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1.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(3): 569-576, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047706

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), which causes the disease COVID-19, has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major cellular receptor for SARS-CoV2 entry, which is facilitated by viral Spike priming by cellular TMPRSS2. Macrophages play an important role in innate viral defense and are also involved in aberrant immune activation that occurs in COVID-19, and thus direct macrophage infection might contribute to severity of SARS-CoV2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) under in vitro conditions express low-to-undetectable levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and minimal coexpression. Expression of these receptors remained low in MDM induced to different subtypes such as unpolarized, M1 and M2 polarized. Untreated, unpolarized, M1 polarized, and M2 polarized MDM were all resistant to infection with SARS-CoV2 pseudotyped virions. These findings suggest that direct infection of myeloid cells is unlikely to be a major mechanism of SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis. Summary sentence: Monocytes and macrophages express minimal ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and resist SARS-CoV-2 Spike-mediated infection, suggesting direct myeloid cell infection is unlikely a major contributor to pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , Serine Endopeptidases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Resistance , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 844837, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809397

ABSTRACT

In this work, we evaluated recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD)-based vaccine formulation prototypes with potential for further clinical development. We assessed different formulations containing RBD plus alum, AddaS03, AddaVax, or the combination of alum and U-Omp19: a novel Brucella spp. protease inhibitor vaccine adjuvant. Results show that the vaccine formulation composed of U-Omp19 and alum as adjuvants has a better performance: it significantly increased mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in comparison to antigen plus alum, AddaVax, or AddaS03. Antibodies induced with the formulation containing U-Omp19 and alum not only increased their neutralization capacity against the ancestral virus but also cross-neutralized alpha, lambda, and gamma variants with similar potency. Furthermore, the addition of U-Omp19 to alum vaccine formulation increased the frequency of RBD-specific geminal center B cells and plasmablasts. Additionally, U-Omp19+alum formulation induced RBD-specific Th1 and CD8+ T-cell responses in spleens and lungs. Finally, this vaccine formulation conferred protection against an intranasal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenge of K18-hACE2 mice.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Brucella/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Alum Compounds/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/immunology , Brucella/immunology , Disease Resistance , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760489

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of and current demand for abaca (Musa textilis Nee) fiber, there has been limited study that capitalizes on RNA-seq to identify candidate genes associated with high fiber quality and bunchy top virus (AbBTV) resistance. Three varieties (Abuab, Inosa, and Tangongon), one wild banana variety (Musa balbisiana Colla) Pacol, and two developed backcrosses (Abuab × Pacol BC2 and BC3) were grown at the Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB), Laguna, Philippines. The pseudostems of 3-month-old suckers of each genotype were sampled for RNA-seq. Datasets were analyzed for differential expression (DE) implementing various model frameworks, including pairwise, genotypic and non-DE models. Results indicate that Abuab and BC3 induce the highest proportion (70%) of abaca-specific genes. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed several genes associated with cellulose synthase activity, callose synthase, ß-glucosidase activity, glucan biosynthetic process, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed several genes encoding for enzymes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Analysis using genotypic DE (GDE) between abaca bunchy top virus (AbBTV)-resistant and -susceptible groups revealed genes such as pathogenesis-related protein and NBS-LRR. As the genotypes were not infected with the pathogen, these genes are yet to be confirmed for their roles in disease resistance and are an interesting subject for further investigation.


Subject(s)
Musa , Carbohydrates , Dietary Fiber , Disease Resistance/genetics , Musa/genetics , Plant Breeding , RNA-Seq
4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(6): e0048221, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731255

ABSTRACT

Preexisting immunity to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was nonexistent in humans, which coupled with high transmission rates of certain SARS-CoV-2 variants and limited vaccine uptake or availability, has collectively resulted in an ongoing global pandemic. The identification and establishment of one or multiple correlates of protection (CoP) against infectious pathogens is challenging, but beneficial from both the patient care and public health perspectives. Multiple studies have shown that neutralizing antibodies, whether generated following SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination, or a combination of both (i.e., hybrid immunity), as well as adaptive cellular immune responses, serve as CoPs for COVID-19. However, the diverse number and type of serologic assays, alongside the lack of cross-assay standardization and emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants with immune evasive characteristics, have collectively posed challenges to determining a robust CoP 'threshold' and for the routine utilization of these assays to document 'immunity,' as is commonly done for other vaccine preventable diseases. Here, we discuss what CoPs are, review our current understanding of infection-induced, vaccine-elicited and hybrid immunity to COVID-19 and summarize the current and potential future utility of SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Resistance , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Resistance/immunology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
5.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001510, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592147

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects a broader range of mammalian species than previously predicted, binding a diversity of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) orthologs despite extensive sequence divergence. Within this sequence degeneracy, we identify a rare sequence combination capable of conferring SARS-CoV-2 resistance. We demonstrate that this sequence was likely unattainable during human evolution due to deleterious effects on ACE2 carboxypeptidase activity, which has vasodilatory and cardioprotective functions in vivo. Across the 25 ACE2 sites implicated in viral binding, we identify 6 amino acid substitutions unique to mouse-one of the only known mammalian species resistant to SARS-CoV-2. Substituting human variants at these positions is sufficient to confer binding of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to mouse ACE2, facilitating cellular infection. Conversely, substituting mouse variants into either human or dog ACE2 abolishes viral binding, diminishing cellular infection. However, these same substitutions decrease human ACE2 activity by 50% and are predicted as pathogenic, consistent with the extreme rarity of human polymorphisms at these sites. This trade-off can be avoided, however, depending on genetic background; if substituted simultaneously, these same mutations have no deleterious effect on dog ACE2 nor that of the rodent ancestor estimated to exist 70 million years ago. This genetic contingency (epistasis) may have therefore opened the road to resistance for some species, while making humans susceptible to viruses that use these ACE2 surfaces for binding, as does SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Epistasis, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acids , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Frequency , Humans , Hydrolysis , Mice , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment
6.
J Immunol ; 208(1): 74-84, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534334

ABSTRACT

ORAI1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) are the critical mediators of store-operated Ca2+ entry by acting as the pore subunit and an endoplasmic reticulum-resident signaling molecule, respectively. In addition to Ca2+ signaling, STIM1 is also involved in regulation of the type I IFN (IFN-I) response. To examine their potential role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we generated ORAI1 and STIM1 knockout human HEK293-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cells and checked their responses. STIM1 knockout cells showed strong resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection as a result of enhanced IFN-I response. On the contrary, ORAI1 deletion induced high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mechanistically, ORAI1 knockout cells showed reduced homeostatic cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and severe impairment in tonic IFN-I signaling. Transcriptome analysis showed downregulation of multiple antiviral signaling pathways in ORAI1 knockout cells, likely because of reduced expression of the Ca2+-dependent transcription factors of the AP-1 family and MEF2C Accordingly, modulation of homeostatic Ca2+ concentration by pretreatment with ORAI1 blocker or agonist could influence baseline IFNB expression and resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a human lung epithelial cell line. Our results identify a novel role of ORAI1-mediated Ca2+ signaling in regulating the tonic IFN-I levels, which determine host resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , ORAI1 Protein/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/metabolism , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Calcium Signaling , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Disease Resistance , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , MEF2 Transcription Factors/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , ORAI1 Protein/genetics , Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics
7.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 159-164, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475313

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections display tremendous interindividual variability, ranging from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening disease. Inborn errors of, and autoantibodies directed against, type I interferons (IFNs) account for about 20% of critical COVID-19 cases among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. By contrast, the genetic and immunological determinants of resistance to infection per se remain unknown. Following the discovery that autosomal recessive deficiency in the DARC chemokine receptor confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax, autosomal recessive deficiencies of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the enzyme FUT2 were shown to underlie resistance to HIV-1 and noroviruses, respectively. Along the same lines, we propose a strategy for identifying, recruiting, and genetically analyzing individuals who are naturally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Phenotype , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2399-2404, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450887

ABSTRACT

Immunity to pulmonary infection typically requires elicitation of lung-resident T cells that subsequently confer protection against secondary infection. The presence of tissue-resident T cells in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) convalescent patients is unknown. Using a sublethal mouse model of coronavirus disease 2019, we determined if SARS-CoV-2 infection potentiated Ag-specific pulmonary resident CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and if these cells mediated protection against secondary infection. S protein-specific T cells were present in resident and circulating populations. However, M and N protein-specific T cells were detected only in the resident T cell pool. Using an adoptive transfer strategy, we found that T cells from SARS-CoV-2 immune animals did not protect naive mice. These data indicate that resident T cells are elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection but are not sufficient for protective immunity.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adoptive Transfer , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Resistance , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(12): 791-792, 2020 12.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450745
10.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(5): e13102, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434833

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 infection, reduced function of natural killer (NK) cells can lead to both compromised viral clearance and dysregulation of the immune response. Such dysregulation leads to overproduction of cytokines, a raised neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and monocytosis. This in turn increases IL-6 expression, which promotes scar and thrombus formation. Excess IL-6 also leads to a further reduction in NK function through downregulation of perforin expression, therefore forming a pathogenic auto-inflammatory feedback loop. The perforin/granzyme system of cytotoxicity is the main mechanism through which NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate virally infected host cells, as well as being central to their role in regulating immune responses to microbial infection. Here, we present epidemiological evidence suggesting an association between perforin expression and resistance to COVID-19. In addition, we outline the manner in which a pathogenic auto-inflammatory feedback loop could operate and the relationship of this loop to genes associated with severe COVID-19. Such an auto-inflammatory loop may be amenable to synergistic multimodal therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Perforin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Autoimmunity/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Disease Resistance , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Perforin/genetics
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105075, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401708

ABSTRACT

T-cell-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides in individuals unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 has been previously reported. This pre-existing immunity was suggested to largely derive from prior exposure to 'common cold' endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs). To test this, we characterised the sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2-derived T-cell epitopes reported in the literature across the full proteome of the Coronaviridae family. 54.8% of these epitopes had no homology to any of the HCoVs. Further, the proportion of SARS-CoV-2-derived epitopes with any level of sequence homology to the proteins encoded by any of the coronaviruses tested is well-predicted by their alignment-free phylogenetic distance to SARS-CoV-2 (Pearson's r = -0.958). No coronavirus in our dataset showed a significant excess of T-cell epitope homology relative to the proportion of expected random matches, given their genetic similarity to SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that prior exposure to human or animal-associated coronaviruses cannot completely explain the T-cell repertoire in unexposed individuals that recognise SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive epitopes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronaviridae/immunology , Disease Resistance , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Eutheria/virology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(5): 1176-1191, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly among persons of similar age and is higher in males. Age-independent, sex-biased differences in susceptibility to severe COVID-19 may be ascribable to deficits in a sexually dimorphic protective attribute that we termed immunologic resilience (IR). OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether deficits in IR that antedate or are induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection independently predict COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: IR levels were quantified with 2 novel metrics: immune health grades (IHG-I [best] to IHG-IV) to gauge CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell count equilibrium, and blood gene expression signatures. IR metrics were examined in a prospective COVID-19 cohort (n = 522); primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Associations of IR metrics with outcomes in non-COVID-19 cohorts (n = 13,461) provided the framework for linking pre-COVID-19 IR status to IR during COVID-19, as well as to COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: IHG-I, tracking high-grade equilibrium between CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell counts, was the most common grade (73%) among healthy adults, particularly in females. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with underrepresentation of IHG-I (21%) versus overrepresentation (77%) of IHG-II or IHG-IV, especially in males versus females (P < .01). Presentation with IHG-I was associated with 88% lower mortality, after controlling for age and sex; reduced risk of hospitalization and respiratory failure; lower plasma IL-6 levels; rapid clearance of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 burden; and gene expression signatures correlating with survival that signify immunocompetence and controlled inflammation. In non-COVID-19 cohorts, IR-preserving metrics were associated with resistance to progressive influenza or HIV infection, as well as lower 9-year mortality in the Framingham Heart Study, especially in females. CONCLUSIONS: Preservation of immunocompetence with controlled inflammation during antigenic challenges is a hallmark of IR and associates with longevity and AIDS resistance. Independent of age, a male-biased proclivity to degrade IR before and/or during SARS-CoV-2 infection predisposes to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Disease Resistance , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Interleukin-6/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 712722, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394761

ABSTRACT

The activating immune receptor natural killer group member D (NKG2D) and its cognate ligands represent a fundamental surveillance system of cellular distress, damage or transformation. Signaling through the NKG2D receptor-ligand axis is critical for early detection of viral infection or oncogenic transformation and the presence of functional NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) is associated with tumor rejection and viral clearance. Many viruses and tumors have developed mechanisms to evade NKG2D recognition via transcriptional, post-transcriptional or post-translational interference with NKG2D-L, supporting the concept that circumventing immune evasion of the NKG2D receptor-ligand axis may be an attractive therapeutic avenue for antiviral therapy or cancer immunotherapy. To date, the complexity of the NKG2D receptor-ligand axis and the lack of specificity of current NKG2D-targeting therapies has not allowed for the precise manipulation required to optimally harness NKG2D-mediated immunity. However, with the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, novel opportunities have arisen in the realm of locus-specific gene editing and regulation. Here, we give a brief overview of the NKG2D receptor-ligand axis in humans and discuss the levels at which NKG2D-L are regulated and dysregulated during viral infection and oncogenesis. Moreover, we explore the potential for CRISPR-based technologies to provide novel therapeutic avenues to improve and maximize NKG2D-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , Disease Resistance , Disease Susceptibility , Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Ligands , Neoplasms/etiology , Protein Binding , Virus Diseases/etiology
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 660019, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389181

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of a recent pandemic that has led to more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Most individuals are asymptomatic or display mild symptoms, which raises an inherent question as to how does the immune response differs from patients manifesting severe disease? During the initial phase of infection, dysregulated effector immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, megakaryocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid progenitor cells, and Th17 cells can alter the trajectory of an infected patient to severe disease. On the other hand, properly functioning CD4+, CD8+ cells, NK cells, and DCs reduce the disease severity. Detailed understanding of the immune response of convalescent individuals transitioning from the effector phase to the immunogenic memory phase can provide vital clues to understanding essential variables to assess vaccine-induced protection. Although neutralizing antibodies can wane over time, long-lasting B and T memory cells can persist in recovered individuals. The natural immunological memory captures the diverse repertoire of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes after natural infection whereas, currently approved vaccines are based on a single epitope, spike protein. It is essential to understand the nature of the immune response to natural infection to better identify 'correlates of protection' against this disease. This article discusses recent findings regarding immune response against natural infection to SARS-CoV-2 and the nature of immunogenic memory. More precise knowledge of the acute phase of immune response and its transition to immunological memory will contribute to the future design of vaccines and the identification of variables essential to maintain immune protection across diverse populations.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Disease Resistance , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory
15.
Cell ; 181(6): 1194-1199, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385209

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection displays immense inter-individual clinical variability, ranging from silent infection to lethal disease. The role of human genetics in determining clinical response to the virus remains unclear. Studies of outliers-individuals remaining uninfected despite viral exposure and healthy young patients with life-threatening disease-present a unique opportunity to reveal human genetic determinants of infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Resistance , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infections/genetics , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344938

ABSTRACT

Adaptation of organisms to stressors is coordinated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), which involves glucocorticoids (GCs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Although the effects of GCs are well characterized, their impact on brain adaptation to hypoxia/ischemia is still understudied. The brain is not only the most susceptible to hypoxic injury, but also vulnerable to GC-induced damage, which makes studying the mechanisms of brain hypoxic tolerance and resistance to stress-related elevation of GCs of great importance. Cross-talk between the molecular mechanisms activated in neuronal cells by hypoxia and GCs provides a platform for developing the most effective and safe means for prevention and treatment of hypoxia-induced brain damage, including hypoxic pre- and post-conditioning. Taking into account that hypoxia- and GC-induced reprogramming significantly affects the development of organisms during embryogenesis, studies of the effects of prenatal and neonatal hypoxia on health in later life are of particular interest. This mini review discusses the accumulated data on the dynamics of the HPA activation in injurious and non-injurious hypoxia, the role of the brain GRs in these processes, interaction of GCs and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1, as well as cross-talk between GC and hypoxic signaling. It also identifies underdeveloped areas and suggests directions for further prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Disease Resistance , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypoxia, Brain/metabolism , Ischemic Preconditioning , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/pathology , Hypoxia, Brain/prevention & control , Pituitary-Adrenal System/pathology
18.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327309

ABSTRACT

Bats are attracting the greatest attention recently as a putative reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, less known to the public, bats also have several unique traits of high value to human health. The lessons we learn from bats can potentially help us fight many human diseases, including infection, aging, and cancer.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/physiology , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Resistance/physiology , Animals , Animals, Laboratory , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Humans
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299445

ABSTRACT

Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant that interacts with activated proteases of the coagulation system and with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the surface of cells. The protein, which is synthesized in the liver, is also essential to confer the effects of therapeutic heparin. However, AT levels drop in systemic inflammatory diseases. The reason for this decline is consumption by the coagulation system but also by immunological processes. Aside from the primarily known anticoagulant effects, AT elicits distinct anti-inflammatory signaling responses. It binds to structures of the glycocalyx (syndecan-4) and further modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells and leukocytes by interacting with surface receptors. Additionally, AT exerts direct antimicrobial effects: depending on AT glycosylation it can bind to and perforate bacterial cell walls. Peptide fragments derived from proteolytic degradation of AT exert antibacterial properties. Despite these promising characteristics, therapeutic supplementation in inflammatory conditions has not proven to be effective in randomized control trials. Nevertheless, new insights provided by subgroup analyses and retrospective trials suggest that a recommendation be made to identify the patient population that would benefit most from AT substitution. Recent experiment findings place the role of various AT isoforms in the spotlight. This review provides an overview of new insights into a supposedly well-known molecule.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/pharmacology , Disease Resistance/drug effects , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/pathology , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(5): e1009229, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239922

ABSTRACT

While MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus) provokes a lethal disease in humans, camelids, the main virus reservoir, are asymptomatic carriers, suggesting a crucial role for innate immune responses in controlling the infection. Experimentally infected camelids clear infectious virus within one week and mount an effective adaptive immune response. Here, transcription of immune response genes was monitored in the respiratory tract of MERS-CoV infected alpacas. Concomitant to the peak of infection, occurring at 2 days post inoculation (dpi), type I and III interferons (IFNs) were maximally transcribed only in the nasal mucosa of alpacas, while interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) were induced along the whole respiratory tract. Simultaneous to mild focal infiltration of leukocytes in nasal mucosa and submucosa, upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 and dampened transcription of pro-inflammatory genes under NF-κB control were observed. In the lung, early (1 dpi) transcription of chemokines (CCL2 and CCL3) correlated with a transient accumulation of mainly mononuclear leukocytes. A tight regulation of IFNs in lungs with expression of ISGs and controlled inflammatory responses, might contribute to virus clearance without causing tissue damage. Thus, the nasal mucosa, the main target of MERS-CoV in camelids, seems central in driving an efficient innate immune response based on triggering ISGs as well as the dual anti-inflammatory effects of type III IFNs and IL10.


Subject(s)
Camelids, New World , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Camelids, New World/immunology , Camelids, New World/metabolism , Camelids, New World/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Resistance/drug effects , Disease Resistance/genetics , Disease Resistance/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/veterinary , Inflammation/virology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Interferon Lambda
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