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1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 256-266, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women have been identified as a potentially at-risk group concerning COVID-19 infection, but little is known regarding the susceptibility of the fetus to infection. Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 has been identified as a prerequisite for infection, and expression across different tissues is known to vary between children and adults. However, the expression of these proteins in the fetus is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a single cell data repository. The data were then validated at both gene and protein level by performing RT-qPCR and two-colour immunohistochemistry on a library of second-trimester human fetal tissues. FINDINGS: TMPRSS2 is present at both gene and protein level in the predominantly epithelial fetal tissues analysed. ACE2 is present at significant levels only in the fetal intestine and kidney, and is not expressed in the fetal lung. The placenta also does not co-express the two proteins across the second trimester or at term. INTERPRETATION: This dataset indicates that the lungs are unlikely to be a viable route of SARS-CoV2 fetal infection. The fetal kidney, despite presenting both the proteins required for the infection, is anatomically protected from the exposure to the virus. However, the gastrointestinal tract is likely to be susceptible to infection due to its high co-expression of both proteins, as well as its exposure to potentially infected amniotic fluid. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This work provides detailed mechanistic insight into the relative protection & vulnerabilities of the fetus & placenta to SARS-CoV-2 infection by scRNAseq & protein expression analysis for ACE2 & TMPRSS2. The findings help to explain the low rate of vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Profiling , Placenta/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Female , Fetal Research , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Testing/methods , Gestational Age , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Ribonucleoproteins, Small Cytoplasmic/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1357, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655613

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus and an etiologic agent for the current global health emergency, causes acute infection of the respiratory tract leading to severe disease and significant mortality. Ever since the start of SARS-CoV-2, also known as the COVID-19 pandemic, countless uncertainties have been revolving around the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. While air pollution has been shown to be strongly correlated to increased SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality, whether environmental pollutants such as ground-level ozone affects the susceptibility of individuals to SARS-CoV-2 is not yet established. To investigate the impact of ozone inhalation on the expression levels of signatures associated with host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed lung tissues collected from mice that were sub-chronically exposed to air or 0.8 ppm ozone for three weeks (4 h/night, 5 nights/week), and analyzed the expression of signatures associated with host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells is dependent on the binding of the virus to the host cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), and its subsequent proteolytic priming by the host-derived protease, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). The Ace2 transcripts were significantly elevated in the parenchyma, but not in the extrapulmonary airways and alveolar macrophages, from ozone-exposed mice. The TMPRSS2 protein and Tmprss2 transcripts were significantly elevated in the extrapulmonary airways, parenchyma, and alveolar macrophages from ozone-exposed mice. A significant proportion of additional known SARS-CoV-2 host susceptibility genes were upregulated in alveolar macrophages and parenchyma from ozone-exposed mice. Our data indicate that the unhealthy levels of ozone in the environment may predispose individuals to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the severity of this pandemic and the challenges associated with direct testing of host-environment interactions in clinical settings, we believe that this ozone exposure-based study informs the scientific community of the potentially detrimental effects of the ambient ozone levels in determining the host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Ozone/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/chemically induced , Disease Susceptibility/chemically induced , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Mice
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of fasting on immunity is unclear. Prolonged fasting is thought to increase the risk of infection due to dehydration. This study describes antibiotic prescribing patterns before, during, and after Ramadan in a primary care setting within the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in the UK, most of whom are Muslims, compared to those who do not observe Ramadan. METHOD: Retrospective controlled interrupted time series analysis of electronic health record data from primary care practices. The study consists of two groups: Pakistanis/Bangladeshis and white populations. For each group, we constructed a series of aggregated, daily prescription data from 2007 to 2017 for the 30 days preceding, during, and after Ramadan, respectively. FINDINGS: Controlling for the rate in the white population, there was no evidence of increased antibiotic prescription in the Pakistani/Bangladeshi population during Ramadan, as compared to before Ramadan (IRR: 0.994; 95% CI: 0.988-1.001, p = 0.082) or after Ramadan (IRR: 1.006; 95% CI: 0.999-1.013, p = 0.082). INTERPRETATION: In this large, population-based study, we did not find any evidence to suggest that fasting was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Fasting/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Arabs , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Islam , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care/trends , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533885

ABSTRACT

Host genomic information, specifically genomic variations, may characterize susceptibility to disease and identify people with a higher risk of harm, leading to better targeting of care and vaccination. Italy was the epicentre for the spread of COVID-19 in Europe, the first country to go into a national lockdown and has one of the highest COVID-19 associated mortality rates. Qatar, on the other hand has a very low mortality rate. In this study, we compared whole-genome sequencing data of 14398 adults and Qatari-national to 925 Italian individuals. We also included in the comparison whole-exome sequence data from 189 Italian laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. We focused our study on a curated list of 3619 candidate genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction. Two population-gene metric scores, the Delta Singleton-Cohort variant score (DSC) and Sum Singleton-Cohort variant score (SSC), were applied to estimate the presence of selective constraints in the Qatari population and in the Italian cohorts. Results based on DSC and SSC metrics demonstrated a different selective pressure on three genes (MUC5AC, ABCA7, FLNA) between Qatari and Italian populations. This study highlighted the genetic differences between Qatari and Italian populations and identified a subset of genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Adult , Alleles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Exome/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology , Genetics, Population , Genomics/methods , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Exome Sequencing/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
5.
Microbes Infect ; 23(2-3): 104780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039496

ABSTRACT

This review portrays the metabolic consequences of Covid-19 infection at different stages of the clinical syndrome. It also describes how events can change when patients with metabolic problems are infected and the effects that diet and nutrition might play to influence the outcome of infection. We also discuss the types of maneuvers that could be used to reshape metabolic events and question if this approach could be a practical therapy used alone or in combination with other approaches to reduce the burden of Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Diet , Disease Susceptibility/complications , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility/pathology , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/immunology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Obesity/complications , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(7): 1209-1220, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-109007

ABSTRACT

To analyze the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy and the drugs that can be used to treat pregnancy with COVID-19, so as to provide evidence for drug selection in clinic. By reviewing the existing literature, this paper analyzes the susceptibility of pregnant women to virus, especially to SARS-CoV-2, from the aspects of anatomical, reproductive endocrine and immune changes during pregnancy and screens effective and fetal-safe treatments from the existing drugs. The anatomical structure of the respiratory system is changed during pregnancy, and the virus transmitted by droplets and aerosols is more easily inhaled by pregnant women and is difficult to remove. Furthermore, the prognosis is worse after infection when compared with non-pregnancy women. And changes in reproductive hormones and immune systems during pregnancy collectively make them more susceptible to certain infections. More importantly, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, has been proven highly increased during pregnancy, which may contribute to the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. When it comes to treatment, specific drugs for COVID-19 have not been found at present, and taking old drugs for new use in treating COVID-19 has become an emergency method for the pandemic. Particularly, drugs that show superior maternal and fetal safety are worthy of consideration for pregnant women with COVID-19, such as chloroquine, metformin, statins, lobinavir/ritonavir, glycyrrhizic acid, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery (NMDD), etc. Pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19, and special attention should be paid to the selection of drugs that are both effective for maternal diseases and friendly to the fetus. However, there are still many deficiencies in the study of drug safety during pregnancy, and broad-spectrum, effective and fetal-safe drugs for pregnant women need to be developed so as to cope with more infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy/physiology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basal Metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Functional Residual Capacity , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles , Oxygen Consumption , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy/immunology , Pregnancy/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Progesterone/metabolism , Prognosis , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio
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