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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21359, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-675946

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China. The initial epidemiological investigations showed that COVID-19 occurred more likely in adults, with patients younger than 10 years old accounting for less than 1% of the total number of confirmed cases, and infant infections were more rare. In our case, we present an infant who was only 35 days old when he was tested positive for COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, a 35 day-old male infant with atypical symptoms had close contact with 2 confirmed patients of COVID-19 who were his grandmother and mother. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as COVID-19 after his oropharyngeal swab tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. INTERVENTIONS: The therapeutic schedule included aerosol inhalation of recombinant human interferon α-2b and supportive therapy. OUTCOMES: Two consecutive (1 day apart) oropharyngeal swabs tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; then, the patient was discharged on February 27, 2020. LESSONS: Strengthening infants' virus screening in families with infected kins is important for early diagnosis, isolation, and treatment when symptoms are atypical. The infectivity of infants with mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 should not be ignored because this may be a source of transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Oropharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Specimen Handling/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(7): 570-576, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662350

ABSTRACT

Identifying the optimal amount of personal protective equipment (PPE) is a formidable challenge when faced with a new contagion such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Unequivocally, there are dangers to health care workers (and by extension, their patients, colleagues, and communities) if not enough equipment is donned to safeguard them. And yet, there are also dangers to patients, colleagues, and the community if resources are overconsumed and result in hoarding, shortages, and inequitable distribution, all of which are occurring as the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues.Research to ascertain the precise PPE required to defend specifically against SARS-CoV-2 encompasses an area of active investigation that will likely remain unresolved for some time. While awaiting more definitive conclusions, we must look to past evidence to provide a reasonable basis on which protocols and policies might be refined. What follows is a narrative review of PPE efficacy and how existing evidence might apply to protecting health care workers against COVID-19. Findings are extrapolated from investigations in 4 general domains: early investigations into SARS-CoV-2, retrospective studies about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1, prospective studies of influenza and other common respiratory viruses, and laboratory PPE studies.Available evidence suggests that contact and droplet precautions, in addition to eye protection and standard hygiene measures, should be adequate in the vast majority of clinical settings when caring for patients with SARS-CoV-2. Adherence to guidelines promoting appropriate levels of PPE should safeguard practitioners while mitigating against resource overuse.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Narration , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Prevention/methods , Safety Management
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 83, 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has seriously endangered the health and lives of Chinese people. In this study, we predicted the COVID-19 epidemic trend and estimated the efficacy of several intervention strategies in the mainland of China. METHODS: According to the COVID-19 epidemic status, we constructed a compartmental model. Based on reported data from the National Health Commission of People's Republic of China during January 10-February 17, 2020, we estimated the model parameters. We then predicted the epidemic trend and transmission risk of COVID-19. Using a sensitivity analysis method, we estimated the efficacy of several intervention strategies. RESULTS: The cumulative number of confirmed cases in the mainland of China will be 86 763 (95% CI: 86 067-87 460) on May 2, 2020. Up until March 15, 2020, the case fatality rate increased to 6.42% (95% CI: 6.16-6.68%). On February 23, 2020, the existing confirmed cases reached its peak, with 60 890 cases (95% CI: 60 350-61 431). On January 23, 2020, the effective reproduction number was 2.620 (95% CI: 2.567-2.676) and had dropped below 1.0 since February 5, 2020. Due to governmental intervention, the total number of confirmed cases was reduced by 99.85% on May 2, 2020. Had the isolation been relaxed from February 24, 2020, there might have been a second peak of infection. However, relaxing the isolation after March 16, 2020 greatly reduced the number of existing confirmed cases and deaths. The total number of confirmed cases and deaths would increase by 8.72 and 9.44%, respectively, due to a 1-day delayed diagnosis in non-isolated infected patients. Moreover, if the coverage of close contact tracing was increased to 100%, the cumulative number of confirmed cases would be decreased by 88.26% on May 2, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The quarantine measures adopted by the Chinese government since January 23, 2020 were necessary and effective. Postponing the relaxation of isolation, early diagnosis, patient isolation, broad close-contact tracing, and strict monitoring of infected persons could effectively control the COVID-19 epidemic. April 1, 2020 would be a reasonable date to lift quarantine in Hubei and Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans , Models, Statistical , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(28): e255, 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657184

ABSTRACT

Quarantine often provokes negative psychological consequences. Thus, we aimed to identify the psychological and behavioral responses and stressors of caregivers quarantined with young patients after a close contact to a coronavirus disease 2019 case at a children's hospital. More than 90% of the caregivers reported feelings of worry and nervousness, while some of them reported suicidal ideations (4.2%), and/or homicidal ideations (1.4%). Fear of infection of the patient (91.7%) and/or oneself (86.1%) were most frequently reported stressors. A multidisciplinary team including infection control team, pediatrician, psychiatrist, nursing staff and legal department provided supplies and services to reduce caregiver's psychological distress. Psychotropic medication was needed in five (6.9%), one of whom was admitted to the psychiatry department due to suicidality. Quarantine at a children's hospital makes notable psychological impacts on the caregivers and a multidisciplinary approach is required.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
7.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 42(6): 349-355, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657176
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(28): e263, 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease was first reported in December 2019, and the World Health Organization declared it as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The virus is known to attack various vital organs, including the respiratory system. Patients sometimes require positive pressure ventilation and tracheostomy. Because tracheostomy is a droplet-spreading procedure, medical staff should protect themselves against the risk of transmission of this contagious viral disease. In our case, we performed tracheostomy for a 70-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had required more oxygen with gradual weakness of respiratory muscle to maintain his arterial oxygen saturation. We focused on the risks of the medical staffs and patients, and minimized them at the same time using temporary balloon over-inflation, pre-operative adjustment of endotracheal tube position, and attachment of a transparent film dressing to the surgical field without stopping the ventilator while following routine safety measures. Fourteen days after the tracheostomy, all participating medical staff members were healthy and asymptomatic. The patient was discharged 105 days after the COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods
9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20313, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651678

ABSTRACT

The reproduction number is broadly considered as a key indicator for the spreading of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its estimated value is a measure of the necessity and, eventually, effectiveness of interventions imposed in various countries. Here we present an online tool for the data-driven inference and quantification of uncertainties for the reproduction number, as well as the time points of interventions for 51 European countries. The study relied on the Bayesian calibration of the SIR model with data from reported daily infections from these countries. The model fitted the data, for most countries, without individual tuning of parameters. We also compared the results of SIR and SEIR models, which give different estimates of the reproduction number, and provided an analytical relationship between the respective numbers. We deployed a Bayesian inference framework with efficient sampling algorithms, to present a publicly available graphical user interface (https://cse-lab.ethz.ch/coronavirus) that allows the user to assess and compare predictions for pairs of European countries. The results quantified the rate of the disease’s spread before and after interventions, and provided a metric for the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions in different countries. They also indicated how geographic proximity and the times of interventions affected the progression of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Epidemiologic Measurements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Uncertainty
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 87, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus disease COVID-19 began in December 2019 and has spread rapidly by human-to-human transmission. This study evaluated the transmissibility of the infectious disease and analyzed its association with temperature and humidity to study the propagation pattern of COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, we revised the reported data in Wuhan based on several assumptions to estimate the actual number of confirmed cases considering that perhaps not all cases could be detected and reported in the complex situation there. Then we used the equation derived from the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model to calculate R0 from January 24, 2020 to February 13, 2020 in 11 major cities in China for comparison. With the calculation results, we conducted correlation analysis and regression analysis between R0 and temperature and humidity for four major cities in China to see the association between the transmissibility of COVID-19 and the weather variables. RESULTS: It was estimated that the cumulative number of confirmed cases had exceeded 45 000 by February 13, 2020 in Wuhan. The average R0 in Wuhan was 2.7, significantly higher than those in other cities ranging from 1.8 to 2.4. The inflection points in the cities outside Hubei Province were between January 30, 2020 and February 3, 2020, while there had not been an obvious downward trend of R0 in Wuhan. R0 negatively correlated with both temperature and humidity, which was significant at the 0.01 level. CONCLUSIONS: The transmissibility of COVID-19 was strong and importance should be attached to the intervention of its transmission especially in Wuhan. According to the correlation between R0 and weather, the spread of disease will be suppressed as the weather warms.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Regression Analysis , Temperature
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 89, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639312

ABSTRACT

Shenzhen is a city of 22 million people in south China that serves as a financial and trade center for East Asia. The city has extensive ties to Hubei Province, the first reported epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the world. Initial predictions suggested Shenzhen would experience a high number of COVID-19 cases. These predictions have not materialized. As of 31 March 2020 Shenzhen had only 451 confirmed cases of COVID-19. Contact tracing has shown that no cases were the result of community transmission within the city. While Shenzhen did not implement a citywide lockdown like Wuhan, it did put into place a rapid response system first developed after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003. In the wake of the 2003 SARS outbreak, Shenzhen health authority created a network for surveillance and responding to novel respiratory infections, including pneumonia of unknown causes (PUC). The network rapidly detected mass discussion about PUC and immediately deployed emergency preparedness, quarantine for close contacts of PUC. Five early actions (early detection, early reporting, early diagnosis, early isolation, and early treatment) and four centralized responses (centralized coordination by experts, centralized allocation of resources, centralized placement of patients, and centralized provision of treatment) ensured effective prevention and control. Tripartite working teams comprising community cadres, medical personnel and police were formulated to conduct contact tracing at each neighborhood and residential community. Incorporation of mobile technology, big data, and artificial intelligence into COVID-19 response increased accessibility to health services, reduced misinformation and minimized the impact of fake news. Shenzhen's unique experience in successfully controlling the COVID-19 outbreak may be a useful model for countries and regions currently experiencing rapid spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
14.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 56 Suppl 2: 11-18, 2020 07.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638595

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by a newly emergent coronavirus, that was first recognized in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined the infection as a global pandemic and there is a health and social emergency for the management of this new infection. While most people with COVID-19 develop only mild or uncomplicated illness, approximately 14% develop severe disease that requires hospitalization and oxygen support, and 5% require admission to an intensive care unit. In severe cases, COVID-19 can be complicated by the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis and septic shock, and multiorgan failure. This consensus document has been prepared on evidence-informed guidelines developed by a multidisciplinary panel of health care providers from four Spanish scientific societies (Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine [SEMICYUC], Spanish Society of Pulmonologists [SEPAR], Spanish Society of Emergency [SEMES], Spanish Society of Anesthesiology, Reanimation, and Pain [SEDAR]) with experience in the clinical management of patients with COVID-19 and other viral infections, including SARS, as well as sepsis and ARDS. The document provides clinical recommendations for the noninvasive respiratory support (noninvasive ventilation, high flow oxygen therapy with nasal cannula) in any patient with suspected or confirmed presentation of COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure. This consensus guidance should serve as a foundation for optimized supportive care to ensure the best possible chance for survival and to allow for reliable comparison of investigational therapeutic interventions as part of randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acute Disease , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/standards , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Societies, Medical , Spain
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