Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 247
Filter
1.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(2): 105-119, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877974

ABSTRACT

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant consideration toward innovative strategies for overcoming the viral spread. Nanotechnology will change our lives in several forms as its uses span from electronics to pharmaceutical procedures. The use of nanoparticles provides a possibility to promote new antiviral treatments with a low possibility of increasing drug resistance compared to typical chemical-based antiviral treatments. Since the long-term usage of disinfectants and antiseptics at high concentrations has deleterious impacts on well-being and the environment, this review was intended to discuss the antiviral activity of disinfectants and antiseptics required for their activity against respiratory viruses especially SARS-CoV-2. It could improve the inhibition of viral penetration into cells, solvation of the lipid bilayer envelope, and ROS production, therefore enhancing the effect of disinfectants. However, significant concerns about nanomaterial's hazardous effects on individuals and the environment are increasing as nanotechnology flourishes. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential types of nanomaterials, especially silver and copper, that could be used as antiviral agents and their viral entry mechanisms into host cells. Further, we consider the toxicity on health, and environmental concerns of nanoparticles. Eventually, we present our outlook on the fate of nanomaterials toward viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Indoor Air ; 32(5): e13036, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868660

ABSTRACT

The frequency of surface disinfectant use has increased over the last several years in public settings such as schools, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although these products are important for infection control and prevention, their increased use may intensify the exposure to both persons applying the disinfection product as well as bystanders. Safety assessments have demonstrated that these products, when used as intended, are considered safe for use and effective; however, point-of-contact effects (such as respiratory or dermal irritation) may still occur. Additionally, relative exposures may vary significantly due to the wide variation in disinfectant formulation and application methods. Quantitative estimations of exposures to two commonly used active ingredients, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and ethanol, are not well characterized during product use and application scenarios. To assess the potential for health risks attributable to increased use in classroom settings, as well as to quantitatively evaluate the potential exposure to both ethanol and QACs, student and adult bystander surface and air measurements were collected in a K-8 school setting in Ohio, United States, over a three-day period. Direct-reading instruments were utilized to collect real-time air samples that characterized mass fraction concentrations following the use of the QAC- and ethanol-based disinfectants. Furthermore, surface and air sampling of microbial species were conducted to establish the overall bioburden and effectiveness of each disinfectant to inform the comparative risk and health effect impacts from the tested products use scenario. Both tested products were approximately equally effective at reducing bioburdens on desk surfaces. In some classrooms, concentrations of QAC congeners were significantly increased on desk surfaces following the application of the disinfectant spray; however, the magnitude of the change in concentration was small. Ethanol was not measured on surfaces due to its volatility. Airborne concentrations increased immediately following spray of each disinfectant product but rapidly returned to baseline. Each of the QAC congeners listed in the product safety data sheets were detected and measurable on desk surfaces; however, air concentrations were generally below the limit of detection. The 15-min time-weighted averages (TWAs) of both QACs and ethanol in the air were below respective health effects benchmarks, and therefore, the negative impact on health outcomes is considered to be minimal from short-term, repeated use of ethanol- or QAC-based spray products in a school setting when the products are used as directed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Adult , Ethanol , Humans , Pandemics , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156193, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852053

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of chlorine-based disinfectants has surged due to their excellent performance and cost-effectiveness in intercepting the spread of the virus and bacteria in water and air. Many authorities have demanded strict chlorine dosage for disinfection to ensure sufficient chlorine residual for inactivating viruses and bacteria while not posing harmful effects to humans as well as the environment. Reliable chlorine sensing techniques have therefore become the keys to ensure a balance between chlorine disinfection efficiency and disinfection safety. Up to now, there is still a lack of comprehensive review that collates and appraises the recently available techniques from a practical point of view. In this work, we intend to present a detailed overview of the recent advances in monitoring chlorine in both dissolved and gaseous forms aiming to present valuable information in terms of method accuracy, sensitivity, stability, reliability, and applicability, which in turn guides future sensor development. Data on the analytical performance of different techniques and environmental impacts associated with the dominated chemical-based techniques are thus discussed. Finally, this study concludes with highlights of gaps in knowledge and trends for future chlorine sensing development. Due to the increasing use of chlorine in disinfection and chemical synthesis, we believe the information present in this review is a relevant and timely resource for the water treatment industry, healthcare sector, and environmental organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Water Purification , Bacteria , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorides , Chlorine , Disinfection/methods , Halogenation , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Water Purification/methods
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156164, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852052

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and spread of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a significant increase in the consumption of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) disinfectants. NaOCl hydrolyzes to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to kill viruses, which is a relatively efficient chlorine-based disinfectant commonly used in public disinfection. While people enjoy the convenience of NaOCl disinfection, excessive and indiscriminate use of it will affect the water environment and threaten human health. Importantly, HOCl is an indispensable reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human body. Whether its concentration is normal or not is closely related to human health. Excessive production of HOCl in the body contributes to some inflammatory diseases and even cancer. Also, we noticed that the concentration of ROS in cancer cells is about 10 times higher than that in normal cells. Herein, we developed a HOCl-activatable biotinylated dual-function fluorescent probe BTH. For this probe, we introduced biotin on the naphthalimide fluorophore, which increased the water solubility and enabled the probe to aggregate in cancer cells by targeting specific receptor overexpressed on the surface of cancer cell membrane. After reacting to HOCl, the p-aminophenylether moiety of this probe was oxidatively removed and the fluorescence of the probe was recovered. As expected, in the PBS solution with pH of 7.4, BTH could give full play to the performance of detecting HOCl, and it has made achievements in detecting the concentration of HOCl in actual water samples. Besides that, BTH had effectively distinguished between cancer cells and normal cells through a dual-function discrimination strategy, which used biotin to enrich the probe in cancer cells and reacted with overexpressed HOCl in cancer cells. Importantly, this dual-function discrimination strategy could obtain the precision detection of cancer cells, thereby offering assistance for improving the accuracy of early cancer diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Biotin , Fluorescent Dyes , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid/metabolism , Water
5.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834924

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is having devastating effects on a global scale. Since common household disinfectants are often used to minimise the risk of infection in the home and work environment, we investigated the ability of some of these products to inactivate the virus. We tested generic brands of vinegar, bleach, and dishwashing detergent, as well as laboratory-grade acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and ethanol. Assays were conducted at room temperature (18-20 °C, 40% relative humidity), and two time points were used to reflect a quick wipe (30 s) and a brief soak (5 min). Vinegar, and its active ingredient, acetic acid, were completely ineffective at virus inactivation even when exposed to the virus at 90% v/v (a final concentration equivalent to 3.6% v/v acetic acid). In contrast, ethanol was capable of inactivating the virus at dilutions as low as 40% v/v. Dishwashing detergent effectively rendered SARS-CoV-2 inactive when diluted 100-fold (1% v/v). Bleach was found to be fully effective against SARS-CoV-2 at 0.21 g/L sodium hypochlorite after a 30 s exposure (1/200 dilution of commercial product). Given reports of infectious virus recovered from the surface of frozen packaging, we tested the persistence of infectiousness after multiple freeze-thaw cycles and found no change in infectious SARS-CoV-2 titre after seven freeze-thaw cycles. These results should help inform readers of how to effectively disinfect surfaces and objects that have potentially been contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 using common household chemicals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Detergents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
6.
J Med Life ; 15(3): 313-318, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811952

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously increased the production and sales of disinfectants. This study aimed to systematically review and analyze the efficacy and safety of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. The literature relating to the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant was systematically reviewed in January 2021 using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the use of chlorine dioxide to assess the efficacy, safety, and impact of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. Out of the 33 included studies, 14 studies focused on the disinfectant efficacy of chlorine dioxide, 8 studies expounded on the safety and toxicity in humans and animals, and 15 studies discussed the impact, such as water treatment disinfection using chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective disinfectant, even at concentrations as low as 20 to 30 mg/L. Moreover, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide is mostly independent of pH. Chlorine dioxide can be effectively used to disinfect drinking water without much alteration of palatability and can also be used to destroy pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi from vegetables and fruits. Our review confirms that chlorine dioxide is effective against the resistant Mycobacterium, H1N1, and other influenza viruses. Studies generally support the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. The concentration deemed safe for usage still needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorine Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Chlorine , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Oxides , Pandemics
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809883

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-related infections are sustained by various bacteria and fungi. In recent years, various technologies have emerged for the sanitation of healthcare-related environments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a no-touch disinfection system that aerosolizes 5% hydrogen peroxide and 10% ethyl alcohol. After selecting an environment, the Total Bacterial Count and the Total Fungal Count in the air and on a surface of the room were determined to evaluate the effectiveness of the aerosolization system. In addition, sterile stainless-steel plates inoculated with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Aspergillus spp. isolated from hospitalized patients and reference strains were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. For each organism, three plates were used: A (cleaned), B (not cleaned), and C (control). The A plates were treated with non-ionic surfactant and the aerosolization system, the B plates were subjected to the aerosolization system, and the plates C were positioned outside the room that was sanitized. Following sanitization, air and surface sampling was conducted, after which, swabs were processed for bacterial and fungal enumeration. The results showed that the air sanitization system had good efficacy for both bacteria and fungi in the air and on stainless-steel plates, particularly for the A plates.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Disinfection , Aerosols , Bacteria , Delivery of Health Care , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Stainless Steel , Staphylococcus aureus
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5968, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784028

ABSTRACT

Skin antiseptics have important implications for public health and medicine. Although conventional antiseptics have considerable antimicrobial activity, skin toxicity and the development of resistance are common problems. Plasma-treated water has sterilization and tissue-regenerative effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify whether plasma-activated water (PAW) manufactured by our microwave plasma system can be used as a novel antiseptic solution for skin protection. PAW was produced by dissolving reactive nitrogen oxide gas using microwave plasma in deionized water. The antibacterial effects of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium and effective concentrations were investigated by a solid agar plate assay. The factors mediating the effects of PAW were evaluated by the addition of reactive species scavengers. Cytotoxicity and cell viability assays were performed to examine the protective effect of PAW on normal skin cells. PAW exhibited excellent sterilization and no toxicity in normal skin cells. Experiments also confirmed the potential of PAW as a sanitizer for SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the use of PAW as an effective skin disinfectant with good safety in the current situation of a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Microwaves , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water/pharmacology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0261802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted mainly by droplet or aerosol infection; however, it may also be transmitted by contact infection. SARS-CoV-2 that adheres to environmental surfaces remains infectious for several days. We herein attempted to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus adhering to an environmental surface by dry fogging hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus were air-dried on plastic plates and placed into a test chamber for inactivation by the dry fogging of these disinfectants. The results obtained showed that the dry fogging of hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus in CT value (the product of the disinfectant concentration and contact time)-dependent manners. SARS-CoV-2 was more resistant to the virucidal effects of aerosolized hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution than influenza A virus; therefore, higher concentrations of disinfectants or longer contact times were required to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 than influenza A virus. The present results provide important information for the development of a strategy that inactivates SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus on environmental surfaces by spatial fogging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Influenza A virus , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 832: 155090, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773765

ABSTRACT

The usage of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as disinfectants has increased dramatically since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, leading to potentially accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance. Long-term exposure to subinhibitory level QACs can lead to multidrug resistance, but the contribution of mutagenesis to resistance evolution is obscure. In this study, we subcultured E. coli K-12 under subinhibitory (0.25 × and 0.5 × Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC) or inhibitory (1 × and 2 × MIC) concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC, mono-chained) or didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC, twin-chained) for 60 days. The sensitivity of QAC-adapted cells to five typical antibiotics decreased significantly, and in particular, the MIC of rifampicin increased by 85 times. E. coli adapted faster to BAC but developed 20-167% higher antibiotic resistance with 56% more mutations under DDAC exposure. The broader mutations induced by QACs, including negative regulators (acrR, marR, soxR, and crp), outer membrane proteins and transporters (mipA and sbmA), and RNA polymerase (rpoB and rpoC), potentially contributed to the high multi-drug resistance. After QACs stresses were removed, the phenotypic resistance induced by subinhibitory concentrations of QACs was reversible, whereas that induced by inhibitory concentrations of QACs was irreversible. The different patterns and molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance induced by BAC and DDAC is informative to estimating the risks of broader QACs present at varied concentrations in the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Disinfectants/toxicity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5468, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768860

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the performance of 24 commercial disinfectants present on the market during last year according to the manufacturer's instructions. Recently, national and international organizations of public health performed studies on disinfection products due to the increasing awareness of the potential and growing risks on human health, such as skin damage and reactions in the mucosal lining, especially for the healthcare workers in their frequent daily use. However, there are many limitations in the common cleaning/disinfection products on market as in the selection of effective disinfectants to decontaminate inanimate surfaces. We analyzed the disinfection power of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes used as active principles according to international guidelines. The antimicrobial properties were assessed by broth microdilution, and antibiofilm properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus); their virucidal efficacy was tested against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The quaternary ammonium compounds demonstrated better efficacy than others and in some cases ready to use products had also virucidal and antimicrobial activities after dilution at 0.125%. The scientific evidence indicates that many commercial products are used at high concentrations and high doses and this could have deleterious effects both on human health and the environment. A lower concentration of active ingredients would avoid the excessive release of chemicals into the environment and improve skin tolerance, ensuring the health and safety protection of workers, including the healthcare operators at their workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus , Workplace
12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 18(4): 2597-2615, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1738589

ABSTRACT

We have developed dissipative particle dynamics models for pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as well as their binary and ternary mixed membranes, as coronavirus model membranes. The stabilities of pure and mixed membranes, surrounded by aqueous solutions containing up to 70 mol % ethanol (alcoholic disinfectants), have been investigated at room temperature. We found that aqueous solutions containing 5-10 mol % ethanol already have a significant weakening effect on the pure and mixed membranes. The magnitude of the effect depends on the membrane composition and the ethanol concentration. Ethanol permeabilizes the membrane, causing its lateral swelling and thickness shrinking and reducing the orientational order of the hydrocarbon tail of the bilayer. The free energy barrier for the permeation of ethanol in the bilayers is considerably reduced by the ethanol uptake. The rupture-critical ethanol concentrations causing the membrane failure are 20.7, 27.5, and 31.7 mol % in the aqueous phase surrounding pure DMPC, DOPC, and DPPC membranes, respectively. Characterizing the failure of lipid membranes by a machine-learning neural network framework, we found that all mixed binary and/or ternary membranes disrupt when immersed in an aqueous solution containing a rupture-critical ethanol concentration, ranging from 20.7 to 31.7 mol %, depending on the composition of the membrane; the DPPC-rich membranes are more intact, while the DMPC-rich membranes are least intact. Due to the tight packing of long, saturated hydrocarbon tails in DPPC, increasing the DPPC content of the mixed membrane increases its stability against the disinfectant. At high DPPC concentrations, where the DOPC and DMPC molecules are confined between the DPPC lipids, the ordered hydrocarbon tails of DPPC also induce order in the DOPC and DMPC molecules and, hence, stabilize the membrane more. Our simulations on pure and mixed membranes of a diversity of compositions reveal that a maximum ethanol concentration of 32 mol % (55 wt %) in the alcohol-based disinfectants is enough to disintegrate any membrane composed of these three lipids.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Disinfectants , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine , Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol , Lipid Bilayers , Phosphatidylcholines
14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 97: 87-92, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712826

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and disinfectants has become necessary to prevent transmission of the virus. However, the effects of such pandemic obligations on chronic diseases such as migraine have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the use of masks and disinfectants, on migraine patients. A total of 310 migraine patients were included. Demographic data, migraine characteristics, and mask and disinfectant use were obtained through a face-to-face survey. Patients were grouped as worsening, stable, or improving according to pre-pandemic and pandemic migraine characteristics. Migraine worsening was found in 177 (57.1%) patients, stable course in 96 (31%) patients, and improvement in 37 (11.9%) patients. The use of scalp contact masks and double masks and daily mask duration were higher in the worsening group (p:0.005, p:0.005 and p:0.001). In addition, the frequency of personal disinfectant use was higher in this group (p:0.011). In regression analysis, mask type, daily mask duration, presence of allodynia, being a health worker, depression score, and odor were determined as independent risk factors for migraine worsening. We found a worsening of migraines in more than half of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also demonstrated a relationship between migraine worsening and mask type, number of masks, and intensive disinfectant use. Migraine patients should be advised of optimal prevention methods based on individual social and working conditions rather than exaggerated preventative measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Migraine Disorders , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704696

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic made more people aware of the danger of viruses and bacteria, which is why disinfection began to be used more and more often. Epidemiological safety must be ensured not only in gathering places, but also in home and work environments. It is especially challenging in public transportation, which is a perfect environment for the spread of infectious disease. Therefore, the aim of the study was the identification of bacteria in crowded places and the evaluation of the effect of fumigation with peracetic acid (PAA) in public transportation. Inactivation of microorganisms in buses and long-distance coaches was carried out using an automatic commercial fogging device filled with a solution of peracetic acid stabilized with acetic acid (AA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Before and after disinfection, samples were taken for microbiological tests. The most prevalent bacteria were Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus licheniformis.Staphylococcus epidermidis was only present in buses, whereas Staphylococcus hominis and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were only present in coaches. Statistical analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of microorganisms in samples taken from different surfaces after disinfection in vehicles. The overall effectiveness of disinfection was 81.7% in buses and 66.5% in coaches. Dry fog fumigation with peracetic acid is an effective method of disinfecting public transport vehicles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Fumigation , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pandemics , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 319-324, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for efficacious virucidal products to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Several studies have suggested that alcohol-based sanitizers and some disinfectants are effective. While virucidal activity data of low-level disinfectants are lacking and some conclusions are not clear yet. METHODS: We evaluated the virucidal activity of 2 quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) disinfectants (MICRO-CHEM PLUS and FWD), W30 (an amphoteric surfactant), and Medical EtOH against SARS-CoV-2. Suspension tests covering different concentration and contact time were performed using the integrated cell culture-qPCR method. RESULTS: Each of disinfectants was effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2. MCP and FWD are highly effective within 15 seconds. W30 is also efficient within 2 minutes at concentration of 1%. Consistent with previous report, our results also demonstrated that 38% ethanol was sufficient to completely inactivate virus, which proved the method used in this study is feasible. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: QAC disinfectants, MCP and FWD, are highly effective for the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, which making them practical for use in health care setting and laboratories where prompt disinfection is important. The low-level disinfectant based on amphoteric surfactant, W30, which may present in commonly available household hygiene agents is also able to inactivate SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 175: 113396, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693122

ABSTRACT

The increased use of disinfectants due to the spread of the novel coronavirus infection (e.g. COVID-19) has caused burden in the environment but knowledge on its ecotoxicological impact on the estuary environment is limited. Here we report in vivo and molecular endpoints that we used to assess the effects of chloroxylenol (PCMX) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which are ingredients in liquid handwash, dish soap products, and sanitizers used by consumers and healthcare workers on the estuarine rotifer Brachionus koreanus. PCMX and BAC significantly affected the life table parameters of B. koreanus. These chemicals modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase and increased reactive oxygen species even at low concentrations. Also, PCMX and BAC caused alterations in the swimming speed and rotation rate of B. koreanus. Furthermore, an RNA-seq-based ingenuity pathway analysis showed that PCMX affected several signaling pathways, allowing us to predict that a low concentration of PCMX will have deleterious effects on B. koreanus. The neurotoxic and mitochondrial dysfunction event scenario induced by PCMX reflects the underlying molecular mechanisms by which PCMX produces outcomes deleterious to aquatic organisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Rotifera , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Disinfectants/toxicity , Humans , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Swimming , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism
19.
Med Arch ; 75(5): 361-365, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on the available evidence, the COVID-19 virus is transmitted through close contact and droplets, not in the form of airborne transmission (airborne) among humans. People at risk of infection are those who are in close contact with or looking after COVID-19 patients. Preventive and mitigation measures are key in both the healthcare sector and the community. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is mandatory to protect healthcare workers from the new coronavirus, but healthcare workers may have skin damage especially associated with long-term use of PPE. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose in this study is to forward the effects of PPE and disinfectants on health care workers skin health. METHODS: From March to May 2020, self-administered face to face questionnaires were distributed to 200 individuals, consisting of healthcare workes who served in the designated departments of tertiary hospitals Famagusta /Cyprus. The questionnaire included questions about the condition of skin damage and the frequency or duration of several infection-prevention measures. RESULTS: The most common protection equipment were surgery mask (91.5%), gloves (87.5%) and hand sanitizer (52.0%). In addition, 141 (70.5%) individuals stated take a bath/shower frequently as a protection method from COVID and135 (67.5%) individuals stated air conditioning. Most individuals use latex gloves with powder (65.0%) or powder free (62.0%). Mean daily duration of wearing mask was 7.32 ± 4.54 (range 0-24) hours, wearing visor or glasses was 3.16 ± 3.97 (range 0-24) hours, wearing protective apron was 4.20 ± 4.57 (range 0-24) hours and wearing gloves was 5.33 ± 4.03 (range 0-24) hours. Eighty (40.0%) individuals bought personal protective equipment for COVID. Most individuals (73.0%) did not see a COVID patient while 18 (9.0%) individuals sampled from a COVID patient. None of the individuals was COVID positive. Mean stress level was 70.24 ± 23.58 (range 0-100). Most individuals (92.0%) stay at home except working times. Fifty-two (26.0%) individuals had hand dryness (xerosis cutis), 38 (19.0%) individuals had body itching or exanthema, 41 (20.5%) individuals had facial wounds because of mask, visor etc. and 68 (34.0%) individuals had rhinitis. Twenty-nine (14.5%) individuals had treatment because of dermal problems. CONCLUSION: Atopy, winter season, low humidity frequency of hand washing with detergents / disinfectants can disrupt the hydro-lipid cover of the skin surface and also cause irritation and even the development of contact dermatitis. Two-thirds of healthcare workers wash their hands 10 times a day, but only 22% applied skin protective cream. Also, according to a study, prophylactic dressings have been shown to alleviate pressure injuries associated with the device. Also, longer exposure time is an important risk factor. Latex-free gloves are now a mandatory standard in many hospitals and clinics and have the potential to reduce occupational skin diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Health Personnel , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL