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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576992

ABSTRACT

Extreme precipitation events (EPE) change the natural and built environments and alter human behavior in ways that facilitate infectious disease transmission. EPEs are expected with high confidence to increase in frequency and are thus of great public health importance. This scoping review seeks to summarize the mechanisms and severity of impacts of EPEs on infectious diseases, to provide a conceptual framework for the influence of EPEs on infectious respiratory diseases, and to define areas of future study currently lacking in this field. The effects of EPEs are well-studied with respect to enteric, vector-borne, and allergic illness where they are shown to moderately increase risk of illness, but not well-understood in relation to infectious respiratory illness. We propose a framework for a similar influence of EPEs on infectious respiratory viruses through several plausible pathways: decreased UV radiation, increased ambient relative humidity, and changes to human behavior (increased time indoors and use of heating and cooling systems). However, limited work has evaluated meteorologic risk factors for infectious respiratory diseases. Future research is needed to evaluate the effects of EPEs on infectious respiratory diseases using individual-level case surveillance, fine spatial scales, and lag periods suited to the incubation periods of the disease under study, as well as a full characterization of susceptible, vulnerable, and sensitive population characteristics.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Viruses , Animals , Climate Change , Disease Vectors , Humans , Public Health
2.
Elife ; 102021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513067

ABSTRACT

Identifying the key vector and host species that drive the transmission of zoonotic pathogens is notoriously difficult but critical for disease control. We present a nested approach for quantifying the importance of host and vectors that integrates species' physiological competence with their ecological traits. We apply this framework to a medically important arbovirus, Ross River virus (RRV), in Brisbane, Australia. We find that vertebrate hosts with high physiological competence are not the most important for community transmission; interactions between hosts and vectors largely underpin the importance of host species. For vectors, physiological competence is highly important. Our results identify primary and secondary vectors of RRV and suggest two potential transmission cycles in Brisbane: an enzootic cycle involving birds and an urban cycle involving humans. The framework accounts for uncertainty from each fitted statistical model in estimates of species' contributions to transmission and has has direct application to other zoonotic pathogens.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/virology , Birds/virology , Culicidae/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors , Ross River virus/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Biological , Queensland , Virulence
4.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(12): 1838-1842, 2020 Dec 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389811

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Chiroptera/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Animals , Cats , China , Disease Vectors , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Humans
7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(5): 363-375, 2021 May.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219383

ABSTRACT

In over a year, the COVID-19 pandemic caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Social isolation and distancing measures have been the only prevention available for months. Scientific research has done a great deal of work, developing in a few months safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19. In the European Union, nowadays, four vaccines have been authorized for use: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), and three others are currently under rolling review.Vaccine allocation policy is crucial to optimize the advantage of treatment preferring people with the highest risk of contagion. These days the priority in the vaccination program is of particular importance since it has become clear that the number of vaccines is not sufficient for the entire Italian population in the short term. Cardiovascular diseases are frequently associated with severe COVID-19 infections, leading to the worst prognosis. The elderly population suffering from cardiovascular diseases is, therefore, to be considered a particularly vulnerable population. However, age cannot be considered the only discriminating factor because in the young-adult population suffering from severe forms of heart disease, the prognosis, if affected by COVID-19, is particularly ominous and these patients should have priority access to the vaccination program. The aim of this position paper is to establish a consensus on a priority in the vaccination of COVID-19 among subjects suffering from different cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Consensus , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiology , Coronary Disease/complications , Disease Vectors , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Transplantation , Heart Valve Diseases/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Italy/epidemiology , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Medical , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
9.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 113(4): 222-227, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172022

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on some representations of the origin of AIDS and Ebola in Burkina Faso, against a new background of Covid-19 which began in early 2020 in connection with two animals: the spider and the bat. These are also, if not first and foremost, heroes of oral literature (from tales to myths) from this region of West Africa. It is up to anthropologists to explore the meandering symbolism and imagination of these liminal animals that move back and forth between the worlds inhabited by humans and the "bush" worlds of non-humans. Here arises a mythological anamnesis. These "trickster" animals challenge categories and understanding of both virologists and anthropologists.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Spiders/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Animals , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Congresses as Topic , Disease Vectors , Epidemics , HIV/physiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Museums , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Ann Ig ; 33(6): 583-588, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156201

ABSTRACT

Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus responsible for the pandemic that developed in China in late 2019. Transmission of the virus is predominantly direct, through exposure to infected respiratory secretions. As far as we know, arthropods play a key role in the transmission and spread of several viruses, and thus their role in the spread of COVID-19 deserves to be studied. The biological transmission of viral agents through insects is very complex. While mechanical transmission is more likely to happen, biological transmission is possible via blood-sucking arthropods, but this requires a high grade of compatibility between the vector and the pathogen. If the biological and mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by blood-sucking arthropods is excluded, a mechanical transmission by urban pests could take place. This risk is very low but it could be important in isolated environmental conditions, where other means of transmission are not possible. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in non-blood-sucking arthropods in infected buildings, like hospitals and retirement homes, should be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Vectors , Insecta , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Arthropods , Culicidae , Europe , Humans
11.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 8-16, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153760

ABSTRACT

Viruses arise through cross-species transmission and can cause potentially fatal diseases in humans. This is the case of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which recently appeared in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread worldwide, causing the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and posing a global health emergency. Sequence analysis and epidemiological investigations suggest that the most likely original source of SARS-CoV-2 is a spillover from an animal reservoir, probably bats, that infected humans either directly or through intermediate animal hosts. The role of animals as reservoirs and natural hosts in SARS-CoV-2 has to be explored, and animal models for COVID-19 are needed as well to be evaluated for countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Experimental cells, tissues, and animal models that are currently being used and developed in COVID-19 research will be presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 47(3): 307-322, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078679

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has made us wonder what led to its occurrence and what can be done to avoid such events in the future. As we document, one changing circumstance that is resulting in the emergence and changing the expression of viral diseases in both plants and animals is climate change. Of note, the rapidly changing environment and weather conditions such as excessive flooding, droughts, and forest fires have raised concerns about the global ecosystem's security, sustainability, and balance. In this review, we discuss the main consequences of climate change and link these to how they impact the appearance of new viral pathogens, how they may facilitate transmission between usual and novel hosts, and how they may also affect the host's ability to manage the infection. We emphasize how changes in temperature and humidity and other events associated with climate change influence the reservoirs of viral infections, their transmission by insects and other intermediates, their survival outside the host as well the success of infection in plants and animals. We conclude that climate change has mainly detrimental consequences for the emergence, transmission, and outcome of viral infections and plead the case for halting and hopefully reversing this dangerous event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Plant Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Animals , Aquatic Organisms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/complications , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Crops, Agricultural/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors/classification , Food Supply , Humans , Humidity , Plant Diseases/immunology , Primate Diseases/transmission , Primate Diseases/virology , Primates , Rain , Seasons , Temperature , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/immunology
18.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000947, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005852

ABSTRACT

Human perturbation of natural systems is accelerating the emergence of infectious diseases, mandating integration of disease and ecological research. Bats have been associated with recent zoonoses, but our bibliometric analysis of coauthor relationships identified a separation of bat ecologists and infectious disease researchers with few cross-disciplinary relationships. Of 5,645 papers, true interdisciplinary collaborations occurred primarily in research focused on White Nose Syndrome (WNS). This finding is important because it illustrates how research with outcomes favoring both bat conservation and disease mitigation promotes domain integration and network connectivity. We advocate for increased engagement between ecology and infectious researchers to address such common causes and suggest that efforts focus on leveraging existing activities, building interdisciplinary projects, and networking individuals and networks to integrate domains and coordinate resources. We provide specific opportunities for pursuing these strategies through the Bat One Health Research Network (BOHRN).


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors , Ecosystem , Humans , Interdisciplinary Research , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
19.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 87(1): e1-e9, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000404

ABSTRACT

The first known severe disease caused by a coronavirus (CoV) in humans emerged with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China, which killed 774 people during its 2002/2003 outbreak. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was the second human fatal disease, which started in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and resulted in 858 fatalities. In December 2019, a new virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), originating from China, began generating headlines worldwide because of the unprecedented speed of its transmission; 5.2 million people were infected and 338 480 had been reported dead from December 2019 to May 2020. These human coronaviruses are believed to have an animal origin and had reached humans through species jump. Coronaviruses are well known for their high frequency of recombination and high mutation rates, allowing them to adapt to new hosts and ecological niches. This review summarises existing information on what is currently known on the role of wild and domesticated animals and discussions on whether they are the natural reservoir/amplifiers hosts or incidental hosts of CoVs. Results of experimental infection and transmission using different wild, domesticated and pet animals are also reviewed. The need for a One Health approach in implementing measures and practices is highlighted to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemics from these zoonotic viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Vectors , Global Health , Humans , One Health , Pandemics
20.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993595

ABSTRACT

Plant viruses are commonly vectored by flying or crawling animals, such as aphids and beetles, and cause serious losses in major agricultural and horticultural crops. Controlling virus spread is often achieved by minimizing a crop's exposure to the vector, or by reducing vector numbers with compounds such as insecticides. A major, but less obvious, factor not controlled by these measures is Homo sapiens. Here, we discuss the inconvenient truth of how humans have become superspreaders of plant viruses on both a local and a global scale.


Subject(s)
Crops, Agricultural/virology , Plant Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Animals , Climate Change , Disease Vectors , Humans , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Viruses/growth & development
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