Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(1): 19-21, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861001

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies to examine whether HIV predisposes to a higher incidence of COVID-19 or more severe disease are accumulating. Initial studies from New York City suggested more severe disease among people living with HIV (PLWH), but this was during a time when hospitals were over-capacity and health systems stretched. This report presents the incidence and outcomes among PLWH with COVID-19 in San Francisco over the first 6 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Community transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in San Francisco on March 5, 2020. This report examines the match of the San Francisco Department of Public Health COVID-19 testing database and the San Francisco Department of Public Health HIV Surveillance case registry from March 24, 2020, to September 3, 2020. RESULTS: Among 4252 COVID-19 tests performed among PLWH, 4.5% (N = 193) were positive for COVID-19, compared with a 3.5% (N = 9626) positivity rate among the 272,555 people without HIV tested for COVID-19 (P < 0.001). The mean age of those infected with HIV/COVID-19 was 48 years (20-76), 38.9% White, 38.3% Latinx, 11.9% Black, and 91.2% were men. Only 54.6% of coinfected PLWH were housed, with the remainder marginally housed. The rate of severe illness with COVID-19 was not increased among PLWH. DISCUSSION: In San Francisco, susceptibility to COVID-19 was increased among PLWH over the first 6 months of the pandemic, although clinical outcomes were similar to those without HIV. Homelessness and higher rates of congregate living situations among PLWH likely accounted for this disparity. Special efforts to house patients with marginal housing during the COVID-19 pandemic are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Homeless Persons , Housing , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Neuromolecular Med ; 23(4): 561-571, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525619

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, which causes COVID-19, is particularly devastating for individuals with chronic medical conditions, in particular those with Down Syndrome (DS) who often exhibit a higher prevalence of respiratory tract infections, immune dysregulation and potential complications. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is much higher in DS than in the general population, possibly increasing further the risk of COVID-19 infection and its complications. Here we provide a biological overview with regard to specific susceptibility of individuals with DS to SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as data from a recent survey on the prevalence of COVID-19 among them. We see an urgent need to protect people with DS, especially those with AD, from COVID-19 and future pandemics and focus on developing protective measures, which also include interventions by health systems worldwide for reducing the negative social effects of long-term isolation and increased periods of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune System/abnormalities , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5876-5884, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451047

ABSTRACT

The risk stratification of young adults between subjects who will develop a mild form COVID-19 and subjects who will undergo a severe disease remains inaccurate. In this review, we propose that the Barker hypothesis might explain the increased susceptibility to severe forms of COVID-19 in subjects who underwent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this paper evidence indicating an association between a low birth weight and an adult phenotype which might favor a severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection are presented: lower lung functional capacity; increased respiratory morbidity; changes in fibrinogen and Factor VII serum levels and dysregulation of the hemostasis and thrombosis system; acquisition of a pro-thrombotic phenotype; low nephron number, with decreased ability to sustain renal function and increased renal morbidity; heart remodeling, with a less efficient cardiac function; endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for the insurgence of the multiple organ failure; remodeling of arteries, with changes in the elastic properties of the arterial wall, predisposing to the insurgence and progression of atherosclerosis; dysfunction of the innate immune system, a risk factor for immune diseases in adulthood. These data suggest that young and adult subjects born too small (IUGR) or too early (pre-terms) might represent a subgroup of "at risk subjects", more susceptible toward severe forms of COVID-19. Given that LBW may be considered a surrogate of IUGR, this phenotypic marker should be included among the indispensable clinical data collected in every patient presenting with SARS-COV-2 infection, irrespectively of his/her age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Fetal Development , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4585-4591, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263090

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China at the end of 2019, the virus has spread rapidly across the globe leading to millions of infections and subsequent deaths. Although the virus infects those exposed indiscriminately, there are groups in society at an increased risk of severe infection, leading to increased morbidity. Patients suffering from hematological cancers, particularly leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma, may be one such group and previous studies have suggested that they may be at a three to four times greater risk of severe COVID-19 after SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to admissions to ICU, mechanical ventilation, and death compared to those without such malignancies. Serological testing for IgG seroconversion has been extensively studied in the immunocompetent, but fewer publications have characterized this process in large series of immunocompromised patients. This study described 20 patients with hematological cancers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via PCR with 12 of the patients receiving further serological testing. We found that of the 12 patients screened for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, only 2 (16.6%) were able to generate an immune response to the infection. Yet despite this low seroconversion rate in this cohort, none of these patients died or became particularly unwell with COVID-19 or its related complications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion
6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(8): e29075, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248707

ABSTRACT

We surveyed published papers and an international sickle cell disease (SCD) registry to detect susceptibility and clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in SCD patients. COVID-19 presentation was mild in children and moderate in many SCD adults. Regarding increased comorbidities with age, it seems severe COVID-19 to be more common in older SCD patients. Although the overall outcome of COVID-19 was favorable in SCD children, a high rate of pediatric intensive care unit admission should be considered in managing these patients. To explain COVID-19 outcome in SCD patients, the possible benefits of hydroxyurea therapy could be considered. The obtained results should be interpreted, considering low cases from sub-Saharan people, younger age of SCD patients compared to general population, a bias toward registry of the more severe form of disease, the effect of pre-existing comorbidities with multisystem organ damage, and the role of health socio-economic determinants.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Anemia, Sickle Cell/pathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Disease Susceptibility/mortality , Disease Susceptibility/pathology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Int Rev Immunol ; 40(1-2): 5-53, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections are responsible for mild, moderate, and severe infections in birds and mammals. These were first isolated in humans as causal microorganisms responsible for common cold. The 2002-2003 SARS epidemic caused by SARS-CoV and 2012 MERS epidemic (64 countries affected) caused by MERS-CoV showed their acute and fatal side. These two CoV infections killed thousands of patients infected worldwide. However, WHO has still reported the MERS case in December 2019 in middle-eastern country (Saudi Arabia), indicating the MERS epidemic has not ended completely yet. Although we have not yet understood completely these two CoV epidemics, a third most dangerous and severe CoV infection has been originated in the Wuhan city, Hubei district of China in December 2019. This CoV infection called COVID-19 or SARS-CoV2 infection has now spread to 210 countries and territories around the world. COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It has infected more than 16.69 million people with more than 663,540 deaths across the world. Thus the current manuscript aims to describe all three (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19) in terms of their causal organisms (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2), similarities and differences in their clinical symptoms, outcomes, immunology, and immunopathogenesis, and possible future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coronaviridae/ultrastructure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Virus Replication/physiology
8.
Adv Virus Res ; 110: 59-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172111

ABSTRACT

Within only one year after the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), nearly 100 million infections were reported in the human population globally, with more than two million fatal cases. While SARS-CoV-2 most likely originated from a natural wildlife reservoir, neither the immediate viral precursor nor the reservoir or intermediate hosts have been identified conclusively. Due to its zoonotic origin, SARS-CoV-2 may also be relevant to animals. Thus, to evaluate the host range of the virus and to assess the risk to act as potential animal reservoir, a large number of different animal species were experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 or monitored in the field in the last months. In this review, we provide an update on studies describing permissive and resistant animal species. Using a scoring system based on viral genome detection subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 inoculation, seroconversion, the development of clinical signs and transmission to conspecifics or humans, the susceptibility of diverse animal species was classified on a semi-quantitative scale. While major livestock species such as pigs, cattle and poultry are mostly resistant, companion animals appear moderately susceptible, while several model animal species used in research, including several Cricetidae species and non-human primates, are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. By natural infections, it became obvious that American minks (Neovison vison) in fur farms, e.g., in the Netherlands and Denmark are highly susceptible resulting in local epidemics in these animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , Models, Animal , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4585-4591, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162824

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China at the end of 2019, the virus has spread rapidly across the globe leading to millions of infections and subsequent deaths. Although the virus infects those exposed indiscriminately, there are groups in society at an increased risk of severe infection, leading to increased morbidity. Patients suffering from hematological cancers, particularly leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma, may be one such group and previous studies have suggested that they may be at a three to four times greater risk of severe COVID-19 after SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to admissions to ICU, mechanical ventilation, and death compared to those without such malignancies. Serological testing for IgG seroconversion has been extensively studied in the immunocompetent, but fewer publications have characterized this process in large series of immunocompromised patients. This study described 20 patients with hematological cancers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via PCR with 12 of the patients receiving further serological testing. We found that of the 12 patients screened for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, only 2 (16.6%) were able to generate an immune response to the infection. Yet despite this low seroconversion rate in this cohort, none of these patients died or became particularly unwell with COVID-19 or its related complications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion
10.
Br J Nutr ; 125(8): 851-862, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123111

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recognised by the WHO as a pandemic in 2020. Host preparation to combat the virus is an important strategy to avoid COVID-19 severity. Thus, the relationship between eating habits, nutritional status and their effects on the immune response and further implications in viral respiratory infections is an important topic discussed in this review. Malnutrition causes the most diverse alterations in the immune system, suppressing of the immune response and increasing the susceptibility to infections such as SARS-CoV-2. On the other hand, obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation caused by excess adiposity, which increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. It decreases the immune response favouring SARS-CoV-2 virulence and promoting respiratory distress syndrome. The present review highlights the importance of food choices considering their inflammatory effects, consequently increasing the viral susceptibility observed in malnutrition and obesity. Healthy eating habits, micronutrients, bioactive compounds and probiotics are strategies for COVID-19 prevention. Therefore, a diversified and balanced diet can contribute to the improvement of the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Diet, Healthy/methods , Disease Susceptibility/physiopathology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Humans , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/virology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/virology
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(1): 19-21, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies to examine whether HIV predisposes to a higher incidence of COVID-19 or more severe disease are accumulating. Initial studies from New York City suggested more severe disease among people living with HIV (PLWH), but this was during a time when hospitals were over-capacity and health systems stretched. This report presents the incidence and outcomes among PLWH with COVID-19 in San Francisco over the first 6 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Community transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in San Francisco on March 5, 2020. This report examines the match of the San Francisco Department of Public Health COVID-19 testing database and the San Francisco Department of Public Health HIV Surveillance case registry from March 24, 2020, to September 3, 2020. RESULTS: Among 4252 COVID-19 tests performed among PLWH, 4.5% (N = 193) were positive for COVID-19, compared with a 3.5% (N = 9626) positivity rate among the 272,555 people without HIV tested for COVID-19 (P < 0.001). The mean age of those infected with HIV/COVID-19 was 48 years (20-76), 38.9% White, 38.3% Latinx, 11.9% Black, and 91.2% were men. Only 54.6% of coinfected PLWH were housed, with the remainder marginally housed. The rate of severe illness with COVID-19 was not increased among PLWH. DISCUSSION: In San Francisco, susceptibility to COVID-19 was increased among PLWH over the first 6 months of the pandemic, although clinical outcomes were similar to those without HIV. Homelessness and higher rates of congregate living situations among PLWH likely accounted for this disparity. Special efforts to house patients with marginal housing during the COVID-19 pandemic are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Homeless Persons , Housing , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20367, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940865

ABSTRACT

We combine COVID-19 case data with mobility data to estimate a modified susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model in the United States. In contrast to a standard SIR model, we find that the incidence of COVID-19 spread is concave in the number of infectious individuals, as would be expected if people have inter-related social networks. This concave shape has a significant impact on forecasted COVID-19 cases. In particular, our model forecasts that the number of COVID-19 cases would only have an exponential growth for a brief period at the beginning of the contagion event or right after a reopening, but would quickly settle into a prolonged period of time with stable, slightly declining levels of disease spread. This pattern is consistent with observed levels of COVID-19 cases in the US, but inconsistent with standard SIR modeling. We forecast rates of new cases for COVID-19 under different social distancing norms and find that if social distancing is eliminated there will be a massive increase in the cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Humidity , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Quarantine/methods , Temperature , United States/epidemiology
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 3074-3076, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940168

ABSTRACT

We challenged chickens, turkeys, ducks, quail, and geese with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We observed no disease and detected no virus replication and no serum antibodies. We concluded that poultry are unlikely to serve a role in maintenance of either virus.


Subject(s)
Anseriformes , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Galliformes , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Poultry Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Ducks , Geese , Virus Replication
15.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(4): e2196, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932481

ABSTRACT

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has been rapidly spreading worldwide, causing serious global concern. The role that animal hosts play in disease transmission is still understudied and researchers wish to find suitable animal models for fundamental research and drug discovery. In this systematic review, we aimed to compile and discuss all articles that describe experimental or natural infections with SARS-CoV-2, from the initial discovery of the virus in December 2019 through to October 2020. We systematically searched four databases (Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science). The following data were extracted from the included studies: type of infection (natural or experimental), age, sample numbers, dose, route of inoculation, viral replication, detection method, clinical symptoms and transmission. Fifty-four studies were included, of which 34 were conducted on animal reservoirs (naturally or experimentally infected), and 20 involved models for testing vaccines and therapeutics. Our search revealed that Rousettus aegyptiacus (fruit bats), pangolins, felines, mink, ferrets and rabbits were all susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, while dogs were weakly susceptible and pigs, poultry, and tree shrews were not. In addition, virus replication in mice, mink, hamsters and ferrets resembled subclinical human infection, so these animals might serve as useful models for future studies to evaluate vaccines or antiviral agents and to study host-pathogen interactions. Our review comprehensively summarized current evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and their usefulness as models for studying vaccines and antiviral drugs. Our findings may direct future studies for vaccine development, antiviral drugs and therapeutic agents to manage SARS-CoV-2-caused diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Reservoirs/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 2982-2985, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890311

ABSTRACT

Raccoon dogs might have been intermediate hosts for severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in 2002-2004. We demonstrated susceptibility of raccoon dogs to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and transmission to in-contact animals. Infected animals had no signs of illness. Virus replication and tissue lesions occurred in the nasal conchae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Pandemics , Raccoon Dogs/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Zoonoses , Virus Shedding
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26915-26925, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851432

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic coronaviruses represent an ongoing threat, yet the myriads of circulating animal viruses complicate the identification of higher-risk isolates that threaten human health. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly discovered, highly pathogenic virus that likely evolved from closely related HKU2 bat coronaviruses, circulating in Rhinolophus spp. bats in China and elsewhere. As coronaviruses cause severe economic losses in the pork industry and swine are key intermediate hosts of human disease outbreaks, we synthetically resurrected a recombinant virus (rSADS-CoV) as well as a derivative encoding tomato red fluorescent protein (tRFP) in place of ORF3. rSADS-CoV replicated efficiently in a variety of continuous animal and primate cell lines, including human liver and rectal carcinoma cell lines. Of concern, rSADS-CoV also replicated efficiently in several different primary human lung cell types, as well as primary human intestinal cells. rSADS-CoV did not use human coronavirus ACE-2, DPP4, or CD13 receptors for docking and entry. Contemporary human donor sera neutralized the group I human coronavirus NL63, but not rSADS-CoV, suggesting limited human group I coronavirus cross protective herd immunity. Importantly, remdesivir, a broad-spectrum nucleoside analog that is effective against other group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, efficiently blocked rSADS-CoV replication in vitro. rSADS-CoV demonstrated little, if any, replicative capacity in either immune-competent or immunodeficient mice, indicating a critical need for improved animal models. Efficient growth in primary human lung and intestinal cells implicate SADS-CoV as a potential higher-risk emerging coronavirus pathogen that could negatively impact the global economy and human health.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Virus Replication , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/growth & development , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Gene Expression , Host Specificity , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Mice , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16007, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809120

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a pandemic event in the world, it has not only caused huge economic losses, but also a serious threat to global public health. Many scientific questions about SARS-CoV-2 and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were raised and urgently need to be answered, including the susceptibility of animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we tested whether tree shrew, an emerging experimental animal domesticated from wild animal, is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. No clinical signs were observed in SARS-CoV-2 inoculated tree shrews during this experiment except the increasing body temperature particularly in female animals. Low levels of virus shedding and replication in tissues occurred in all three age groups. Notably, young tree shrews (6 months to 12 months) showed virus shedding at the earlier stage of infection than adult (2 years to 4 years) and old (5 years to 7 years) animals that had longer duration of virus shedding comparatively. Histopathological examine revealed that pulmonary abnormalities were the main changes but mild although slight lesions were also observed in other tissues. In summary, tree shrew is less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the reported animal models and may not be a suitable animal for COVID-19 related researches. However, tree shrew may be a potential intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 as an asymptomatic carrier.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host Specificity/physiology , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Tupaiidae/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Female , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding/physiology
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21709, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has threatened millions of people worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the ABO blood type contributed to the susceptibility of COVID-19, but the results are controversial. The major objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis study is to investigate the impact of ABO blood group on COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searches the databases of the China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Periodical Database, Wanfang Database, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the date of conception to June 30, 2020. We will manually search for gray literature, such as meeting records and dissertations. Two independent reviewers will screen studies that meet the criteria, extract data, statistical data, and assess the risk of bias. The dichotomous variable will calculate the odds ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity between included studies will be assessed by heterogeneity χ tests and I index. The forest plots will be used to describe the pooled results. The Begg rank correlation test or Egger linear regression test will be performed to quantize the publication bias. DISCUSSION: This study will provide high-quality evidence to evaluate the contribution of the ABO blood group in COVID-19 pneumonia infection. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020195615.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2937-2943, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739974

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is highly infectious respiratory disease in poultry industry with significant economic importance. The prevalence of IBV in quail industry in Malaysia was not well documented; therefore, its actual role in the epidemiology of the disease is relatively unknown. This study was to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quail, as one of the species in commercial poultry industry, toward IBV. In addition, it will also give a potential impact on the overall health management in the quail industry even though it had been established that quail are resistant to diseases affecting poultry. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first experimental study on IBV inoculation in quail. In this experimental study, 20 quails were divided into 4 groups (n = 5 for group A, B, and C, n = 5 for control group). The quails in group A, B, and C were infected via intraocular and intranasal routes with 0.2 mL of 10 × 5 EID50 of the virus. Clinical signs, gross lesions, positive detection of virus, and trachea histopathological scoring were used to assess the susceptibility of these Japanese quails. The results have indicated mild ruffled feathers and watery feces in these inoculated birds. Trachea, lung, and kidney were subjected to one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for virus detection. The virus was found from trachea and lung samples, whereas it was absent from all kidney samples. Only 3 quails were found with gross lesions. There was a significant difference of tracheal lesion by 0.009 ± 0.845 (P < 0.05) within the treatment groups. In summary, Japanese quails might be susceptible to IBV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coturnix , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Malaysia/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Prevalence , Virulence
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL