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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705877

ABSTRACT

Recombination creates mosaic genomes containing regions with mixed ancestry, and the accumulation of such events over time can complicate greatly many aspects of evolutionary inference. Here, we developed a sliding window bootstrap (SWB) method to generate genomic bootstrap (GB) barcodes to highlight the regions supporting phylogenetic relationships. The method was applied to an alignment of 56 sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the SARS epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The SWB analyses were also used to construct a consensus tree showing the most reliable relationships and better interpret hidden phylogenetic signals. Our results revealed that most relationships were supported by just a few genomic regions and confirmed that three divergent lineages could be found in bats from Yunnan: SCoVrC, which groups SARS-CoV related coronaviruses from China; SCoV2rC, which includes SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses from Southeast Asia and Yunnan; and YunSar, which contains a few highly divergent viruses recently described in Yunnan. The GB barcodes showed evidence for ancient recombination between SCoV2rC and YunSar genomes, as well as more recent recombination events between SCoVrC and SCoV2rC genomes. The recombination and phylogeographic patterns suggest a strong host-dependent selection of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 appears as a mosaic genome composed of regions sharing recent ancestry with three bat SCoV2rCs from Yunnan (RmYN02, RpYN06, and RaTG13) or related to more ancient ancestors in bats from Yunnan and Southeast Asia. Finally, our results suggest that viral circular RNAs may be key molecules for the mechanism of recombination.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics/methods , Recombination, Genetic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeography
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674829

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are divided into the genera α-CoVs, ß-CoVs, γ-CoVs and δ-CoVs. Of these, α-CoVs and ß-CoVs are solely capable of causing infections in humans, resulting in mild to severe respiratory symptoms. Bats have been identified as natural reservoir hosts for CoVs belonging to these two genera. Consequently, research on bat populations, CoV prevalence in bats and genetic characterization of bat CoVs is of special interest to investigate the potential transmission risks. We present the genome sequence of a novel α-CoV strain detected in rectal swab samples of Miniopterus fuliginosus bats from a colony in the Wavul Galge cave (Koslanda, Sri Lanka). The novel strain is highly similar to Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, an α-CoV located in the subgenus of Minunacoviruses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a high identity of the novel strain to other α-CoVs derived from Miniopterus bats, while human-pathogenic α-CoV strains like HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 were more distantly related. Comparison with selected bat-related and human-pathogenic strains of the ß-CoV genus showed low identities of ~40%. Analyses of the different genes on nucleotide and amino acid level revealed that the non-structural ORF1a/1b are more conserved among α-CoVs and ß-CoVs, while there are higher variations in the structural proteins known to be important for host specificity. The novel strain was named batCoV/MinFul/2018/SriLanka and had a prevalence of 50% (66/130) in rectal swab samples and 58% (61/104) in feces samples that were collected from Miniopterus bats in Wavul Galge cave. Based on the differences between strain batCoV/MinFul/2018/SriLanka and human-pathogenic α-CoVs and ß-CoVs, we conclude that there is a rather low transmission risk to humans. Further studies in the Wavul Galge cave and at other locations in Sri Lanka will give more detailed information about the prevalence of this virus.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Animals , Caves/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Male , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sri Lanka
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655775

ABSTRACT

Many animal species are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and could act as reservoirs; however, transmission in free-living animals has not been documented. White-tailed deer, the predominant cervid in North America, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and experimentally infected fawns can transmit the virus. To test the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in deer, 283 retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) samples collected from 151 free-living and 132 captive deer in Iowa from April 2020 through January of 2021 were assayed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Ninety-four of the 283 (33.2%) deer samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA as assessed by RT-PCR. Notably, following the November 2020 peak of human cases in Iowa, and coinciding with the onset of winter and the peak deer hunting season, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 80 of 97 (82.5%) RPLN samples collected over a 7-wk period. Whole genome sequencing of all 94 positive RPLN samples identified 12 SARS-CoV-2 lineages, with B.1.2 (n = 51; 54.5%) and B.1.311 (n = 19; 20%) accounting for ∼75% of all samples. The geographic distribution and nesting of clusters of deer and human lineages strongly suggest multiple human-to-deer transmission events followed by subsequent deer-to-deer spread. These discoveries have important implications for the long-term persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Our findings highlight an urgent need for a robust and proactive "One Health" approach to obtain enhanced understanding of the ecology, molecular evolution, and dissemination of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Deer/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625960

ABSTRACT

Bats have been recognized as an exceptional viral reservoir, especially for coronaviruses. At least three bat zoonotic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to cause severe diseases in humans and it is expected more will emerge. One of the major features of CoVs is that they are all highly prone to recombination. An extreme example is the insertion of the P10 gene from reoviruses in the bat CoV GCCDC1, first discovered in Rousettus leschenaultii bats in China. Here, we report the detection of GCCDC1 in four different bat species (Eonycteris spelaea, Cynopterus sphinx, Rhinolophus shameli and Rousettus sp.) in Cambodia. This finding demonstrates a much broader geographic and bat species range for this virus and indicates common cross-species transmission. Interestingly, one of the bat samples showed a co-infection with an Alpha CoV most closely related to RsYN14, a virus recently discovered in the same genus (Rhinolophus) of bat in Yunnan, China, 2020. Taken together, our latest findings highlight the need to conduct active surveillance in bats to assess the risk of emerging CoVs, especially in Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Phylogeography , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/transmission , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny
5.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625756

ABSTRACT

Bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses of global public health significance, including the ancestral virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although bats are natural carriers of multiple pathogenic viruses, they rarely display signs of disease. Recent insights suggest that bats have a more balanced host defense and tolerance system to viral infections that may be linked to the evolutionary adaptation to powered flight. Therefore, a deeper understanding of bat immune system may provide intervention strategies to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and to identify new therapeutic targets. Similar to other eutherian mammals, bats have both innate and adaptive immune systems that have evolved to detect and respond to invading pathogens. Bridging these two systems are innate lymphocytes, which are highly abundant within circulation and barrier tissues. These cells share the characteristics of both innate and adaptive immune cells and are poised to mount rapid effector responses. They are ideally suited as the first line of defense against early stages of viral infections. Here, we will focus on the current knowledge of innate lymphocytes in bats, their function, and their potential role in host-pathogen interactions. Moreover, given that studies into bat immune systems are often hindered by a lack of bat-specific research tools, we will discuss strategies that may aid future research in bat immunity, including the potential use of organoid models to delineate the interplay between innate lymphocytes, bat viruses, and host tolerance.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/pathogenicity
6.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625724

ABSTRACT

Bats are a reservoir for coronaviruses (CoVs) that periodically spill over to humans, as evidenced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. A collection of 174 bat samples originating from South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska submitted for rabies virus testing due to human exposure were analyzed using a pan-coronavirus PCR. A previously partially characterized CoV, Eptesicus bat CoV, was identified in 12 (6.9%) samples by nested RT-PCR. Six near-complete genomes were determined. Genetic analysis found a high similarity between all CoV-positive samples, Rocky Mountain bat CoV 65 and alphacoronavirus HCQD-2020 recently identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences showed EbCoV is closely related to bat CoV HKU2 and swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV; however, topological incongruences were noted for the spike gene that was more closely related to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Similar to some alphaCoVs, a novel gene, ORF7, was discovered downstream of the nucleocapsid, whose protein lacked similarity to known proteins. The widespread circulation of EbCoV with similarities to bat viruses that have spilled over to swine warrants further surveillance.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Phylogeny , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Genome, Viral , Iowa , Midwestern United States , Minnesota , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , South Dakota , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
7.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565872

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009842, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523403

ABSTRACT

Orthohantaviruses are emerging rodent-borne pathogens that cause Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in humans. They have a wide range of rodent reservoir hosts and are transmitted to humans through aerosolized viral particles generated by the excretions of infected individuals. Since the first description of HPS in Argentina, new hantaviruses have been reported throughout the country, most of which are pathogenic to humans. We present here the first HPS case infected with Alto Paraguay virus reported in Argentina. Until now, Alto Paraguay virus was considered a non-pathogenic orthohantavirus since it was identified in a rodent, Holochilus chacarius. In addition to this, with the goal of identifying potential hantavirus host species in the province of Santa Fe, we finally describe a novel orthohantavirus found in the native rodent Scapteromys aquaticus, which differed from other hantaviruses described in the country so far. Our findings implicate an epidemiological warning regarding these new orthohantaviruses circulating in Central Argentina as well as new rodent species that must be considered as hosts from now on.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/virology , Hantavirus/isolation & purification , Sigmodontinae/virology , Adolescent , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Argentina , Female , Hantavirus/classification , Hantavirus/genetics , Humans , Male , Phylogeny , Sigmodontinae/blood
9.
Elife ; 102021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513067

ABSTRACT

Identifying the key vector and host species that drive the transmission of zoonotic pathogens is notoriously difficult but critical for disease control. We present a nested approach for quantifying the importance of host and vectors that integrates species' physiological competence with their ecological traits. We apply this framework to a medically important arbovirus, Ross River virus (RRV), in Brisbane, Australia. We find that vertebrate hosts with high physiological competence are not the most important for community transmission; interactions between hosts and vectors largely underpin the importance of host species. For vectors, physiological competence is highly important. Our results identify primary and secondary vectors of RRV and suggest two potential transmission cycles in Brisbane: an enzootic cycle involving birds and an urban cycle involving humans. The framework accounts for uncertainty from each fitted statistical model in estimates of species' contributions to transmission and has has direct application to other zoonotic pathogens.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/virology , Birds/virology , Culicidae/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors , Ross River virus/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Biological , Queensland , Virulence
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21075, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493212

ABSTRACT

Bats are potential natural reservoirs for emerging viruses, causing deadly human diseases, such as COVID-19, MERS, SARS, Nipah, Hendra, and Ebola infections. The fundamental mechanisms by which bats are considered "living bioreactors" for emerging viruses are not fully understood. Some studies suggest that tolerance to viruses is linked to suppressing antiviral immune and inflammatory responses due to DNA damage by energy generated to fly. Our study reveals that bats' gut bacteria could also be involved in the host and its microbiota's DNA damage. We performed screening of lactic acid bacteria and bacilli isolated from bats' feces for mutagenic and oxidative activity by lux-biosensors. The pro-mutagenic activity was determined when expression of recA increased with the appearance of double-strand breaks in the cell DNA, while an increase of katG expression in the presence of hydroxyl radicals indicated antioxidant activity. We identified that most of the isolated bacteria have pro-mutagenic and antioxidant properties at the same time. This study reveals new insights into bat gut microbiota's potential involvement in antiviral response and opens new frontiers in preventing emerging diseases originating from bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mutagens , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Bacillus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA , DNA Damage , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Feces , Immune System , Inflammation , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Mutagenesis , Oxidative Stress , Rec A Recombinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology
12.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483322

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
13.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481013

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) descriptions of infection and transmission have been increasing in companion animals in the past year. Although canine susceptibility is generally considered low, their role in the COVID-19 disease cycle remains unknown. In this study, we detected and sequenced a delta variant (AY.3) from a 12-year-old Collie living with owners that previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear if the dogs' symptoms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection or underlying conditions. The whole genome sequence obtained from the dog sample had several unique consensus level changes not previously identified in a SARS-CoV-2 genome that may play a role in the rapid adaptation from humans to dogs. Within the spike coding region, 5/7 of the subconsensus variants identified in the dog sequence were also identified in the closest in-house human reference case. Taken together, the whole genome sequence, and phylogenetic and subconsensus variant analyses indicate the virus infecting the animal originated from a local outbreak cluster. The results of these analyses emphasize the importance of rapid detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in companion animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Dogs , Kansas , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing
16.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463828

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to spread with devastating effects on global health and socioeconomics. The susceptibility of domestic and wild animal species to infection is a critical facet of SARS-CoV-2 ecology, since reverse zoonotic spillover events resulting in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Adaptive mutations in the virus to new animal species could also complicate ongoing mitigation strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2. In addition, animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential as standardized preclinical models for the development and efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the susceptibility of different domestic and wild animal species to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide detailed descriptions of the clinical disease and transmissibility in these animals. In addition, we outline the documented natural infections in animals that have occurred at the human-animal interface. A comprehensive understanding of animal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to inform public health, veterinary, and agricultural systems, and to guide environmental policies.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Zoonoses
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(5): 1227-1229, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431020

ABSTRACT

To better understand the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant lineage distribution in a college campus population, we carried out viral genome surveillance over a 7-week period from January to March 2021. Among the sequences were three novel viral variants: BV-1 with a B.1.1.7/20I genetic background and an additional spike mutation Q493R, associated with a mild but longer-than-usual COVID-19 case in a college-age person, BV-2 with a T478K mutation on a 20B genetic background, and BV-3, an apparent recombinant lineage. This work highlights the potential of an undervaccinated younger population as a reservoir for the spread and generation of novel variants. This also demonstrates the value of whole genome sequencing as a routine disease surveillance tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429384

ABSTRACT

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecology , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385266

ABSTRACT

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Immunity , Viral Vaccines/immunology
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110436, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386311

ABSTRACT

Dental professionals work closely with patients and present an increased risk of person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the use of ultrasonic scalers, air-water syringes, and slow and high-speed handpieces, which are common in the dental office, generate spatter and aerosol. The use of preprocedural mouthrinses has been proposed to reduce the viral load in saliva and oropharyngeal tissues, thus decreasing viral load in dental aerosol. Although some mouthrinses demonstrates an antiviral effect, there is limited evidence about the clinical efficacy of any mouthrinse in the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 in the dental aerosol. We hypothesized that mouthrinses may reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the oropharynx and its fluids reducing viral load in dental aerosol. The potential use of mouthrinses is discussed, along with proposal of in vitro and clinical studies, in order to evaluate this hypothesis. If this hypothesis holds true, dental professionals and patients may benefit from the routine use of preprocedural mouthrinses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Aerosols , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dental Auxiliaries , Dentists , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saliva/virology
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