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2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443838

ABSTRACT

Although research has shown that the COVID-19 disease is most likely caused by airborne transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, disinfection of potentially contaminated surfaces is also recommended to limit the spread of the disease. Use of electrostatic sprayers (ESS) and foggers to rapidly apply disinfectants over large areas or to complex surfaces has emerged with the COVID-19 pandemic. ESSs are designed to impart an electrostatic charge to the spray droplets with the goal of increasing deposition of the droplets onto surfaces, thereby promoting more efficient use of the disinfectant. The purpose of this research was to evaluate several spray parameters for different types of sprayers and foggers, as they relate to the application of disinfectants. Some of the parameters evaluated included the spray droplet size distribution, the electrostatic charge, the ability of the spray to wrap around objects, and the loss of disinfectant chemical active ingredient due to the spray process. The results show that most of the devices evaluated for droplet size distribution had an average volume median diameter ≥ 40 microns, and that four out of the six ESS tested for charge/mass produced sprays of at least 0.1 mC/kg. A minimal wrap-around effect of the spray deposition onto a cylindrical object was observed. The loss of disinfectant active ingredient to the air due to spraying was minimal for the two disinfectants tested, and concurrently, the active ingredient concentrations of the liquid disinfectants sprayed and collected 3 feet (1 meter) away from the spray nozzle do not decrease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Static Electricity , Surface Properties/drug effects
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109866, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386296

ABSTRACT

Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The therapeutic combinations have a wide range of virucidal effects on DNA and RNA containing viruses. The combinations also exhibit anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidative effects. Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection. The therapeutic compound can be applied as both etiological and pathogenesis therapy and used as an effective and safe antiseptic (disinfectant) for human and animals as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Iodides/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Zinc Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2689-2702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is requesting highly effective protective personnel equipment, mainly for healthcare professionals. However, the current demand has exceeded the supply chain and, consequently, shortage of essential medical materials, such as surgical masks. Due to these alarming limitations, it is crucial to develop effective means of disinfection, reusing, and thereby applying antimicrobial shielding protection to the clinical supplies. PURPOSE: Therefore, in this work, we developed a novel, economical, and straightforward approach to promote antimicrobial activity to surgical masks by impregnating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). METHODS: Our strategy consisted of fabricating a new alcohol disinfectant formulation combining special surfactants and AgNPs, which is demonstrated to be extensively effective against a broad number of microbial surrogates of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The present nano-formula reported a superior microbial reduction of 99.999% against a wide number of microorganisms. Furthermore, the enveloped H5N1 virus was wholly inactivated after 15 min of disinfection. Far more attractive, the current method for reusing surgical masks did not show outcomes of detrimental amendments, suggesting that the protocol does not alter the filtration effectiveness. CONCLUSION: The nano-disinfectant provides a valuable strategy for effective decontamination, reuse, and even antimicrobial promotion to surgical masks for frontline clinical personnel.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Masks , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Chick Embryo , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Dynamic Light Scattering , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Masks/virology , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Textiles , X-Ray Diffraction
6.
Biol Futur ; 72(3): 273-280, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060798

ABSTRACT

Aim The article reviews the current usage of biocides during this lockdown period for sanitizing our living areas due to the pandemic and discusses the pros and cons. Subject COVID-19 spread like wildfire to over 200 countries of the world across all continents. The causative agent, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is being counter attacked by a thorough application of disinfectants and sterilants. However, the virus mutated over 30 times during this global pandemic, creating panic and leading to enhanced pathogenicity and consequently to more stringent sanitation measures for controlling it. However, excessive use of different types of biocides for disinfecting surfaces is highly alarming in several cases. Extensive application of biocides affects the microbial flora, leading to an abrupt decrease in the number and diversity of beneficial microbes that may directly affect the functioning of nutrient cycles. Results The increased concentration of biocides in agricultural land via surface water or pond water indirectly affect the soil and water ecosystem, soil aggregation and fertility. This will also lead to the flourishing of resistant strains due to loss of competition from the other species, which fail to persist after prolonged use of biocides. Conclusion It is necessary to realize the environmental impacts of biocides and sterilants. It is the right time to stop their entry into the agricultural ecosystem by following adequate management strategies and complete neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Environmental Pollution , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Humans , Mutation
7.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(4): 647-650, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041011

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses present a considerable concern for humans and animals. The current world- wide pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus showed many gaps in understanding of coronaviruses spread and transmission. Because of lack of effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 the only preventive measures are represented by wearing protective masks and gloves thus limiting potential risk of contact with the airborne virus. Inversely, the limited time of protective function of the masks presents another drawback of their use. Therefore, the application of disinfection agent dispersed on the surface of protective masks may enhance their effectivity and safety of their application. The aim of the study was to examine the virucidal efficacy of low-concentra- ted sodium hypochlorite dispersed using ultrasonic humidifier on the surface of surgery masks. The study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus, namely porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) representing a model with similar biophysical properties and genomic structure to human coronaviruses. Five different concentrations of the disinfectant with different content of sodium hypochlorite were selected for the study. A final concentration of 0.228 g/L sodium hypochlorite effectively inactivated the PED virus and may support the biosafety of masks usage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Masks/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Humidifiers , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Vero Cells
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 63, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948198

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the coronavirus disease COVID-19 pandemic has affected the way we live. The use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) has been reported to be effective in controlling similar respiratory diseases outbreak in the past and is being used as one of the mainstays of control of the pandemic. We therefore assessed the knowledge and practice of preventive measures against COVID-19 among adults in Enugu metropolis during the outbreak in the State. METHODS: we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among 320 adults who were recruited through a multistage sampling technique. We used semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect information on the knowledge and preventive practices against COVID-19. The data were analyzed using the IBM-SPSS version 25. RESULTS: the mean age of the participants was 41.6±12.5 years. There were 168 (52.5%) male, 69.7% had attained tertiary education and 57.8% were self-employed. Overall, 256 (80.0%) of the respondents had good knowledge about COVID-19. Only 133 (41.6%) had good practice of preventive measures among respondents. The more commonly practiced NPIs among the respondents were use of alcohol hand sanitizer (86.6%), physical distancing (85.6%), washing of hands with soap and water (81.6%) and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces (80.9%). The NPIs the respondents practiced poorly were use of face mask (33.8%) and avoidance of crowded areas (47.2%). Having good knowledge (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.65 - 6.05) and attaining secondary education or less (aOR: 2; 95%CI: 10-3.13) were the only predictors of good practice of preventive measures. CONCLUSION: the highly educated segment of the population needs to be targeted with appropriate messages to improve their adoption of the right preventive measures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Educational Status , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
10.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(6): 678-687, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical shortages of personal protective equipment, especially N95 respirators, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a source of concern. Novel methods of N95 filtering face-piece respirator decontamination that can be scaled-up for in-hospital use can help address this concern and keep healthcare workers (HCWs) safe. METHODS: A multidisciplinary pragmatic study was conducted to evaluate the use of an ultrasonic room high-level disinfection system (HLDS) that generates aerosolized peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide for decontamination of large numbers of N95 respirators. A cycle duration that consistently achieved disinfection of N95 respirators (defined as ≥6 log10 reductions in bacteriophage MS2 and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores inoculated onto respirators) was identified. The treated masks were assessed for changes to their hydrophobicity, material structure, strap elasticity, and filtration efficiency. PAA and hydrogen peroxide off-gassing from treated masks were also assessed. RESULTS: The PAA room HLDS was effective for disinfection of bacteriophage MS2 and G. stearothermophilus spores on respirators in a 2,447 cubic-foot (69.6 cubic-meter) room with an aerosol deployment time of 16 minutes and a dwell time of 32 minutes. The total cycle time was 1 hour and 16 minutes. After 5 treatment cycles, no adverse effects were detected on filtration efficiency, structural integrity, or strap elasticity. There was no detectable off-gassing of PAA and hydrogen peroxide from the treated masks at 20 and 60 minutes after the disinfection cycle, respectively. CONCLUSION: The PAA room disinfection system provides a rapidly scalable solution for in-hospital decontamination of large numbers of N95 respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/virology , Peracetic Acid/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Geobacillus stearothermophilus , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Levivirus , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/microbiology , Peracetic Acid/administration & dosage
13.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 504-521, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decontaminating and reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers is a potential solution to address inadequate FFR supply during a global pandemic. AIM: The objective of this review was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness and safety of using chemical disinfectants to decontaminate N95 FFRs. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on disinfectants to decontaminate N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility and extracted predefined data fields. Original research reporting on N95 FFR function, decontamination, safety, or FFR fit following decontamination with a disinfectant was included. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION: A single cycle of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) successfully removes viral pathogens without affecting airflow resistance or fit, and maintains an initial filter penetration of <5%, with little change in FFR appearance. Residual hydrogen peroxide levels following decontamination were within safe limits. More than one decontamination cycle of vaporized H2O2 may be possible but further information is required on how multiple cycles would affect FFR fit in a real-world setting before the upper limit can be established. Although immersion in liquid H2O2 does not appear to adversely affect FFR function, there is no available data on its ability to remove infectious pathogens from FFRs or its impact on FFR fit. Sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene oxide are not recommended due to safety concerns or negative effects on FFR function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/standards , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Equipment Reuse/standards , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
14.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 50(6): 513-520, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690999

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a significant threat to global health. It originated in Wuhan, China and caused a total of 83,483 confirmed cases and 4634 deaths until June 2020. This novel virus spread primarily through respiratory droplets and close contact. The person-to-person transmission by direct transmittance through cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, and contact spreading from dry surfaces contaminated with secretions of nose, mouth, and eyes of an infected person has been proven about SARS-CoV-2 transmission. As disease progressed, a series of complications tends to develop, especially in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Pathological studies showed representative features of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and implications on multiple organs as well. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are immediately available for the treatment of this lethal disease. The efficacy of some promising antivirals needs to be investigated by ongoing clinical trials. In current circumstances, supportive care, precautions, and social distancing are the only preventive options to ameliorate COVID-19. To disinfect the environment, mainly chemical disinfectants are being used robustly. However, due to panic state, fright, and unawareness, people are using it violently, which can have an adverse effect on human health and environment. This review discusses about the potential harmful effect of disinfectants, if used inappropriately. Here, we will also discuss safe preventive options as an alternative to robust use of disinfection methods to fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(8): 1840-1845, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic influences a lot of aspects of human life. Particularly, hygienic habits are affected. OBJECTIVES: Changes in washing and cosmetic standards during the pandemic toward the past are in the focus of our interest. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire study was conducted anonymously in 140 women. The examination concerned pre- and during-pandemic routine hygiene activities such as hands washing, hair washing, bathing, the use of disinfectants, and use of specific type of cosmetics. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Compared were data before and during pandemic. Responders declared increased handwashing and taking shower after coming back home and after using local city transportation. We found also that increased use of disinfectants during COVID-19 pandemic. In contrary to that, number of people washing their hair decreased slightly. Work documents that profile of used cosmetics was changed; increasing hand cream use and decreasing in makeup cosmetics. Nearly, half of the respondents declare that they will maintain new habits also after the pandemic has ended.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hygiene/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cosmetics/administration & dosage , Cosmetics/standards , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/standards , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 73: 101999, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597102

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Countries around the world are confronted with a rising count of patients that die from COVID-19. Up to this date, there is no scientific evidence that proves that a COVID-19 corpse is still infectious. Different guidelines are being followed worldwide on how to deal with a COVID-19 positive corpse. The aim of this review is to compare different guidelines and literature on best practice for handling a COVID-19 positive corpse. RESULTS: The guidelines vary greatly in the use of PPE's and other safety measures especially during autopsy. There is great variation in the use of disinfectant and its concentration. Also recommended funeral services and contact with relatives vary greatly. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is very limited scientific evidence on which the researched guidelines are based. It is unclear why some guidelines propose a "business as usual" attitude and others a "code-red" attitude. More scientific evidence is needed to substantiate the handling of COVID-19 positive corpses to make an educated decision on how to safely handle a COVID-19 positive corpse.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , Cadaver , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Autopsy/methods , Autopsy/standards , Autopsy/trends , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Funeral Rites , Humans , Morgue/standards , Mortuary Practice/methods , Mortuary Practice/standards , Mortuary Practice/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(8): 951-954, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549206

ABSTRACT

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, efficient methods are needed to decontaminate shared portable devices and large open areas such as waiting rooms. We found that wheelchairs, portable equipment, and waiting room chairs were frequently contaminated with potential pathogens. After minimal manual precleaning of areas with visible soiling, application of a dilute sodium hypochlorite disinfectant using an electrostatic sprayer provided rapid and effective decontamination and eliminated the benign virus bacteriophage MS2 from inoculated surfaces.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/virology , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 581-582, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-540347

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to gain momentum around the world, several measures are being put in place to control its spread. One such effort includes the installation of walkthrough sanitization gates to disinfect passersby and prevent cross infection. However, there is lack of clinical evidence on the effectiveness of these walkthrough gates to contain COVID-19. Moreover, there are potential public health concerns associated with these walkthrough gates. Spraying individuals with disinfectant chemicals is strongly discouraged by various health authorities around the globe because of their propensity for eye and skin irritation, bronchospasm following inhalation, and gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and vomiting. This article underscores that the risks associated with the use of these walkthrough gates overweigh any potential benefits. Health authorities must discourage their use and should focus efforts on other preventive measures such as social distancing, wearing masks, and hand hygiene to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among the general public.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 185-191, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-51040

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, reports from China of the incidence of pneumonia with unknown etiology were sent to the World Health Organization (WHO). Shortly afterwards, the cause of this disease was identified as the novel beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its genetic sequence was published on January 12, 2020. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces are the major ways of transmitting this virus. Here we attempted to collect information on virus stability in the air and on surfaces and ways of preventing of SARS-CoV-2 spreading.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Environmental Microbiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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