underlying health conditions, infection during pregnancy, school absence and wastewater testing. CONCLUSIONS: The OST surveillance reports were a valuable information resource used by local stakeholders in their response to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Control measures that affect disease epidemiology and monitoring requirements need to be considered in the continuous maintenance of surveillance outputs. We identified areas for further development and, since the evaluation, information on repeat infections and vaccination data have been included in the surveillance reports. Furthermore, timeliness of publications has been improved by updating the data flow pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , England
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL