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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 925558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198849

ABSTRACT

Background: metabolic changes through SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported but not fully comprehended. This metabolic dysregulation affects multiple organs during COVID-19 and its early detection can be used as a prognosis marker of severity. Therefore, we aimed to characterize metabolic and cytokine profile at COVID-19 onset and its relationship with disease severity to identify metabolic profiles predicting disease progression. Material and Methods: we performed a retrospective cross-sectional study in 123 COVID-19 patients which were stratified as asymptomatic/mild, moderate and severe according to the highest COVID-19 severity status, and a group of healthy controls. We performed an untargeted plasma metabolic profiling (gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (GC and CE-MS)) and cytokine evaluation. Results: After data filtering and identification we observed 105 metabolites dysregulated (66 GC-MS and 40 CE-MS) which shown different expression patterns for each COVID-19 severity status. These metabolites belonged to different metabolic pathways including amino acid, energy, and nitrogen metabolism among others. Severity-specific metabolic dysregulation was observed, as an increased transformation of L-tryptophan into L-kynurenine. Thus, metabolic profiling at hospital admission differentiate between severe and moderate patients in the later phase of worse evolution. Several plasma pro-inflammatory biomarkers showed significant correlation with deregulated metabolites, specially with L-kynurenine and L-tryptophan. Finally, we describe a strong sex-related dysregulation of metabolites, cytokines and chemokines between severe and moderate patients. In conclusion, metabolic profiling of COVID-19 patients at disease onset is a powerful tool to unravel the SARS-CoV-2 molecular pathogenesis. Conclusions: This technique makes it possible to identify metabolic phenoconversion that predicts disease progression and explains the pronounced pathogenesis differences between sexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Kynurenine , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tryptophan/metabolism
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): e513-e516, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190914

ABSTRACT

Although post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 among adult survivors has gained significant attention, data in children hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is limited. This study of commercially insured US children shows that those hospitalized with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children have a substantial burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 sequelae and associated health care visits postdischarge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adult , Humans , Aftercare , Follow-Up Studies , Patient Discharge , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Disease Progression , Delivery of Health Care
3.
Lancet ; 400(10359): 1213-1222, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of oral antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of two oral antiviral drugs among community-dwelling COVID-19 outpatients in Hong Kong. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to identify an unselected, territory-wide cohort of non-hospitalised patients with an officially registered diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 26 and June 26, 2022, during the period in which the omicron subvariant BA.2.2 was dominant in Hong Kong. We used a retrospective cohort design as primary analysis, and a case-control design as sensitivity analysis. We identified patients with COVID-19 who received either molnupiravir (800 mg twice daily for 5 days) or nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily for 5 days, or nirmatrelvir 150 mg and ritonavir 100 mg if estimated glomerular filtration rate was 30-59 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Outpatient oral antiviral users were matched with controls using propensity score (1:10) according to age, sex, date of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and vaccination status. Study outcomes were death, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and in-hospital disease progression (in-hospital death, invasive mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression for the primary analysis, and odds ratios in oral antiviral users compared with non-users by logistic regression for the sensitivity analysis. FINDINGS: Among 1 074 856 non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 5383 received molnupiravir and 6464 received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir in the community setting. Patients were followed up for a median of 103 days in the molnupiravir group and 99 days in the nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir group. Compared with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir users, those on molnupiravir were older (4758 [85·9%] vs 4418 [88.7%] aged >60 years) and less likely to have been fully vaccinated (1850 [33·4%] vs 800 [16·1%]). Molnupiravir use was associated with lower risks of death (HR 0·76 [95% CI 0·61-0·95]) and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·43-0·76]) than non-use was, whereas risk of hospitalisation was similar in both groups (0·98 [0·89-1·06]). Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was associated with lower risks of death (0·34 [0·22-0·52]), hospitalisation (0·76 [0·67-0·86]), and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·38-0·87]) than non-use was. We consistently found reduced risks of mortality and hospitalisation associated with early oral antiviral use among older patients. The findings from the case-control analysis broadly supported those from the primary analysis. INTERPRETATION: During Hong Kong's wave of SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.2.2, among non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, early initiation of novel oral antivirals was associated with reduced risks of mortality and in-hospital disease progression. Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was additionally associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation. FUNDING: Health and Medical Research Fund, Health Bureau, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Progression , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Independent Living , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
5.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153220

ABSTRACT

ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Yet, little is known about the clinical and biologic correlates of circulating ACE2 levels in humans. We assessed the clinical and proteomic correlates of plasma (soluble) ACE2 protein levels in human heart failure. We measured plasma ACE2 using a modified aptamer assay among PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=2248). We performed an association study of ACE2 against ≈5000 other plasma proteins measured with the SomaScan platform. Plasma ACE2 was not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, worse New York Heart Association class, a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, and higher pro-BNP (pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. Plasma ACE2 exhibited associations with 1011 other plasma proteins. In pathway overrepresentation analyses, top canonical pathways associated with plasma ACE2 included clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mechanisms of viral exit from host cells, EIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) signaling, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. In conclusion, in humans with heart failure, plasma ACE2 is associated with various clinical factors known to be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including older age, male sex, and diabetes mellitus, but is not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 protein levels are prominently associated with multiple cellular pathways involved in cellular endocytosis, exocytosis, and intracellular protein trafficking. Whether these have a causal relationship with ACE2 or are relevant to novel coronavirus-2 infection remains to be assessed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/enzymology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Proteomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , United States
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19977, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133615

ABSTRACT

Metabolomic analysis of blood plasma samples from COVID-19 patients is a promising approach allowing for the evaluation of disease progression. We performed the metabolomic analysis of plasma samples of 30 COVID-19 patients and the 19 controls using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). In our analysis, we identified 103 metabolites enriched in KEGG metabolic pathways such as amino acid metabolism and the biosynthesis of aminoacyl-tRNAs, which differed significantly between the COVID-19 patients and the controls. Using ANDSystem software, we performed the reconstruction of gene networks describing the potential genetic regulation of metabolic pathways perturbed in COVID-19 patients by SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (orf8 and nsp5) and structural protein E were involved in the greater number of regulatory pathways. The reconstructed gene networks suggest the hypotheses on the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions in COVID-19 pathology and provide a basis for the further experimental and computer studies of the regulation of metabolic pathways by SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Our metabolomic analysis suggests the need for nonstructural protein-based vaccines and the control strategy to reduce the disease progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Plasma , Viral Proteins/genetics , Disease Progression
7.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(11): e24726, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-positive dermatomyositis (MDA5+ DM) is significantly associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD), especially rapidly progressive ILD (RPILD) due to poor prognosis, resulting in high mortality rates. However, the pathogenic mechanism of MDA5+ DM-RPILD is unclear. Although some MDA5+ DM patients have a chronic course of ILD, many do not develop RPILD. Therefore, the related biomarkers for the early diagnosis, disease activity monitoring, and prediction of the outcome of RPILD in MDA5+ DM patients should be identified. Blood-based biomarkers are minimally invasive and can be easily detected. METHODS: Recent relative studies related to blood biomarkers in PubMed were reviewed. RESULTS: An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that dysregulated expression of blood biomarkers related to ILD such as ferritin, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein-D (SP-D), and cytokines, and some tumor markers in MDA5+ DM may provide information in disease presence, activity, treatment response, and prognosis. These studies have highlighted the great potentials of blood biomarker values for MDA5+ DM-ILD and MDA5+ DM-RPILD. This review provides an overview of recent studies related to blood biomarkers, besides highlighted protein biomarkers, including antibody (anti-MDA5 IgG subclasses and anti-Ro52 antibody), genetic (exosomal microRNAs and neutrophil extracellular traps related to cell-free DNA), and immune cellular biomarkers in MDA5+ DM, MDA5+ DM-ILD, and MDA5+ DM-RPILD patients, hopefully elucidating the pathogenesis of MDA5+ DM-ILD and providing information on the early diagnosis, disease activity monitoring, and prediction of the outcome of the ILD, especially RPILD. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this review may provide insight to guide treatment decisions for MDA5+ DM-RPILD patients and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Dermatomyositis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , Autoantibodies , Disease Progression , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
8.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 307, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) require regular physician visits and referral to specialist ILD clinics. Difficulties or delays in accessing care can limit opportunities to monitor disease trajectory and response to treatment, and the COVID-19 pandemic has added to these challenges. Therefore, home monitoring technologies, such as home handheld spirometry, have gained increased attention as they may help to improve access to care for patients with ILD. However, while several studies have shown that home handheld spirometry in ILD is acceptable for most patients, data from clinical trials are not sufficiently robust to support its use as a primary endpoint. This review discusses the challenges that were encountered with handheld spirometry across three recent ILD studies, which included home spirometry as a primary endpoint, and highlights where further optimisation and research into home handheld spirometry in ILD is required. Rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) as measured by daily home handheld spirometry versus site spirometry was of primary interest in three recently completed studies: STARLINER (NCT03261037), STARMAP and a Phase II study of pirfenidone in progressive fibrosing unclassifiable ILD (NCT03099187). Unanticipated practical and technical issues led to problems with estimating FVC decline. In all three studies, cross-sectional correlations for home handheld versus site spirometry were strong/moderate at baseline and later timepoints, but longitudinal correlations were weak. Other issues observed with the home handheld spirometry data included: high within-patient variability in home handheld FVC measurements; implausible longitudinal patterns in the home handheld spirometry data that were not reflected in site spirometry; and extreme estimated rates of FVC change. CONCLUSIONS: Home handheld spirometry in ILD requires further optimisation and research to ensure accurate and reliable FVC measurements before it can be used as an endpoint in clinical trials. Refresher training, automated alerts of problems and FVC changes, and patient support could help to overcome some practical issues. Despite the challenges, there is value in incorporating home handheld spirometry into clinical practice, and the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential for home monitoring technologies to help improve access to care for patients with ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Spirometry , Vital Capacity , Disease Progression , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1009894, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119886

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant and explore the risk factors affecting the progression in a Fangcang hospital, Shanghai, China. Methods: A total of 25,207 patients were retrospectively enrolled. We described the clinical characteristics and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors for non-severe to severe COVID-19 or death. Results: According to the outcomes, there were 39 severe patients (including 1 death) and 25,168 non-severe patients enrolled in this study. Among the 25,207 cases, the median age was 45 years (IQR 33-54), and 65% patients were male. Cough (44.5%) and expectoration (38.4%) were the most two common symptoms. Hypertension (10.4%) and diabetes (3.5%) were most two common comorbidities. Most patients (81.1%) were fully vaccinated. The unvaccinated and partially vaccinated patients were 15.1% and 3.9%, respectively. The length of viral shedding time was six days (IQR 4-9) in non-severe patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that age (OR=1.062, 95%CI 1.034-1.090, p<0.001), fever (OR=2.603, 95%CI 1.061-6.384, p=0.037), cough (OR=0.276, 95%CI 0.119-0.637, p=0.003), fatigue (OR=4.677, 95%CI 1.976-11.068, p<0.001), taste disorders (OR=14.917, 95%CI 1.884-118.095, p=0.010), and comorbidity (OR=2.134, 95%CI 1.059-4.302, p=0.034) were predictive factors for deterioration of SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant infection. Conclusions: Non-critical patients have different clinical characteristics from critical patients. Age, fever, cough, fatigue, taste disorders, and comorbidity are predictors for the deterioration of SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Hospitals , Taste Disorders , Fatigue , Disease Progression
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277624, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the long-term pulmonary sequelae following SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of hospitalized and non-hospitalized adult patients age >18 with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR three months prior to enrolment between June and December 2020. Participants underwent full pulmonary function test (PFT), cardiopulmonary exercise testing at 3 months and 6 months. Primary outcome was mean differences of forced vital capacity (FVC), diffuse capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and oxygen consumption (VO2) at 6 vs. 3 months. Secondary outcomes were respiratory outcomes classified into 5 clinical groups-no lung disease, resolved lung disease, persistent lung disease, PFT abnormalities attributable to pre-existing lung disease or other factors, and mild PFT abnormalities of uncertain clinical significance. RESULTS: Fifty-one, 30 hospitalized and 21 non-hospitalized, participants were included. Median age was 51 years; 20 (39.2%) were female. Mean (±SD) percent predicted values of FVC, DLCO and VO2 at 3 vs 6-month-visits were 96.2 ± 15.6 vs. 97.6 ± 15.5, 73.74 ±18 vs. 78.5 ± 15.5, and 75.5 ± 18.9 vs. 76.1 ± 21.5, respectively. Nineteen (37%) patients had physiologic and/or radiographic evidence of lung disease at 3 months with eight (15.7%) continuing to have persistent disease at 6 months. History of diabetes, hypertension, ICU admission and elevated D-Dimer levels were associated with persistent lung disease at 6 months. INTERPRETATION: Persistent lung disease at 6 months post SARS-CoV-2 infection exists. Changes of lung function between 3- and 6-months are not significant. A longer follow-up is required to determine long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Infant , Male , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , Disease Progression
11.
Kardiologiia ; 62(10): 26-34, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117503

ABSTRACT

Aim      To evaluate the prevalence of residual symptoms in patients hospitalized for novel coronavirus infection at 8 months after discharge and the severity of such symptoms depending on demographic characteristics, concurrent diseases, and specific features of the acute period of COVID-19.Material and methods  This study included the patients who were managed for novel coronavirus infection in a COVID-19 hospital and provided their consent to participate in the study (98 patients). At 8 months after discharge from the hospital, a structured telephone interview was performed.Results Only 40 % of patients treated for COVID-19 did not have any complaints at 8 months after discharge from the hospital. The most frequent complaints in the long term were fatigue (30.5 %), weakness (28.4 %), shortness of breath (23.2 %), arthralgia (22.1 %), myalgia (17.9 %), and anosmia (15.8 %). The background of chronic diseases and obesity, percentage of lung damage according to CT data, and the requirement for oxygen support during the acute period in our sample were not related with the presence of symptoms in the long term. The presence and severity of symptoms during the long term were not determined by the clinical condition, volume of lung damage, or requirement for oxygen support but were related with the gender and severity of inflammation upon admission.Conclusion      Independent predictors for persistence of symptoms in the patient sample with severe novel coronavirus infection during the long term included chest and joint pain during the stay in the hospital, female gender, and increased levels of C-reactive protein upon admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Oxygen
12.
Nat Med ; 28(11): 2398-2405, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116490

ABSTRACT

First infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with increased risk of acute and postacute death and sequelae in various organ systems. Whether reinfection adds to risks incurred after first infection is unclear. Here we used the US Department of Veterans Affairs' national healthcare database to build a cohort of individuals with one SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 443,588), reinfection (two or more infections, n = 40,947) and a noninfected control (n = 5,334,729). We used inverse probability-weighted survival models to estimate risks and 6-month burdens of death, hospitalization and incident sequelae. Compared to no reinfection, reinfection contributed additional risks of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.17, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.93-2.45), hospitalization (HR = 3.32, 95% CI 3.13-3.51) and sequelae including pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematological, diabetes, gastrointestinal, kidney, mental health, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The risks were evident regardless of vaccination status. The risks were most pronounced in the acute phase but persisted in the postacute phase at 6 months. Compared to noninfected controls, cumulative risks and burdens of repeat infection increased according to the number of infections. Limitations included a cohort of mostly white males. The evidence shows that reinfection further increases risks of death, hospitalization and sequelae in multiple organ systems in the acute and postacute phase. Reducing overall burden of death and disease due to SARS-CoV-2 will require strategies for reinfection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31819, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a result of prolonged effects on multiple organs, recovery from COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 cannot be verified. This study seeks to understand chronic and acute long-term symptoms of COVID-19 lasting from a few weeks after diagnosis. The study also aims to gain insight into prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, a potentially comorbid condition for several months after the infection, in addition to taking a broad perspective on rare symptoms that may have developed during or after the infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire\descriptive study. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed to assess the long-term effects of the global pandemic of COVID-19 using DePaul Symptom Questionnaire-2. The DePaul Symptom Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire, and other symptoms that have been introduced by literature review. DISCUSSION: A large cohort of people from all over the world will be examined to understand the differential effects of people who have experienced COVID-19, as well as the potential occurrence of ME. In total, 20,000 COVID patients are expected to be included in the study by Sep 1, 2022. Patients who have experienced COVID-19 will be asked about their persistent symptoms from 1 week up to more than 6 months after catching or recovery from the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Humans , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Progression
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(2): 270-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's oesophagus because, although the progression risk is low, endoscopic intervention is highly effective for high-grade dysplasia and cancer. However, repeated endoscopy has associated harms and access has been limited during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the role of a non-endoscopic device (Cytosponge) coupled with laboratory biomarkers and clinical factors to prioritise endoscopy for Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: We first conducted a retrospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study in patients older than 18 years who were having endoscopic surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (with intestinal metaplasia confirmed by TFF3 and a minimum Barrett's segment length of 1 cm [circumferential or tongues by the Prague C and M criteria]). All patients had received the Cytosponge and confirmatory endoscopy during the BEST2 (ISRCTN12730505) and BEST3 (ISRCTN68382401) clinical trials, from July 7, 2011, to April 1, 2019 (UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio 9461). Participants were divided into training (n=557) and validation (n=334) cohorts to identify optimal risk groups. The biomarkers evaluated were overexpression of p53, cellular atypia, and 17 clinical demographic variables. Endoscopic biopsy diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or cancer was the primary endpoint. Clinical feasibility of a decision tree for Cytosponge triage was evaluated in a real-world prospective cohort from Aug 27, 2020 (DELTA; ISRCTN91655550; n=223), in response to COVID-19 and the need to provide an alternative to endoscopic surveillance. FINDINGS: The prevalence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer determined by the current gold standard of endoscopic biopsy was 17% (92 of 557 patients) in the training cohort and 10% (35 of 344) in the validation cohort. From the new biomarker analysis, three risk groups were identified: high risk, defined as atypia or p53 overexpression or both on Cytosponge; moderate risk, defined by the presence of a clinical risk factor (age, sex, and segment length); and low risk, defined as Cytosponge-negative and no clinical risk factors. The risk of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer in the high-risk group was 52% (68 of 132 patients) in the training cohort and 41% (31 of 75) in the validation cohort, compared with 2% (five of 210) and 1% (two of 185) in the low-risk group, respectively. In the real-world setting, Cytosponge results prospectively identified 39 (17%) of 223 patients as high risk (atypia or p53 overexpression, or both) requiring endoscopy, among whom the positive predictive value was 31% (12 of 39 patients) for high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer and 44% (17 of 39) for any grade of dysplasia. INTERPRETATION: Cytosponge atypia, p53 overexpression, and clinical risk factors (age, sex, and segment length) could be used to prioritise patients for endoscopy. Further investigation could validate their use in clinical practice and lead to a substantial reduction in endoscopy procedures compared with current surveillance pathways. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Innovate UK.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Patient Selection , Watchful Waiting/methods , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Barrett Esophagus/metabolism , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Trees , Disease Progression , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophagoscopy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trefoil Factor-3/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30844, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2019 to now, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put enormous strain on the world's health systems. As a characteristic sign of COVID-19 patient, olfactory dysfunction (OD) poses considerable problems for patients. In China, acupuncture has been widely used to treat OD caused by COVID-19, but there is still a lack of evidence-based medical evaluation. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of COVID-19 OD. METHODS: According to the retrieval strategies, randomized controlled trials on the acupuncture for COVID-19 OD were obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database and the Wanfang Database, regardless of publication date, or language. Studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) and STATA 14.2 software. Ultimately, the evidentiary grade for the results will be evaluated. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This study will provide up-to-date summary proof for evaluating the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for COVID-19 OD.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
16.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(11): e421-e425, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110339

ABSTRACT

Pediatric postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (pPASC), or long COVID, is a complex, heterogeneous, multisystem syndrome that leads to disruption in the lives of children and adolescents for months, and possibly years, after recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. While the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of PASC are still under investigation, clinicians are facing the immediate challenges of treating these patients. In this article, we provide an overview of the current multidisciplinary evaluation of patients with pPASC. We also offer guidance on the medical, psychological, and rehabilitative management strategies based on experience with both pPASC and patients with other postviral syndromes. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(11):e421-e425.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Progression
17.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 267, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2) plays a protective role in neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, Trem2 functions can exacerbate tissue damage during respiratory viral or liver infections. We, therefore, investigated the role of Trem2 in a viral encephalomyelitis model associated with prominent Th1 mediated antiviral immunity leading to demyelination. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and Trem2 deficient (Trem2-/-) mice were infected with a sublethal glia tropic murine coronavirus (MHV-JHM) intracranially. Disease progression and survival were monitored daily. Leukocyte accumulation and pathological features including demyelination and axonal damage in spinal cords (SC) were determined by flow cytometry and tissue section immunofluorescence analysis. Expression of select inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured by RT-PCR and global myeloid cell gene expression in SC-derived microglia and infiltrated bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were determined using the Nanostring nCounter platform. RESULTS: BMDM recruited to SCs in response to infection highly upregulated Trem2 mRNA compared to microglia coincident with viral control. Trem2 deficiency did not alter disease onset or severity, but impaired clinical recovery after onset of demyelination. Disease progression in Trem2-/- mice could not be attributed to altered virus control or an elevated proinflammatory response. A prominent difference was increased degenerated myelin not associated with the myeloid cell markers IBA1 and/or CD68. Gene expression profiles of SC-derived microglia and BMDM further revealed that Trem2 deficiency resulted in impaired upregulation of phagocytosis associated genes Lpl and Cd36 in microglia, but a more complex pattern in BMDM. CONCLUSIONS: Trem2 deficiency during viral-induced demyelination dysregulates expression of other select genes regulating phagocytic pathways and lipid metabolism, with distinct effects on microglia and BMDM. The ultimate failure to remove damaged myelin is reminiscent of toxin or autoimmune cell-induced demyelination models and supports that Trem2 function is regulated by sensing tissue damage including a dysregulated lipid environment in very distinct inflammatory environments.


Subject(s)
Brain , Demyelinating Diseases , Animals , Mice , Brain/metabolism , Phagocytosis/genetics , Microglia/metabolism , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Disease Progression , Gene Expression , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism
18.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 25(9): 1068-1077, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107880

ABSTRACT

AIM: Vaccination represents a cornerstone in mastering the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is a paucity of data regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases such as Behçet syndrome (BS). The present study aimed to investigate the side-effects and post-vaccine disease exacerbation rates of COVID-19 vaccines in a BS cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 450 BS patients followed in our clinic who met the criteria of the International Study Group. COVID-19 vaccination status, type of vaccine received (Pfizer-BioNTech vs CoronaVac), post-vaccine side-effects and exacerbations were evaluated by interviewing patients over the phone or face to face. Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF) scores were calculated for BS symptoms before and after vaccination. RESULTS: In all, 287 patients received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the total number of COVID-19 vaccines (n = 639), 379 (59%) were Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines and 257 (41%) were CoronaVac vaccines. The number of side-effects after first, second, third and fourth vaccine doses were 151 (52.6%), 135 (49.4%), 29 (42.6%), and 3 (30%), respectively. BS exacerbation after first, second, third, and fourth vaccine doses were 151 (52.6%), 135 (49.4%), 16 (23.5%), and 3 (30%), respectively. Injection site pain/swelling was the most common side-effect at all vaccine doses followed by fatigue and arthralgia. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccines are well tolerated in patients with BS, and more side-effects develop after mRNA vaccines. Regardless of the vaccine type, exacerbations after the COVID-19 vaccine are common, predominantly mucocutaneous and articular involvement, and exacerbations in the form of other organ involvement are rare.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Behcet Syndrome/complications , Behcet Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
19.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(6): 546-554, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109627

ABSTRACT

Background: There are some adverse effects with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, but the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is not well defined. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 vaccination on the course of HAE. Method: The COVID-19 vaccination status was determined in 140 adult patients with HAE. The number and severity of attacks recorded from patients' diaries were evaluated at four different periods, comprising 1 month before the first dose, the period between the first and the second doses of COVID-19 vaccine in all the patients, the period between the second dose and the third doses in those who received three doses, and 1 month after the last vaccination dose. The disease and attack severities were assessed with the disease severity score (DSS) and 10-point visual analog scale, respectively. The patients were divided into two main groups as group 1 (those who had at least two doses of COVID-19 vaccines [n = 114]) and group 2 (those who had no vaccination [n = 26]). Only Sinovac and Biontech, which were only approved in Turkey. Results: The mean ± standard deviation DSS was significantly higher in the patients who experienced an attack after vaccination within 48 hours (6.61 ± 1.88 versus 4.14 ± 1.69; p < 0.001). Long-term prophylaxis was less common in the patients with an increased number of attacks (n = 5 (27.8%) versus n = 54 (56.3%); p = 0.027). The number of patients with less than a high school education was higher in group 2 (n = 23 [88.5%]) than in group 1 (n = 26 [3.1%]) (p < 0.001). The number of patients who had concerns about the triggering of a vaccine-induced HAE attack or about the possible vaccine adverse effects was higher in group 2 (n = 26 [100%]) than in group 1 (n = 74 [64.9%]). Conclusion: It seems that COVID-19 vaccination does not increase HAE attacks regardless of the type of the vaccines. We recommend that HAE activity should be under control before COVID-19 vaccination, and the patients should be well informed about the safety of the vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angioedemas, Hereditary , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Angioedemas, Hereditary/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Reprod Immunol ; 154: 103763, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105478

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and cause of a global pandemic. Lately, cases of disease progression of HPV-infected CIN under SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported giving rise to the hypothesis of direct virus-infection induced pro-carcinogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2. We herein present a case of rapid progression from HPV-induced CIN 2 to microinvasive carcinoma within three months under COVID-19 without direct virus infection. Histopathologic evaluation, Fluorescence-in-situ hybridization and qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 RNA as well as gene expression analysis were performed from the available FFPE-tissue and accompanied by an analysis of white blood cell differential. No signs of direct SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 typical alterations of cervical tissue were found. As expected, p53 decreased in expression with progression of dysplasia, while APOBEC3A and VISTA showed a decrease in expression contrary to observations in dysplasia progression. PD-L1 was expressed consistently or increased slightly but did not show the expected strong induction of expression. DNMT1 showed an increase in expression in CIN III and a slight decrease in carcinoma, while DNMT3a is consistently expressed in CIN II and decreased in carcinoma. Blood tests after COVID-19 showed substantial reduction of lymphocytes, eosinophils, T-cells, and NK-cells. Our results hint at an indirect effect of COVID-19 on the cervical neoplasm. We conclude that the immune system might be preoccupied and exhausted by the concurring COVID-19 disease, leading to less immunological pressure on the HPV-infected cervical dysplasia enabling rapid disease progression. Further, indirect proangiogenic and proinflammatory micromilieu due to the multisystemic effects of COVID-19 might play an additional role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , RNA, Viral , Leukocytes , Disease Progression
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